The Law

Beloved of the Lord;

Remember: “This only would I learn of you, *received ye-ἐλάβετε (elabete)-to take, receive) the spirit, by the works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith?” (Galatians 3:2)

*received ye-ἐλάβετε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-GOT"]

1. The Law of Moses

2. Grace

The Law


The Law, also know as the Law of Moses, it was given through Moses at Mount Sinai after God delivered the Israelite's from the bondage of Egypt.


The great design of the law was that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those that believe; that, being convinced of their guilt, and the insufficiency of the law to bring righteousness and justification for us, we might be persuaded to believe on Christ.

Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]


King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]

Concordance / Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Beza 1598 & Stephanus 1550 Textus Receptus.


  •  G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root word, but not the same inflection.

  • Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.




The Law



Beza Greek New Testament 1598

Ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωσέως ἐδόθη· ἡ χάρις καὶἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.

John 1:17

"For the Law was given-ἐδόθη (edothe)-to give) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ."

Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

   The Old Testament economy. The institutions under which the Jews lived. The Law principle of approach to God fails through the weakness of the flesh. The Law condemns, - it is incapable of justifying the ungodly: the Law terrifies, - it never reconciles. The Law even provokes to sin and excites the passions which it punishes -(Pulpit).

   The Law was both moral and ceremonial; it points out: man's duty both to God and men; uncovers sin, accuses him of it, convicts him of it, and condemns him for it; "nor could it give strength to perform its demands; nor does it give the least hint of forgiveness; nor will it admit of repentance... The ceremonial law pointed out the pollution of human nature, the guilt and punishment of sin" -(Gill). 

   [The] Law commands and demands; it says: ‘This shalt thou do, or else-’; and it has nothing more that it can say-(MacLaren).

*example of Greek word: νόμος (nomos)-Law click: Galatians 3:12

Moses-Μωσέως (Moseos)-"drawer out", (He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses): 

   The Law was given "through" Moses; The Law was a preparatory dispensation for the Isrealites. Moses is not the author of the Law, the "giving" of the Law was not by Moses, but  through his instrumentality. He was the great legislator of the Jews, by whom, under God, their polity was formed -(Barnes).

   The law, moral and ceremonial, was given by Moses as God’s minister and servant; that law by which no man can be justified,  Romans 3:28. -(Matthew P).

grace-χάρις (charis)-grace, favour, good-will, pleasure) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) truth-ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth:—true, truth, verity): 

   In contrast to the inexorable demands of a law that brought no spiritual life. Jesus Christ brought “grace,” the unearned favour of God. The Law said: Do this and live; Christ says: God gives you life, accept it. “Truth” also was brought by Christ-(Expositor).

   The law worketh wrath Romans 4:15; it was attended with many burdensome rites and ceremonies Acts 15:10; it was preparatory to another state of things. The gospel succeeded that and took its place, and thus showed the greatness of the gospel economy, as well as its grace and truth-(Barnes).

   By grace and truth, is meant the Gospel, in opposition to the law; which is called grace, because it is a declaration of the love, and grace, of God to men; it ascribes salvation, in all the parts of it, to the free grace and favour of God; and is the means of implanting and increasing grace in the hearts of men. And "truth", not only because it contains truth, and nothing but truth, it coming from the God of truth; and the substance of it being Christ, who is the truth; and being revealed, applied, and led into by the Spirit of truth; but because it is the truth of the types, and the substance of the shadows of the law-(Gill).

   Previously the world had neither known, nor had had grace-(Bengel).

*example of Greek word: χάρις (charis)-grace click: Colossians 1:2

*example of Greek word: ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth click: John 8:32

came-ἐγένετο (egeneto)-to become, (i.e. came into being) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)

   His gift is not like the gift that Moses brought down from the mountain, merely a writing upon tables; His gift is not the letter of an outward commandment, nor the letter of an outward revelation. It is the thing itself which He reveals by being it. He does not speak about grace, He brings it; He does not show us God by His words, He shows us God by His acts. He does not preach about Him, but He lives Him, He manifests Him. His gentleness, His compassion, His miracles, His wisdom, His patience, His tears, His promises; all these are the very Deity in action before our eyes; and instead of a mere verbal revelation, which is so imperfect and so worthless, grace and truth, the living realities, are flashed upon a darkened world in the face of Jesus Christ-(MacLaren).

  • came-ἐγένετο: Verb, Second Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: grace and truth ["BECAME"] by Jesus Christ


Romans 3:28

"Therefore *we conclude-λογιζόμεθα (logizometha)-to reckon, account), that a man **is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι (dikaiousthai)-to make or declare right) *by faith-πίστει (pistei)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief), *without-χωρὶς (choris)-apart, beside, apart from) *the deeds-ἔργων (ergon)-work, (by implication: an act:—deed, doing, labour, work) *of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom (by implication: of Moses:—Law, by extension: any law of man:—moral or ceremonial)."

*we conclude-λογιζόμεθα: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person Plural: ["WE-ARE-accountING"//"we-are-reckoning"]

*is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι: Verb, Present, Passive, Infinitive:


*example of G1344: δικαιοῦσθαι (dikaiousthai-is justified) click: 1 Corinthians 6:11   (edikaiothete-ye are justified)

*example of Greek word: πίστει (pistei)-by faith click: Hebrews 11:7

*example of Greek word: χωρὶς (choris)-without click: 1 Timothy 2:8

*example of Greek word: ἔργων (ergon)-the deeds click: Hebrews 9:14 (works)

*example of Greek word: νόμου (nomou)-of the Law click: Galatians 3:10

deeds: i.e. the Law of works, as a principle of justification. That is, works as a meritorious ground of justification. The apostle, of course, does not mean that Christianity does not produce good works...but that no righteousness of their own will be the ground of their justification."-(Barnes). “When the apostle tells us, that by faith man is justified without the works of the law, or rather, works of law, his plain meaning is, that men are justified gratuitously by faith, and not meritoriously by perfect obedience to any law whatever.”-(Benson).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις οὗ ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ἐπήγγελται· διαταγεὶς δι᾽ ἀγγέλων, ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου.


Galatians 3:19

"Wherefore then serveth the Law? *It was added-προσετέθη (prosetethe)-to add (on, to) because of-χάριν (charin)-for or on account of) transgressionstill the seed should come, to whom the promise was made, and it was ordained by Angels  in the hand of a Mediator."

Wherefore-Τί (ti)-what) then-οὖν (oun)-then) serveth the- (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom (by implication: of Moses:—Law)

   If the inheritance was not by the law, but by the promise, as a free gift, for what purpose was the law given, or what significancy had it?


   It was very obvious to ask...of what use was the Law? Why was it given at all? Why were there so many wonderful exhibitions of the divine power at its promulgation? Why were there so many commendations of it in the Scriptures? -(Matthew H.).

*It was added-προσετέθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["it-was-added"] because of 

transgressions-παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgression, trespass, (violation:—breaking, transgression): 

   [The Law was give] four hundred and thirty years after the covenant made with Abraham; it did not succeed it [the promise to Abraham], nor [did the Law] take the place of it, and so make it null and void; but was over and above added unto it, for the sake of restraining transgressions; which had there been no law, men would not have been accountable for them [their transgressions].-(Gill).

   [The Law was added] on account of transgressions, or with reference to them. The meaning is, that the Law was given to show the true nature of transgressions, or to show what was sin. It was not to reveal a way of justification, but it was to disclose the true nature of sin; to deter people from committing it; to declare its penalty; to convince people of it, and thus to be "ancillary" to, and preparatory to the work of redemption through the Redeemer-(Barnes).

   It was added for the sake of restraining transgressions; which had there been no law, men would not have been accountable for them; and they would have gone into them without fear, and with impunity; but the law was given, to lay a restraint on men, by forbidding such and such things, on pain of death; and also for the detecting, discovering, and making known transgressions, what they are, their nature and consequences -(Gill).

   It was a temporary system that would last until Christ died at the cross. 

*example of the Greek word: παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgressions click: Hebrews 9:15

till-ἄχρις (achris)-till, up to) the-τὸ (to)-the) seed-σπέρμα (sperma)-seed, progeny, (i.e. offspring, descendant) should-οὗ (hou)-which) come-ἔλθῃ (elthe)-to come):

    till Christ the promised Seed should come [Galatians 3:16]-(Matthew P.).

   During the period up to the time when the seed came. The law was a preparatory dispensation for the Jewish nation-(Jamieson). 

  • till-ἄχριςPREPosition: ["UNTIL"] the seed should come

to whom-(ho)-who) the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-to profess, promise)

   either Christ the seed of the woman, and of Abraham, who was to come in the flesh, and is come; and to whom the grand promise of life, and all the promises of the covenant were made; not for himself, but for those he represented, and in whom they are all secure: until whose coming to finish transgression, and bring in everlasting righteousness, the law was to continue in the form in which, and the use for which it was added, and then to cease as the ministration of Moses; for through the coming of Christ it received its full accomplishment, and came to an end; the ceremonial law was utterly abolished, and the moral law ceased to be a covenant of works, though it continues a rule of walk and conversation; and the whole Mosaic economy was no more: or else the seed here intends the spiritual seed of Abraham; particularly among the Gentiles, to whom the promise of blessedness, of justification, and eternal life was made; and the sense be, that till such time that a generation of faithful men, of believers in Christ, should arise among the Gentiles, the law was to continue with the Jews; but when they should spring up, the middle wall of partition should be broken down, and Abraham's spiritual seed among Jews and Gentiles make up one body, one people, and be fellow heirs and partakers of the promise of God in Christ, through the Gospel-(Gill).

*example of Greek word: ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-the promise was made click: Romans 4:21

ordained-διαταγεὶς (diatageis)-to arrange throughout, (i.e. set in order, ordain) by-δι (di)-through, by means of, (i.e. through (the agency of)  Angels-ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-messenger, agent)

   not Moses and Aaron, and Joshua, as some say; for though Moses was concerned in the giving of the law, yet not Aaron nor Joshua, nor are any of them ever called angels; but the holy elect angels are here meant, the ten thousands of saints, or holy ones, God came to Mount Sinai with, and the Lord [LORD] was among, in the holy place; see Deuteronomy 33:2 and so the Jews say (l) that the Lord [LORD] appeared on Mount Sinai gloriously, , "with companies", or "troops of angels", to give the law to his people-(Gill). 

   Similar allusions are found at the end of St. Stephen’s speech (Acts 7:53): “Who have received the law by the disposition (as ordinances) of angels, and have not kept it.”-(Ellicott).

   The law [Law] was given either by the ministry of an angel, or by God attended with angels-(Matthew P.).

*example of Greek word: ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-Angels click: Mark 8:38

the hand-χειρὶ (cheiri)-hand (literally or figuratively) of a Mediator-μεσίτου (mesitou)-middle man, mediator): 

   Moses is the mediator here meant, who stood between God and the people of Israel...and in his hand the tables of the law were, when he came down from the mount, and was a typical [type of] mediator of Christ-(Gill).

   In the epistle to Timothy our Lord is a mediator ‘between God and man’. Here the mediator is between God and the people of Israel, i.e. of course, Moses [See Deuteronomy 5:5]. 

Moses [said]: "I stood between the Lord and you": the very definition of a mediator. Hence the phrase often recurs, "By the hand of Moses." In the giving of the law, the "angels" were representatives of God; Moses, as mediator, represented the people-(Jamieson).

*example of Greek word: χειρὶ (cheiri)-hand click: John 3:35

*example of G3316μεσίτου (mesitou-mediator) click: 1 Timothy 2:5 (mesites-mediator)

Hebrews 7:19

"For the Law made *nothing-οὐδὲν (ouden)-not even one, nothing) perfect-ἐτελείωσεν (eteleiosen)-to complete, (literally: accomplish, bring to its goal), but the bringing in-ἐπεισαγωγὴ (epeisagoge)-a leading in upon, (i.e. bringing in besides, introduction) *of a better-κρείττονος (kreittonos)-stronger, more powerful, (figuratively: better, i.e. nobler:—best, better) *hope-ἐλπίδος (elpidos)-hope, (i.e. expectation (abstractly or concretely) or confidence:—faith, hope) did: by the which we draw nigh-ἐγγίζομεν (eggizomen)-to draw near) unto God-θεῷ (theo)-God, (i.e. spoken of the only and true God)."

ἐτελείωσεν (eteleiosen): made perfect

*example of Greek word: οὐδὲν (ouden)-nothing click: Mark 15:3

*example of Greek word: κρείττονος (kreittonos)-of a better click: Hebrews 7:22

*example of Greek word: ἐλπίδος (elpidos)-hope click: Hebrews 10:23 (faith)

perfect: the law made nothing perfect,.... Or no man perfect; neither any of the priests that offered sacrifices, nor any of the people for whom they were offered: it could not perfectly make atonement for sin; nor make men perfectly holy or righteous; it could neither justify nor sanctify; neither bring in a perfect righteousness, nor bring men to perfect holiness, and so to eternal life and salvation.-(Gill).


Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
10 ὅστις γὰρ
ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσει, πταίσει δὲ ἐν ἑνί γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598

11 Ὁ γὰρ εἰπὼν, Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, εἶπε καὶ, Μὴ φονεύσῃς. εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.


James 2:10-11

10"For whosoever-ὅστις (hostis)-whoever, whosoever) shall keep the whole Law, and yet offend in one point, *he is-γέγονεν (gegonen)-to become) guilty of all11 For he (Or: that Law which said) that said, Do not commit adultery; said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, *thou art become-γέγονας (gegonas)-to become) a transgressor of the Law."

shall keep-τηρήσει (teresei)-to keep, watch, observe) the-τὸν (ton)-the) whole-ὅλον (holon)-all, the whole, entire) Law-νόμον (nomon)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)

   The apostle does not say that this in fact ever did occur, but he says that if it should, and yet a man should have failed in only one particular, he must be judged to be guilty. The case supposed seems to be that of one who claimed that he had kept the whole law. The apostle says that even if this should be admitted for the time to be true in all other respects, yet, if he had failed in any one particular - he would be held to be a transgressor, The design of this is to show the importance of yielding universal obedience, and to impress upon the mind a sense of the enormity of sin from the fact that the violation of any one precept is in fact an offence against the whole law of God -(Barnes).

  • shall keep-τηρήσει: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-KEEPING"] the whole Law

*example of Greek word: τηρήσει (teresei)-keep click: John 14:23

*example of Greek word: ὅλον (holon)-the whole click: Matthew 16:26

and yet-δὲ (de)-but, yet) offend-πταίσει (ptaisei)-to stumble, fall, (figuratively: to err, sin, fail) in-ἐν (en)-in) one-ἑνί (heni)-one) point: 

  In one respect; or shall violate any one of the commands included in the general word law. The word offend here means, properly, to stumble, to fall; then to err, or fail in duty -(Barnes). 

And yet offend in one point; slip, or trip, or stumble at; it seems to signify the least failing in any point of the law -(Matthew P.).

As a chain is snapped by failure of the weakest link, so the whole Law, in its harmony and completeness as beheld by God, is broken by one offence of one man; and the penalty falls, of its own natural weight and incidence, on the culprit -(Ellicott).

  • offend-πταίσει: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-OFFENDING"] in one point


*he is-γέγονεν: Verb, Second Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["HAS-BECOME"] 

guilty-ἔνοχος (enochos)-held in, subject to, ( liable to (a condition, penalty or imputation):— guilty of) of all-πάντων (panton)-all, every (plural): 

   He is guilty of violating the law as a whole, or of violating the law of God as such; he has rendered it impossible that he should be justified and saved by the law. This does not affirm that he is as guilty as if he had violated every law of God; or that all sinners are of equal grade because all have violated some one or more of the laws of God; but the meaning is, that he is guilty of violating the law of God as such; he shows that be has not the true spirit of obedience; he has exposed himself to the penalty of the law, and made it impossible now to be saved by it -(Barnes).

   He is guilty of all; guilty of the breach, and obnoxious to the punishment, of all; not distributively, or separately, as if he transgressed every precept distinctly; but: Conjunctively or copulatively; he is guilty of not keeping the whole law, though not of breaking each particular command; he breaks the whole law, though not the whole of the law: as he that wounds a man’s arm wounds the whole man, though not the whole of the man; he that breaks one link breaks the whole chain, and he that fails in one musical note spoils the whole harmony -(Matthew P.).

*example of Greek word: ἔνοχος (enochos)-guilty click: Matthew 26:66

*thou art become-γέγονας (gegonas): Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["YOU-HAVE-BECOME"] 

a transgressor-παραβάτης (parabates)-transgressor, breaker) of the Law:

   "not of that particular precept of the law, the seventh command [adultery], for the contrary is supposed before, but of the sixth only [murder]; and yet by so doing, a man becomes a violator of the whole law; for the law is but one, though it consists of various precepts; and the breach of one precept, as well as of another, is the breach of the Law..."-(Gill). 

   "This is the apostle's argument, and way of reasoning, proving the above assertion, that he that breaks the law in one particular instance, is guilty of the breach of the whole Law" -(Gill). 

*example of Greek word: παραβάτης (parabates) click: Romans 2:25 (breaker)

Romans 3:27

“Where *is boasting-καύχησις (kauchesis)-boasting (act of), (i.e. the act of glorying) then? It is excluded-ἐξεκλείσθη (exekleisthe)-to shut out). By-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) what Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (i.e. principle, rule)? Of *works-ἔργων (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour, (by implication: of Moses:—Law, by extension: of any law:—moral or ceremonial)? Nay: but by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law *of faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief).”

*example of Greek word: καύχησις (kauchesis)-is boasting click: 2 Corinthians 11:10

*example of Greek word: ἔργων (ergon)-works click: Galatians 3:5

*example of Greek word: πίστεως (pisteos)-of faith click: Acts 6:5

  works: The Law which commands works, and on which the Jews relied. If this were complied with, and they were thereby justified, they would have had ground of self-confidence, or boasting, as being justified by their own merits. But a plan which led to this, which ended in boasting, and self-satisfaction, and pride, could not be true.-(Barnes).

  Law of faith: not by a law requiring faith; nor as if the Gospel was a law, a new law, a remedial law, a law of milder terms; but the word "Law" here answers to the Hebrew word which signifies any "doctrine" or "instruction", and oftentimes the doctrine of the Gospel..."-(Gill). This [justification by faith] is also a law, inasmuch as being of Divine appointment, to which subjection [submission] is due ch. Romans 10:3. [They have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God]- (Bengel). The law demanding faith.

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων ὁ νόμος τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν, οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων, κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν ταῖς αὐταῖς θυσίαις ἃς προσφέρουσιν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς, οὐδέποτε δύναται τοὺς προσερχομένους τελειῶσαι·


Hebrews 10:1

"For the Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) *having-ἔχων (echon)-to have) a shadow of good things to come, and not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) the very image of the things, *can-δύναται (dunatai)-to be able) *never-οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-not even at any time, (i.e. never at all:— never) with those sacrifices which *they offered-προσφέρουσιν (prospherousin)-to bear toward, to bring to, lead to) year by year *continually-εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-to the unbroken continuance, (i.e. perpetually), make *the comers thereunto-προσερχομένους (proserchomenous)-to come to, approach, draw near) perfect:"

*having-ἔχων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: For the Law ["HAVING"]

a shadow-Σκιὰν (skian)-a shade, shadow) of good things-ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-good thing) to-τῶν (ton)-the) come-μελλόντων (mellonton)-to be about):

   "By which is meant not the moral law, for that is not a shadow of future blessings, but a system of precepts; the things it commands are not figuratively, but really good and honest; and are not obscure, but plain and easy to be understood; nor are they fleeting and passing away, as a shadow, but lasting and durable: but the ceremonial law is intended; this was a "shadow", a figure, a representation of something true, real, and substantial; was dark and obscure, yet had in it, and gave, some glimmering light; and was like a shadow, fleeting and transitory: and it was a shadow of good things; of Christ himself, who is the body, the sum and substance of it, and of the good things to come by him; as the expiation of sin, peace and reconciliation, a justifying righteousness, pardon of sin, and eternal life; these are said to be "to come", as they were under the former dispensation, while the ceremonial law was in force, and that shadow was in being, and the substance not as yet." -(Gill).

   "The whole of the Mosaic economy was a shadow; for so the word "Law" is often used. The word "shadow" here refers to a rough outline of anything, a mere sketch, such as a carpenter draws with a piece of chalk, or such as an artist delineates when he is about to make a picture. He sketches an outline of the object which he designs to draw, which has "some" resemblance to it, but is not the "very image,"  for it is not yet complete." -(Barnes).

*example of G4639Σκιὰν (skian-shadow) click: Colossians 2:17 (skia-a shadow)

*example of Greek word: ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-of good things click: Hebrews 9:11

the very image-εἰκόνα (eikona)-image, figure, likeness) of the things: 

   "The good things of which the law contained only a shadow, were, 1st, The cleansing of the mind of believers from evil dispositions, by the doctrines of the gospel, and by the influences of the Spirit of God. Of this the washings and purifications of the bodies of the Israelites, enjoined in the law, were a shadow. 2d, That real atonement for sin, which was made by the offering of the body of Christ once for all, Hebrews 10:10. Of this the Levitical atonements, made by the offering of beasts, were a shadow. 3d, The eternal pardon of sin, procured for believers by the atonements which Christ made. Of this the political pardon, obtained for the Israelites by the sacrifice of beasts which the priests offered, was a shadow. 4th, Access to worship God on earth through the blood of Christ with the hope of acceptance. Of this the drawing nigh of the Israelites to worship in the court of the tabernacle, through the blood of the Levitical sacrifices, was a shadow. 5th, The eternal possession of heaven, through believing and obeying the gospel. Of this the continued possession of Canaan, secured to the Israelites by their obedience to the law, was a shadow. Now since the good things which Christ hath obtained for believers through his ministrations in the heavenly tabernacle, were not procured, but only typified, by the ministrations of the high-priests in the tabernacle on earth, it was fit that those shadows should be done away after the things of which they were shadows were accomplished. -(Benson).

*example of Greek word: εἰκόνα (eikona)-image click: Luke 20:24

*can-δύναται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: never ["IS-ABLE"] with those sacrifices

*never-οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-not even at any time, (i.e. never at all:— never)

*example of Greek word: οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-never click: Acts 10:14

sacrifices-θυσίαις (thusiais)-a slaughter, slaughter animal, sacrifice): 

   namely, the sacrifices of bullocks and goats, which were offered on the day of atonement, year after year, in successive generations..." -(Gill).

*example of G2378θυσία (thusiais-sacrifices click: Matthew 9:13 (thusian-sacrifice)

*they offered-προσφέρουσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural:  which ["they-are-offering"] continually

*continually-εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-to the unbroken continuance, (i.e. perpetually)

*example of Greek word: εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-continually click: Hebrews 7:3

make perfect-τελειῶσαι (teleiosai)-to complete, (i.e. (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character):—consecrate, finish, fulfil, make) perfect): 

  "legal sacrifices could not make perfect expiation of sin; there is no proportion between them and sin: nor did they extend to all sin, and at most only typically expiated; nor could they justify and cleanse from sin." -(Gill).

  "...but spiritual sacrificers and worshippers are justified, and cleansed another way, by the blood of Christ...."- (Gill).

“with the same sacrifices, year by year, which they offer continuously, make perfect them that draw nigh,” i.e. the Priests can never with their sacrifices, which are the same year by year, perfect the worshippers. -(Cambridge BSC). 

  "The sacrifices here particularly referred to were those which were offered on the great day of atonement. These were regarded as the most sacred and efficacious of all, and yet the apostle says that the very fact that they were offered every year showed that there must be some deficiency about them, or [else] they would have ceased to be offered" -(Barnes).

  "[T]he legal sacrifices are not only impotent in respect of their constitution, but of their very nature, being only shadows, so as they cannot render a soul complete, either in respect of justification or sanctification; they could not free any either from the guilt or punishment of sin at present, much less eternally: with all the renovation of them either on the day of atonement yearly, or those daily offered by them, though they should continue to be offered for ever, yet could they not perfect either the priests ministering, or those for whom they ministered..." -(Jamieson-F).

  • make perfect-τελειῶσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive:


*example of Greek word: τελειῶσαι (teleiosai)-make perfect click: Hebrews 2:10

*the comers thereunto-προσερχομένους: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Accusative, Plural, Masculine:


*example of Greek word: προσερχομένους (proserchomenous)-the comers thereunto click: Hebrews 7:25 (come unto)

Hebrews 10:4

"For *it is not possible-ἀδύνατον (adunaton)-not able, not capable, (impossible:—could not do, impotent, not possible) that the blood-αἷμα (haima)-blood, (namely: of animals) of Bulls-ταύρων (tauron)-bull, ox) and *of Goats-τράγων (tragon)-a he goat), *should take away-ἀφαιρεῖν (aphairein)- to take away or off, (i.e. remove, carry off) *sins-ἁμαρτίας (hamartias)-sin error, offense)."

*should take away-ἀφαιρεῖν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive:


*example of Greek word: ἀδύνατον (adunaton)-it is not possible click: Hebrews 11:6

*example of Greek word: τράγων (tragon)-of Goats click: Hebrews 9:12

*example of Greek word: ἁμαρτίας (hamartias)-sins click: Hebrews 10:11

That the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins: "the blood of these were only carried into the holy of holiest on the atonement day, yearly, Leviticus 16:1-34, to which this is chiefly applied; nor could the blood of all the other sacrifices by expiation pardon their offerers, nor by sanctification cleanse them, nor by removing the sense of them comfort the soul; they could neither pacify God, nor the sinner’s conscience, having no virtue or power to satisfy God’s justice, or merit his grace, only it had by his constitution a power to typify that blood which could do both." -(Matthew P.)

"...such blood shed can never answer the penalty of the law, satisfy divine justice, or secure the honour of divine holiness: but what the blood of these creatures could not do, the blood of Christ has done, and does: that takes away sin from the sight of justice, and from the consciences of the saints."-(Gill).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
11 Οὐ γάρ ἐστι προσωπολημψία παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ 12 Ὅσοι
γὰρ ἀνόμως ἥμαρτον, ἀνόμως καὶ ἀπολοῦνται· καὶ ὅσοι ἐν νόμῳ ἥμαρτον, διὰ νόμου κριθήσοντα 13 (οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἀκροαταὶ τοῦ νόμου δίκαιοι παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ· ἀλλ᾽ οἱ ποιηταὶ τοῦ νόμου δικαιωθήσονται

Romans 2:11-13

11“For there is no *respect of persons-προσωποληψία (prosopolepsia)-acceptance of faces, (i.e. favoritism) with God. 12 For as many as have sinned without Law, shall also perish without Lawand as many as have sinned in the Law, shall be judged by the Law13 (For not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) the *hearers-ἀκροαταὶ (akroatai)-a hearer (merely):—hearer) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) *are just-δίκαιοι (dikaioi)-just, righteous) before God, but the doers of the Law shall be justified.”

*respect of persons-προσωποληψία (prosopolepsia)-acceptance of faces, (i.e. favoritism)

*example of Greek word: προσωποληψία (prosopolepsia)-respect of persons click: Ephesians 6:9

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses):

   [meaning,] Those whose sins were not transgressions of the Mosaic law (but of the moral law of nature) -(Meyer).

   The context here shews that the word means “in the absence of a law;” and that this means “in the absence of an explicit, revealed law" 

[i.e. written Law][any] other law than the law of conscience [which all men have]. -(Cambridge BSC).

   "This verse no doubt implies the truth, elsewhere so clear, that no man shall be condemned for ignorance of what was in no wise revealed to him; but its main purpose is to teach the awful truth that even without the revealed Law [of Moses] there is yet real sin and real doom." -(Cambridge BSC)

   They shall not be judged by a Law which they have not. They shall not be tried and condemned by the revelation which the Jews had. They shall be condemned only according to the knowledge and the Law which they actually possess. This is the equitable rule on which God will judge the world. According to this, it is not to be apprehended that they will suffer as much as those who have the revealed will of God; compare Matthew 10:15Matthew 11:24. -(Barnes)

   "This expression evidently means without revealed or written law, as the apostle immediately says that they had a law of nature in Romans 2:14-15. The word "law," νόμος-(nomos) [is used both with and without the article for the Mosaic Law]. [However], is often used to denote the revealed Law of God; the Scriptures, or revelation in general; Matthew 12:5Luke 2:23-24Luke 10:26John 8:5John 8:17.- (Barnes).

   "This is an instance of the strict justice of God, and proves him to be no respecter of persons; for the Gentiles, who were "without Law", [that is,] the written Law of Moses, [yet, they were] not without the law of nature in their hearts, nor without some civil laws and statutes of their own; inasmuch as they "sinned" against the God of nature, and the law and light of nature, they shall also perish without Law [of Moses]. -(Gill).

  • have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: For as many as ["sinned"//"missED"] without Law

*example of Greek word: ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-have sinned click: Romans 3:23

shall also perish-ἀπολοῦνται (apolountai)-to loose, loose away, destroy, ruin) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses):

   “Be doomed to death;” lose the soul. The Greek. word ["apolountai"], which some have held to imply "annihilation of being", by no means does so. Its true import is rather ruin and loss in regard of condition. -(Cambridge BSC). 

   shall also perish without law: not that their condemnation and perdition will be illegal, or not in due course of law; but it will not proceed upon, or according to the law of Moses, they never had; and much less for not believing in Christ, of whom they never heard; but their perdition will be for their sins committed without the law of Moses, against the law of nature: their not having the written law of Moses will be no plea in their favour, or be a reason why they should not be condemned; their persons will not be regarded as with or without the law, but their sins committed by them, to which facts their consciences will bear witness.-(Gill).

   The apostles evidently believed that the great mass of them would be destroyed. On this ground they evinced such zeal to save them; on this ground the Lord Jesus commanded the gospel to be preached to them; and on this ground Christians are now engaged in the effort to bring them to the knowledge of the Lord Jesus.-(Barnes). 

  • shall perish ἀπολοῦνται: Verb, FutureMiddle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: also ["SHALL-BE-beING-destroyED"//"shall-be-perishing"] without Law

*example of Greek word: ἀπολοῦνται (apolountai)-shall perish click: Hebrews 1:11

and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) in-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)

   who have been in and under the Law of Moses, and have sinned against it, meaning the Jews.-(Gill).

   [and as many as] have sinned having the revealed will of God, or endowed with greater light and privileges than the pagan world. The apostle here has undoubted reference to the Jews, who had the Law of God, and who prided themselves much on its possession.-(Barnes). 

   "This gives the other aspect of the case, with reference to the Jews, who do not escape the judgment (of condemnation) on account of their privilege of possessing the Law, but on the contrary are to be judged by means of the law, so that sentence shall be passed on them in virtue of it (see Deuteronomy 27:26; compare John 5:45).-(Meyer).

  • have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: and as many as ["sinned"//"missED"] in the Law

*example of Greek word: ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-have sinned click: Romans 5:12


shall be judged-κριθήσονται (krithesontai)-to account, (i.e. condemn, punish) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

   Tried and condemned by the higher standard of that written Revelation.-(Jamieson-F).

   And as many as have sinned in, or under, the law shall be judged, because the apostle’s intention is to show, that all who have enjoyed the benefit of an external revelation shall be more severely punished, if wicked, than the Gentiles, who have not had that advantage [of the written revelation of the Law]. -(Benson).

   This is an equitable and just rule; and to this the Jews could make no objection. Yet the admission of this would have led directly to the point to which Paul was conducting his argument, to show that they also were under condemnation, and needed a Saviour.-(Barnes).

    "their having this law will be no bar against their condemnation, but rather an aggravation of it; their hearing of it will be no plea in their favour; nor their doing of it neither, unless they could have done it to perfection; for perfect obedience it requires, as a justifying righteousness, otherwise it curses, condemns, and adjudges to death."-(Gill).

  • shall be judged-κριθήσονται: Verb, Future, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-BEING-JUDGED"] by the Law

*the hearers-ἀκροαταὶ (akroatai)-a hearer (merely):—hearer)

*example of Greek word: ἀκροαταὶ (akroatai)-the hearers click: James 1:22

*are just-δίκαιοι (dikaioi)-just, righteous)

*example of Greek word: δίκαιοι (dikaioi)-are just click: Matthew 13:43 (righteous)

the doers-ποιηταὶ (pointai)-a maker, performer) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) shall be justified-δικαιωθήσονται (dikaiothesontai)-to make or declare right):

    The apostle [Paul] here doubtless designed to meet an objection of the Jews; to wit, that they had the law, that they manifested great deference for it, that they heard it read with attention, and professed a willingness to yield themselves to it. To meet this, he states a very plain and obvious principle, that this was insufficient to justify them before God, unless they rendered actual obedience.-(Barnes). 

   "... simply hearing the Law is not meeting all its requirements, and making people holy. If they expected to be saved by the Law, it required something more than merely to hear it. It demanded perfect obedience. They who comply entirely with its demands; or who yield to it perfect and perpetual obedience. This was the plain and obvious demand, not only of common sense, but of the Jewish Law itself; Deuteronomy 4:1Leviticus 18:5; Romans 10:5; as oppose to believing in Christ Romans 10:9.-(Barnes).

   [The expression; "shall be justified"] "is evidently synonymous with that in Leviticus 18:5, where it is said that "he shall live in them." The meaning is, that it is a maxim or principle of the Law of God, that if a creature will keep the Law, and obey it entirely, he shall not be condemned, but shall be approved and live forever. This does not affirm that anyone ever has thus lived in this world, but it is an affirmation of a great general principle of law, that if a creature is justified by the Law, the obedience must be entire and perpetual. If such were the case, as there would be no ground of condemnation, man would be saved by the Law. If the Jews, therefore, expected to be saved by their Law, it must be, not by hearing the Law, nor by being called a Jew, but by perfect and unqualified obedience to all its requirements.-(Barnes).

  • shall be justified-δικαιωθήσονται: Verb, Future, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: the doers of the Law ["SHALL-BE-BEING-JUSTIFIED"]

*example of Greek word: ποιηταὶ (pointai)-doers click: James 1:22


Romans 2:14-15

14 “For when the Gentiles-ἔθνη (ethene)-gentiles, nations, (i.e. non-Jews), which have-ἔχοντα (echonta)-to have) not-μὴ (me)-not) the Law-νόμον (nomon)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law), do *by nature-φύσει (phusei)-nature) the things contained in the Law: these having not the Law, are a Law unto themselves, 15 “Which shew-ἐνδείκνυνται (endeiknuntai)-to shew clearly or inwardly) the work-ἔργον (ergon)-an act, work, deed, doing, labour) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) written-γραπτὸν (grapton)-written, inscribed) in their hearts-καρδίαις (kardiais)-the heart, (i.e. (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind), inner man), their *conscience-συνειδήσεως (suneideseos)-a knowing with oneself, (co-perception, i.e. moral consciousness:—conscience) *also bearing witness-συμμαρτυρούσης (summarturouses)-to bear witness with, bear joint witness), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) their thoughts-λογισμῶν (logismon)-computation, reckoning, reasoning) the mean while accusing-κατηγορούντων (kategorounton)-to speak down, (i.e. to accuse), or else excusing-ἀπολογουμένων (apologoumenon)-to speak self off, (i.e. defend oneself) one another:”

*example of Greek word: φύσει (phusei)-by nature click: Galatians 4:8

*example of Greek word: συνειδήσεως (suneideseos)-conscience click: 2 Corinthians 1:12

*example of Greek word: συμμαρτυρούσης (summarturouses)-also bearing witness click: Romans 9:1

*** Though the Gentiles had not the law in form, written on tables, or in a book, yet they had "the work", the matter, the sum and substance of it in their minds; as appears by the practices of many of them, in their external conversation.-(Gill)

***The revealed Law of God was written on tables of stone, and then recorded in the books of the Old Testament. This law the Gentiles did not possess, but, to a certain extent, the same requirements were written on their hearts. Though not revealed to them as to the Jews, yet they had obtained the knowledge of them by the tight of nature. The word "hearts" here denotes the mind itself, as it does also frequently in the Sacred Scriptures; not the heart, as the seat of the affections. It does not mean that they loved or even approved of the Law, but that they had knowledge of it; and that that knowledge was deeply engraved on their minds.-(Barnes)

***Even Gentiles, who had not the written law, had that within, which directed them what to do by the light of nature...Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they kept or broke these natural laws and dictates, their consciences either acquitted or condemned them. Nothing speaks more terror to sinners, and more comfort to saints, than that Christ shall be the Judge.-(Matthew H.)

Beza Greek New Testament 1598 & Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσίν, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσί. γέγραπται γὰρ, Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά. 11 Ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ, δῆλον· ὅτι ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται 12 Ὁ δὲ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως· ἀλλ᾽ Ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος, ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς

Galatians 3:10-12

10“For as many as are of the works of the Law, are under the curse: for it is written-γέγραπται (gegraptai)-to be written), Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the Law to do them. 11 But that no man is justified by the Law in the sight of God, it is evident-δῆλον (delon)-clear, evident, manifest): for, The just shall live by faith. 12 And the Law is not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) of faith: but the man *that doeth-ποιήσας (poiesas)-to do) them, shall live  in them.”

as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) of-ἐξ (ek)-out of) the works-ἔργων (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

   as many as: Note the universality of the expression, ‘All to a man are here condemned’. Calvin. -(Cambridge BSC).

   "Of the number of those who seek justification thereby; are under — Or liable to; the curse: for it is written, (Deuteronomy 27:26,) Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things,..."-(Benson). 

   "The apostle does not say, "as many as were of the law", to whom it belonged, who were born and brought up in it, and to whom it was given, the Jews; for there were some of them who believed in Christ, [and] were blessed with Abraham [thru faith]and [therefore were] not under the curse of the law; nor does he say, "as many as do the works of the law": for the works of the law are to be done by those who follow it, yet it is not the doing of them, but the not doing of them, that entails the curse on men: his meaning is, that as many as seek for justification by the works of the law, and trust in their own righteousness for acceptance with God, these are so far from being blessed or justified hereby, that they are under the curse, that is, of the Law..."-(Gill).

   "The apostle in laying down the aphorism of the present passage has doubtless an eye to those of the Galatians who were moving for the adoption of circumcision and the ceremonies of the Levitical Law. Withdrawing from the category of those who were of faith, they were preparing to join those who were of the works of the Law.-(Pulpit).

  • are-εἰσὶν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: as many as ["ARE"] of the works of the Law

are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) under-ὑπὸ (hupo)-under) the curse-κατάραν (kataran)-a thorough curse, (i.e. an imprecation):

   The curse which the Law of God denounces. Having failed by all their efforts to yield perfect obedience, they must, of course, be exposed to the curse which the Law denounces on the guilty. The word rendered "curse" (κατάρα katara) means, as with us, properly, "imprecation," or "cursing."-(Barnes). 

   "Could man [If man could] perfectly fulfil the Law, he might expect life from it, and salvation from his obedience to it; but the Law curseth him that continueth not in all that is written in it: If a man keep the whole Law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all(James 2:10), and as liable to the wrath of God as if he had broken it in many things. Hence it necessarily followeth, if no man can (keep) the Law of God perfectly, that all under the Law must be under the curse, and consequently cannot be blessed in faithful Abraham....The argument is this: Those that are under a curse cannot be under the blessing of justification: but those that are under the law are under the curse. This he proves out of the law, (Deuteronomy 27:26)," -(Matthew P.). 

   "The specific character of the curse is not stated. It is not merely the wrath of God as it issues in final destruction (Meyer); but it represents a condition of alienation from God, caused by violation of his Law, with all the penalty which accrues from it, either in this life or the next."-(Vincent).

  • are-εἰσὶν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"] under the curse

*example of Greek word: ὑπὸ (hupo)-under click: 1 Corinthians 15:25

*example of G2671: κατάραν (kataran-the curse) click: Galatians 3:13 (kataras-the curse)

Cursed-Ἐπικατάρατος (Epikataratos)-one upon whom a curse lies) is every one-πᾶς (pas)-all, every) that-ὃς (hos)-who) continueth-ἐμμένει (emmenei)-to remain in, (i.e. abide in/by) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) in-ἐν (en)-in) all things-πᾶσιν (pasin)-all, every)

   The law requires doing; it is not content with mere theory without practice; it is not enough to know it, or hear it, it must be done. The Jews boasted of their knowledge, and trusted much to the hearing of it read every sabbath day; but not those who had a form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law, or were hearers of it, were just before God, but the doers of it are justified; and it requires perfect obedience, an observance of all things contained in it, which can never be performed by fallen man.-(Gill).

   "...the idea is, that all who attempt to secure salvation by the works of the Law, must be exposed to its penalty. It denounces a curse on all who do not yield entire obedience; and no partial compliance with its demands can save from the penalty.-(Barnes).

  • continueth-ἐμμένει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person,  Singular: Cursed is every one that ["IS-IN-REMAINING"] not in all things

*example of G2671: ἐμμένει (emmenei-continueth) click: Acts 14:22 (emmenein-to continue)

in the book-βιβλίῳ (biblio)-a (little) book, roll, scroll) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) to do-ποιῆσαι (poiesai)-to do) them

   The idea is, that a man who does not yield compliance to a whole Law, is subject to its penalty, or to a curse. All Law is sustained on this principle. A man who has been honest, and temperate, and industrious, and patriotic, if he commits a single act of murder, is subject to the curse of the Law, and must meet the penalty. A man who has been honest and honorable in all his dealings, yet if he commits a single act of forgery, he must meet the curse denounced by the laws of his country, and bear the penalty. So, in all matters pertaining to law: no matter what the integrity of the man; no matter how upright he has been, yet, for the one offence the law denounces a penalty, and he must bear it. It is out of the question for him to be justified by it. He cannot plead as a reason why he should not be condemned for the act of murder or forgery, that he has in all other respects obeyed the law, or even that he has been guilty of no such offences before. Such is the idea of Paul in the passage before us. It was clear to his view that man had not in all respects yielded obedience to the Law of God. If he had not done this, it was impossible that he should be justified by the Law, and he must bear its penalty.-(Barnes).

  • to do-ποιῆσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: in the book of the Law ["TO-DO"] them

no man-οὐδεὶς (oudeis)-no one, nobody, none) is justified-δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-to make or declare right) by-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) in the sight-παρὰ (para)-properly: near, (i.e. beside, with one, with) of God: 

   The Law could not bring a blessing. It could not justify. For the condition of justification is faith; and the Law has nothing to do with faith. Its standpoint was entirely different--that of works.-(Ellicott).

   The argument is this: "It is impossible that a man should be justified by the Law, because God has appointed another way of justification." But there cannot be two ways of obtaining life, and as he has appointed faith as the condition on which people shall live, he has precluded from them the possibility of obtaining salvation in any other mode.-(Barnes).

   By thus substituting faith for obedience he virtually supersedes the existing Law, and establishes a new criterion, which takes account of the state of heart instead of the outward life (cf. Romans 1:17). The same passage is adduced in Hebrews 10:38 in proof of the vital importance of faith.-(Expositor Greek T.).

  • is justified-δικαιοῦται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: But that no man ["IS-beING-JUSTIFIED"] by the Law in the sight of God

*example of Greek word: δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-is justified click: Acts 13:39

The just-δίκαιος (dikaios)-just, right(-eous), meet) shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) by-ἐκ (ek)-out of) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief): 

   The sense here is, that life is promised to man only in connection with faith. It is not by the works of the Law that it is done. The condition of life is faith: and he lives who believes. The meaning is not, I apprehend, that the man who is justified by faith shall live, but that life is promised and exists only in connection with faith, and that the just or righteous man obtains it only in this way. Of course it cannot be obtained by the observance of the Law, but must be by some other scheme [Faith].-(Barnes).

  • shall live-ζήσεται: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: The just ["SHALL-BE-LIVING"] by faith

*that doeth-ποιήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: but the man ["Doing"] them

*example of Greek word: ποιήσας (poiesas)-that doeth click: Romans 10:5

shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) in-ἐν (en)-in) them

   because the law promises life to all that keep it, and therefore if it is kept, it justifies and gives life. But the scripture attributing righteousness and life to faith takes it from the Law, seeing that faith justifies by imputation, and the Law by the performing of the work.-(Geneva).

   Those under the Law were bound to render strict obedience to all its requirements, whether moral or ceremonial; and whosoever set aside any of whichever class was constituted by the Law a "transgressor" and a man "accursed."- (Pulpit). 

   It thus appears that the pronoun "them" recites[:] "my statutes and my judgments" see Leviticus 18:5.- (Pulpit). 

  • shall live-ζήσεται: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-LIVING"] in them

Galatians 3:9

“So then, they which be of faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief), *are blessed-εὐλογοῦνται (eulogountai)-to speak well of, praise (i.e. bestow favor) with-σὺν (sun)-with, along with)

faithful-πιστῷ (pisto)-faithful, steady, (i.e. believing, trusting) Abraham.”

*are blessed-εὐλογοῦνται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-beING-blessED"]

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
38 Γνωστὸν οὖν ἔστω ὑμῖν, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ὅτι διὰ
τούτου ὑμῖν ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν καταγγέλλεται 39 Καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωυσέως δικαιωθῆναι, ἐν τούτῳ πᾶς πιστεύων δικαιοῦται.

Acts 13:38-39    

38 "*Be it-ἔστω (esto)-"be" or "let be" (third person singular imperative of 'to be') known-γνωστὸν (gnoston)-known, notable) unto you therefore, *men-ἄνδρες (andres)-a man—(plural) *and brethren-ἀδελφοί (adelphoi)-brother—(plural), that through-διὰ (dia)-through) this  man * is preached-καταγγέλλεται (kataggelletai)-to tell thoroughly, (i.e. to announce, declare, promulgate, make known; to proclaim publicly, publish) unto you the forgiveness of sins39 And by-ἐν (en)-in, by) him all that believe, are justified from-ἀπό (apo)-from) all things-πάντων (panton)-all, every), from which ye could-ἠδυνήθητε (edunethete)-to be able) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) be justified by-ἐν (en)-in, by) the Law of Moses."

*Be it-ἔστω: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Imperative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["let-it-be!"] known unto you therefore

*men-ἄνδρες: Noun, Vocative, Plural, Masculine: ["men!"]

*and brethren-ἀδελφοί: Noun, Vocative, Plural, Masculine: ["brethren!"]

this man-τούτου (toutou)-of this one):  

   Let all that hear the gospel of Christ, know these two things: 1. That through this Man [Jesus Christ], who died and rose again, is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins. Your sins, though many and great, may be forgiven, and they may be so without any injury to God's honour. 2. It is by Christ only that those who believe in him, and none else, are justified from all things; from all the guilt and stain of sin, from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses.-(Matthew H.).

*is preached-καταγγέλλεται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["is-being-announced"] unto you

*example of Greek word: καταγγέλλεται (kataggelletai)-is preached click: Romans 1:8 (spoken of)

the forgiveness-ἄφεσις (aphesis)-a sending away, letting go, (i.e. remission, pardon) of sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamartion)-sin, error, offense):

   It is by Christ only that those who believe in him, and none else, are justified from all things; from all the guilt and stain of sin, from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses. The great concern of convinced sinners is, to be justified, to be acquitted from all their guilt, and accepted as righteous in God's sight, for if any is left charged upon the sinner, he is undone. By Jesus Christ we obtain a complete justification; for by him a complete atonement was made for sin. We are justified, not only by him as our Judge but by him as the Lord our Righteousness. What the Law could not do for us, in that it was weak, the gospel of Christ does.-(Matthew H.).

   "forgiveness of sins, which is sometimes expressed [in the bible] by[:] a non-imputation of them, a non-remembrance of them, a covering and putting them away, and a blotting them out, is an act of free grace and mercy, and yet is through the blood of Christ; through that [the blood of Christ] believers have it [forgiveness of sins]; Christ is exalted as a Prince and a Saviour to give it, having by his blood procured it; and this is a principal doctrine of the Gospel, which is published in his name, and which the light of nature and Law of Moses know nothing of, and cannot ascertain; the prophets bear testimony to this truth, that every one that believes in Christ shall receive the remission of his sins, of all his sins [that he has committed]".-(Gill).

*example of Greek word: ἄφεσις (aphesis)-forgiveness click: Hebrews 9:22 (remission)

all-πᾶς (pas)-every one) that believe-πιστεύων (pisteuon)-to adhere to, trust, rely, (i.e. believe in) are justified-δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-to make or declare right)

   Here, then, is the great gospel message of grace, "the gospel of the grace of God," as St. Paul speaks in Acts 20:24; the proclamation, consequent upon the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus, of a free and full forgiveness of sins to all that repent and believe the gospel (Acts 20:21); see Acts 2:38Acts 3:19Acts 4:12Acts 5:31Colossians 1:14, etc., and Matthew 1:21Luke 1:77. Note, too, how adroitly the apostle points out the superiority of the gospel which he was preaching to them over the Law, and the pre-eminence of Christ over Moses.-(Pulpit).

   The Law declares what is sin, and what the curse is that is due unto sin, but not how to be delivered from them; it shows the spot, but not how to wash it off; and the sore, but not how to heal it; but, on the other side, we are bidden to glory in the Lord, (Jesus), who of God is made unto us wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, 1 Corinthians 1:30-31. -(Matthew P).

   "...And from all sin these are justified of God, as Beza's ancient copy reads, "for it is God that justifies", (Romans 8:33) against whom men have sinned, and whose law they have violated, and whose justice they have affronted, by reason of which they are liable to condemnation; but God justifies them, by imputing the righteousness of his Son to them..."-(Gill).

  • that believe-πιστεύων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: all ["one-BELIEVing"]

  • are justified-δικαιοῦται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-beING-JUSTIFIED"]

*example of Greek word: πιστεύων (pisteuon)-that believe click: John 3:15

*example of Greek word: δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-are justified click: Galatians 2:16


the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) of Moses:  

   that is, by the works of the law, or by obedience to it, because such obedience is imperfect; and therefore the law cannot justify, discharge, and acquit upon it, but instead thereof, must curse and condemn; as it does everyone, that does not do all things commanded in the law, and in the manner that requires; besides, if righteousness was hereby, the grace of God in justification would be frustrated, the death of Christ would be rendered null and void, and boasting would not be excluded; all which are contrary to the scheme of the Gospel.-(Gill).

   We ought not to suppose that the division of the law into the moral and ceremonial was as familiar to the Jews as it is to us in the present day, since at that time both flourished together. Wherefore this passage treats of the whole law. Moses is Moses, whether he enjoins concerning rites or concerning morals.-(Bengel). 


Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ὁ
νόμος ἁμαρτία; Μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἔγνων εἰ μὴ διὰ νόμου. τήν τε γὰρ ἐπιθυμίαν οὐκ ᾔδειν εἰ μὴ ὁ νόμος ἔλεγεν, Οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις.


Romans 7:7   

“What *shall we say-ἐροῦμεν (eroumen)-to speak, say, tell) then? Is the law sin? God forbid-μὴ γένοιτο (me genoito)-let it not be). Nay-ἀλλὰ (alla)-except, but, unless), I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known //lust (Or, concupiscence), except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet."

*shall we say-ἐροῦμεν: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: What ["WE-SHALL-BE-declarING"] then?

Is the law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) sin-ἁμαρτία (hamartia)-sin, error, offence):

   Is the law sin? — Macknight connects this with the preceding words thus: What then, do we say that the law is sin? is a bad institution, that causes or encourages sin? that there is any moral evil in it, or that it is intended by God, or adapted in its own nature, to lead men into sin? -(Benson).

   For if, as it is said in Romans 7:5, the sinful passions were "by the law," it might naturally be asked whether the Law itself was not an evil thing?-(Barnes).

  [In Romans 7:5 the Law had been described as stimulating and exciting the motions-παθήματα (pathemata)- passions, affections, impulses (of an inward state: an affection, passion(s) of sins(meaning), sinful passions which were by the law"]- "Not that they were originated or created by the Law; for a law does not originate evil propensities, and a holy Law [Romans 7:12] would not cause sinful passions; but they were excited, called up, inflamed by the Law, which forbids their indulgence."-(Barnes).

   "...the true sense of it is, that these motions of sin are irritated, provoked, and increased, through the Law's prohibition of them; which is not to be charged as a fault on the Law, but to be imputed to the depravity and corruption of man; who is like to one in a burning fever, very desirous of drink, who the more it is forbid, the more eager is he of it;...."-(Gill).

   The Law had just been described as stimulating and exciting “the motions of sins.” Was this true? Was the Law really immoral?-(Ellicott).

For if, as it is said in Romans 7:5, the sinful passions were "by the law," it might naturally be asked whether the Law itself was not an evil thing?-(Barnes).

   "Here is another anticipation of an objection, which might arise from what the Apostle had said in, Romans 7:5, that sin was powerful in us by the law. Some might object and say, that the law then was sin, i.e. that it was the cause of it, and a factor for it. To this he answers, by his usual note of detestation, God forbid."-(Matthew P.).   

I had not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) known-ἔγνων (egnon)-to know, (i.e. to understand, to have knowledge of) sin-ἁμαρτίαν (hamartian)-sin, error, offence), but by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the law

   The Apostle goes back in thought to the time before he had embraced Christianity, and treats his own case as typical.-(Ellicott).

   I had not known [says Paul] its evil nature and destructive consequences; nor, in many instances, what really was sin; but by the law — As the apostle is speaking of the law of Moses, and, as appears from the last clause of the verse, of the moral law, the quotation there being from the tenth commandment, his words must not be understood universally. “For it is not to be supposed that the reason and conscience of the heathen gave them no knowledge at all of their sins; the contrary is affirmed by the apostle [in] Romans 2:14.-(Benson).

I had not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) known-ᾔδειν (edein)-to see, have seen, known,  (i.e. to come to know) lust-ἐπιθυμίαν (epithumian)-desire, over desire, concupiscence):

   Or, For I had not known lust — [To be sin]. The Apostle introduces an illustration from a special law—the Tenth Commandment. “Lust” is here to be taken in the special sense of covetousness, desire for that which is forbidden. Doubtless there would be many before the giving of the Law who desired their “neighbour’s wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant,” &c.; but this would not be coveting, it would not be desire of that which was forbidden, for the simple reason that it was not (forbidden). Covetousness, then, as a sin, the Apostle did not know until he was confronted with the Law against it.- (Ellicott).

   Man without law might have the strong feelings of desire, He might covet what others possessed. He might take property, or be disobedient to parents; but he would not know it to be evil. The Law fixes bounds to his desires, and teaches him what is right and what is wrong. It teaches him where lawful indulgence ends, and where sin begins. The word "lust" here is not limited as it is with us. It refers to all covetous desires; to all wishes for what is forbidden us.-(Barnes).

*example of Greek word: ᾔδειν (edein)-I had known click: Acts 23:5 (I wist)

Thou shalt not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) covet-ἐπιθυμέω (epithumeo)-to fix the mind on, (e.g. lust, covet, desire, lust after, concupiscence):

   [or rather, thou shalt not "lust". Paul is referring to Exodus 20:17.] But why doth he not mention the objects that are specified in the 10th commandment, as, thy neighbour’s house, wife, etc.? The answer is: That that was not material [the 10th commandment was more than just coveting what is external]; for the apostle is speaking of inward  concupiscence, which without the law is latent and undiscovered, it was enough to name the sin itself (to covet), seeing that the objects about which it is conversant are of all sorts, and can hardly be numbered.-(Matthew P.).

   By "lust" is meant the inward motions of sin in the heart, any and every desire of the mind after it; not only studied and concerted schemes, how to bring about and compass an evil action; but every loose vagrant thought of sin, and inclination to it; yea, every imagination of the thought of the heart, before the imagination is well formed into a thought; and not only a dallying with sin in the mind, dwelling upon it with pleasure in thought, but even such sudden motions and starts of the mind to sin, to which we give no assent; such as are involuntary, yea, contrary to the will, being "the evil we would not", Romans 7:15-25, and are displeasing and hateful to us; these are meant by "lust", and which by the law of God are known to be sinful, and only by that.-(Gill).

   "...and though these inward lusts are condemned by the law of God, yet inasmuch as they were not punishable by men, and could be covered with the (guise) of an (external) righteousness, multitudes who were born under, and brought up in that Law, were indolent about them; did not look upon them as sins, or as at all affecting their righteousness; but imagined that, "touching the righteousness of the law", they were "blameless", Philippians 3:6; which was the case of all the Pharisees, and of the apostle whilst such: but when the Law came and entered his conscience with power and light attending it, then he saw, such innumerable swarms of lusts in his heart, and these to be sinful, which he never saw and knew before: just as in a sunbeam we behold those numerous little bits of dust, which otherwise are indiscernible by us. Now since the Law is of such use, not only to discover the sinfulness of outward actions, but also of inward  lusts and desires, that [the Law] itself cannot be sinful.-(Gill).

   "St. Paul was once a Pharisee, ignorant of the spirituality of the law, having some correctness of character, without knowing his inward depravity. When the commandment came to his conscience by the convictions of the Holy Spirit, and he saw what it demanded, he found his sinful mind rise against it. He felt at the same time the evil of sin, his own sinful state, that he was unable to fulfil the law, and was like a criminal when condemned. But though the evil principle in the human heart produces sinful motions, and the more by taking occasion of the commandment; yet the law is holy, and the commandment holy, just, and good. It is not favourable to sin, which it pursues into the heart, and discovers and reproves in the inward motions[-παθήματα (pathemata)- passions, affections, impulses (of an inward state: an affection, passion(s)] thereof."-(Matthew H.)

   "The law may cause death through man's depravity, but sin is the poison that brings death. Not the law, but sin discovered by the law, was made death to the Apostle. The ruinous nature of sin, and the sinfulness of the human heart, are here clearly shown." (Matthew H.).

  • Thou shalt covet-ἐπιθυμέωVerb, Future, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["you-shall-be-coveting"] not

*example of Greek word: ἐπιθυμέω (epithumeo)-Thou shalt covet click: Romans 13:9

Galatians 4:21

"*Tell-Λέγετέ (legete)-to lay out, say, speak) me, **ye that desire-θέλοντες (thelontes)-to wish, will) *to be-εἶναι (einai)-to be) under the Law-νόμον (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law), *do ye not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) hear-ἀκούω (akouo)-to give ear, hearken, hear (i.e. to comprehend, understand) the Law?"

*Tell-Λέγετέ: Verb, Present, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural:


*ye that desire-θέλοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["WILLING"]

*to be-εἶναι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Infinitive: ["TO-BE"]

*do ye hearVerb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural:


* example of Greek word: θέλοντες (thelontes)-ye that desire click: 1 Timothy 1:7 (desiring)

hear: [that is, the]"... law of Moses, what it says to transgressors, and so to them; what it accused them of, and charged them with; how it declared them guilty before God, pronounced them accursed, and, ministered sententially condemnation and death unto them; and could they desire to be under such a law?" -Gill

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι ὁ νόμος πνευματικός ἐστιν· ἐγὼ δὲ σαρκικός εἰμι, πεπραμένος ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν.


Romans 7:14  

"For we know that the Law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin."

we know-οἴδαμεν (oidamen)-to see, have seen, known): 

   There is no need to argue the question. We Christians all know that the Law is spiritual. It is divinely given and inspired. On the other hand, man, though capable of communion with God, is dominated by that part of his nature which is the direct opposite of divine, and is entirely earthly and sensual. This sensual part of his nature is the slave—and just as much the slave as if he had been sold in the auction mart—of Sin. -(Ellicott).

  • we know-οἴδαμεν: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["we-are-aware"] that

the Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) is-ἐστιν (estin)-(third person singular of 'to be') spiritual-πνευματικός (pneumatikos)-spiritual, (i.e. non-carnal): 

    It cannot be truly obeyed and conformed to without the assistance of the Spirit of God; the Holy Ghost.  We who have a spiritual understanding of the law, who have been led into the true nature of it by the Spirit of God, know by experience that that itself is "spiritual"; and therefore can never be the cause of sin or death...It requires truth in the inward parts; spiritual service and obedience; a serving of it with our minds; a worshipping of God in spirit and truth (-Gill).

   The word "spiritual" is often thus used to denote what is pure and holy, in opposition to that which is fleshly or carnal; Romans 8:5-6Galatians 5:16-23. (-Matthew. H).

   He [Paul] goes on to clear the law, and excuse it, giving it another commendation, that it is spiritual; i.e. it requires such obedience as is not only outward, but inward and spiritual; it forbids spiritual as well as fleshly sins (-Matthew. P).

  • is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: the Law ["IS"] spiritual

*example of Greek word: νόμος (nomos)-the Law click: 1 Corinthians 15:56

*example of Greek word: πνευματικός (pneumatikos)-spiritual click: 1 Peter 2:5

I-ἐγὼ (ego)-I, me) am-εἰμι (eimi)-am) carnal-σαρκικός (sarkikos)-fleshly, (i.e. having the nature of flesh, sensual, bodily):  

   Fleshly; sensual; [as] opposed to spiritual. This word is used because in the Scriptures the "flesh" is spoken of as the source of sensual passions and propensities, Galatians 5:19-21. The sense is, that these corrupt passions still retained a strong and withering and distressing influence over the mind. The renewed man is exposed to temptations from his strong native appetites; and the power of these passions, strengthened by long habit before he was converted, has traveled over into religion, and they continue still to influence and distress him. It does not mean that he is wholly under their influence; but that the tendency of his natural inclinations is to indulgence. "But I am" - The present tense shows that he is describing himself as he was at the time of writing (-Barnes).

   Matthew Poole comments to: (I am carnal); "i.e. in part, because of the remainders of sin and of the flesh that are still in me; in respect of which, those who are regenerated are said to be carnal." Hence it is said in 1 Corinthians 15:53 "For this corruptible must put on incorruption..." and this, at the time of the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul says in Romans 7:24 "who shall deliver me from the (body) of this death? Can you see now, how that an unregenerate  person (one who is not in Christ) is impotent against the Law; whether it be the moral or the ceremonial, if we Christians who are not under the yolk of the Law, and have received the Holy Spirit; do struggle in this carnal/fleshly body, how much more they who have not the Holy Spirit and do seek justification by abiding in/by the things of the Law; it is not possible.

  • am-εἰμι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["AM"]

*example of Greek word: σαρκικός (sarkikos) carnal click: 1 Corinthians 10:4

sold-πεπραμένος (pepramenos)-to sell, cause to pass over, (figuratively: of becoming enslaved to sin, personified as a master who gains control) under-ὑπὸ (hupo)-under, (metaph. subject to) sin-ἁμαρτίαν (hamartian)-sin, error, offence)

   From Romans 7:7-14, he tells us how it had been with him [Paul] formerly; and then from Romans 7:14-25, he relates how it was with him now; "I was" so and so, "I am" thus and thus. he [Paul] did not actively sell himself to sin, or to commit sin, which is said of Ahab, 1 Kings 21:20,25, and of the idolatrous Israelites, 2 Kings 17:17. He was not sin’s servant or slave; but many times he was sin’s captive against his will; see Romans 7:23. Against his will and consent, he was still subject to the violent lusts and assaults of sin, and not able wholly to free himself: though he always made stout resistance, yet many times he was overcome. Hitherto the apostle hath spoken of the power of the law and sin in unregenerate persons, even as he himself had experienced whilst he was yet in such a state; but now he cometh to speak of himself as he then was, and to declare what power the remainders of sinful flesh had still in him, though regenerated, and in part renewed (-Jamieson).  

   The expression used here, "sold under sin," is "borrowed from the practice of selling captives taken in war, as slaves." (Stuart.) It hence, means to deliver into the power of anyone, so that he shall be dependent on his will and control. (Schleusner.) The emphasis is not on the word "sold," as if any act of selling had taken place, but the effect was as if he had been sold; that is, he was subject to it, and under its control, and it means that sin, contrary to the prevailing inclination of his mind Romans 7:15-17, had such an influence over him as to lead him to commit it, and thus to produce a state of conflict and grief; Romans 7:19-24 (-Barnes).

  • sold-πεπραμένος: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["HAVING-been-disposED-of"] under sin

* example G4097πεπραμένος (pepramenos-sold) click: Matthew 18:25 (prathenai-to be sold)

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Νόμον οὖν καταργοῦμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως; μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ
νόμον ἱστῶμεν.


Romans 3:31   

*Do we then make void-καταργοῦμεν (katargoumen)-to make thoroughly useless or idle, (to be (render) entirely idle (useless), literally or figuratively:—abolish, cease, do away, become (make) of no (none, without) effect, fail, loose, bring (come) to nought, put away (down), vanish away, make void) the law through-διὰ (dia)-through) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness)? God forbid-μὴ γένοιτο (me genoito)-let it not be): yea, we establish the Law.”

*Do we make void-καταργοῦμεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["we-are-nullifying"] the law through faith ? 

*example of G4097καταργοῦμεν (katargoumen-do we make void) click: Romans 4:14 (katergetai- made of none effect)

we establish-ἱστῶμεν (istomen)-to place, set, cause to stand,( i.e. to establish a thing, cause it to stand) the Law 

   When the law is opposed to faith, the flesh immediately suspects that there is some contrariety, as though the one were adverse to the other: and this false notion prevails, especially among those who are imbued with wrong ideas as to the law, and leaving the promises, seek nothing else through it but the righteousness of works. And on this account, not only Paul, but our Lord himself, was evil spoken of by the Jews, as though in all his preaching he aimed at the abrogation of the law. Hence it was that he made this protest, --

["I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil."] (Matthew 5:17.) 

And this suspicion regards the moral as well as the ceremonial law; for as the gospel has put an end to the Mosaic ceremonies, it is supposed to have a tendency to destroy the whole dispensation of Moses. And further, as it sweeps away all the righteousness of works [deeds], it is believed to be opposed to all those testimonies of the law, by which the Lord has declared, that he has thereby prescribed the way of righteousness and salvation. I therefore take this defense of Paul, not only as to ceremonies, nor as to the commandments which are called moral, but with regard to the whole law universally. [128]

For the moral law is in reality confirmed and established through faith in Christ, inasmuch as it was given for this end -- to lead man to Christ by showing him his iniquity; and without this it cannot be fulfilled, and in vain will it require what ought to be done; nor can it do anything but irritate lust more and more, and thus finally increase man's condemnation; but where there is a coming to Christ, there is first found in him the perfect righteousness of the law, which becomes ours by imputation, and then there is sanctification, by which our hearts are prepared to keep the law [moral obedience]; it is indeed imperfectly done, but there is an aiming at the work. Similar is the case with ceremonies, which indeed cease and vanish away when Christ comes [came], but they are in reality confirmed by him; for when they are viewed in themselves they are vain and shadowy images, and then only do they attain anything real and solid, when their end is regarded. In this then consists their chief confirmation, when they have obtained their accomplishment in Christ. Let us then also bear in mind, so to dispense the gospel that by our mode of teaching the law may be confirmed [established]; but let it be sustained [established] by no other strength [i.e. works] than that of faith in Christ. (-Calvin). 

   The law is not made void but established by the Gospel, not in the sense that it is to help the sinner. The broken law and its curse was borne by Christ; therefore the law has been vindicated as well as the holiness and righteousness of God. The man who tries to be right with God by the works of the law makes the law void, for he will not live up to the letter of the law, as the law demands and excuses his failures at the expense of the law, which is holy and good (-Gaebelein). 

   Christians are now taught to fulfil the moral precepts, and the chief part of the law, with greater perfection, in the spirit of faith, charity (haydock).

   God's dispensations cannot possibly disagree; they may not have the same immediate purport, but they must harmonize. This verse is a triumphant challenge at the close of a conclusive argument. The harmony of Law and faith.

I. LAW. The great aim of the dispensation of Law was to teach man his sin and helplessness.

1. "Through the Law cometh the knowledge, of sin" (ver. 20). The Law within man fades in proportion as his disregard of it increases, and only by an objective Law can he then be taught his guilt. So did God, by a presentation of righteousness in the demands of the Law, bring home to man's conscience his condemnation.

2. This objective holiness, by its claims upon man's endeavours, not merely wrought condemnation in the conscience, but was designed to produce an intensest consciousness of incapacity. This not so directly intended by the apostle's words now, but falls legitimately within their scope. We see, we desire; we cannot attain.

II. FAITH. When the dispensation of Law has done its disciplinary work, the dispensation of faith shall take its place.

1. A universal condemnation prepares for the reception of the gift of grace. The world is brought to its knees before God, stricken with guilt; and now he may speak words of pardon, to be received by faith. God the Giver, man the recipient at his hands; this the relation now. Faith annulling the Law? Nay, supplementing it, and justifying its work.

2. And so the new life of faith - faith in the forgiving love of God, a faith which brings hope and inspiration - does but supplement [magnify], in no wise contradicts, the state of helplessness realized through the Law. We are at one with God; the chasm is bridged; and by his own loving help we can do his will. To us Christians? Christ's perfect life serves for Law. How great our guilt! how utter our impotence! But he stoops to die for us, and we receive forgiveness by faith; and, being in trustful and loving fellowship with him, we now can live by him. The "Law" of his life is established, not annulled, by [through] faith. (-T.F.L.)

  • we establish-ἱστῶμεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-ARE-STANDING"//"we-are-sustaining"] the Law

*example of G2476ἱστῶμεν (istomen-we establish) click: Matthew 18:16 (stathe-may be established)

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
Διότι ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σὰρξ ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ. διὰ γὰρ νόμου ἐπίγνωσις ἁμαρτίας.


Romans 3:20  

"Therefore by the deeds of the Law, *there shall no-οὐ πᾶσα (ou pasa)-not any by any means) flesh-σὰρξ (sarx)-lit. flesh—(of the body), (by implication: man, human being) be justified-δικαιωθήσεται (dikaiothesetai)-to make or declare right) in his-(God) *sight-ἐνώπιον (enopion)-in the sight of, (i.e. before one): for by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law is the knowledge of sin."