Works of the Flesh

Beloved of the Lord;

Remember: Be not-μὴ (me)-no, not lest, in no wise, by no means)   deceived-πλανᾶσθε (planasthe)-to lead astray, (to cause to stray, lead aside from the right way, err, wander)): evil communications corrupt good manners.” (1 Corinthians 15:33)

Be deceived-πλανᾶσθε: Verb, Present, Passive, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-being-deceived!"] not

Step 2:

1. Sin (pending)

2. Works of the Flesh

3. Repentance (pending)

Works of the Flesh 

"The inside of men is very bad"

Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]

&

King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]

Concordance // Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.

Hebrew Text:

Westminster Leningrad Codex

Key:

  •  H/G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Hebrew or Greek words that share the same Root word, but not the same Parsing / Inflection.

  • Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.

The Flesh

 

 

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
19 φανερὰ δέ ἐστι τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστι μοιχεία, πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια, 20 εἰδωλολατρεία φαρμακεία, ἔχθραι, ἔρεις, ζῆλοι, θυμοί, ἐριθείαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις, 21 φθόνοι, φόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις· ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ προεῖπον, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν Θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν.

Galatians 5:19-21  

19 "Now the-τὰ (ta)-the) *works-ἔργα (erga)-work, deed, doing, business (i.e. an act, thing done) of the-τῆς (tes)-of the) *flesh-σαρκός (sarkos)-flesh, (by implication: human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specially), a human being (as such):—carnal(-ly, + -ly minded), flesh(-ly)) are-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') *manifest-φανερὰ (phanara)-manifest, apparent, evident, known), which are-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') these, adultery-μοιχεία (moicheia)-adultery), fornication-πορνεία (porneia)-fornication, whoredom, (i.e. properly: of illicit sexual intercourse in general), uncleanness-ἀκαθαρσία (akatharsia)-uncleanness, impurity, (i.e.  physically or morally:—uncleanness), lasciviousness-ἀσέλγεια (aselgeia)-excess, licentiousness, (i.e. unbridled lust), 20 Idolatry-εἰδωλολατρεία (eidololatreia)-worship of idols, (e.g. the worship of false gods, avarice), witchcraft-φαρμακεία (pharmakeia)-a charm, remedy, enchantment with drugs (i.e. sorcery):—(by extension) magic), hatred-ἔχθραι (echtrai)-enmity), variance-ἔρεις (ereis)-contention, strife, quarrel), emulations-ζῆλοι (zeloi)-zeal, (e.g. an envious and contentious rivalry, jealousy), wrath-θυμοί (thumoi)-wrath, (i.e. fierceness, indignation), strife-ἐριθείαι (eritheiai)-contention, strife, quarrel), seditions-διχοστασίαι (dichostasiai)-a standing apart, (i.e. dissension, division), heresies-αἱρέσεις (haireseis)-properly: a choice, opinion, sentiment, (i.e. dissensions arising from diversity of opinions and aims, sects), 21 envyings-φθόνοι (phthonoi)-envy, jealousy), murders-φόνοι (phonoi)-murder, slaughter), drunkenness-μέθαι (methai)-drink, mulled drink, intoxication, drunkenness), revellings-κῶμοι (komoi)-revelry, (a carousal (as if letting loose):—revelling, rioting), and such like: of the which I tell you before-προλέγω (prolego)-to lay out, say or speak before, (i.e. to say beforehand, foretell), as I have also told you in time past-προεῖπον (proeipon)-to say, speak or tell before, to say already), that they which do-πράσσοντες (prassontes)-to exercise, practise, to be busy with, carry on) such things *shall not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν (kleronomesousin)-to obtain by lot, be heir) the *kingdom-βασιλεία (basileia)-kingdom, (i.e. God's heavenly kingdom) of God."

  • *example of Greek word: ἔργα (erga)-works click: John 3:19 (deeds)

  • *example of Greek word: σαρκός (sarkos)-flesh click: Romans 8:5

  • *example of Greek word: φανερὰ (phanara)-manifest click: 1 John 3:10

  • *example of Greek word: κληρονομήσουσιν (kleronomesousin)-shall inherit click: Matthew 5:5

  • *example of Greek word: βασιλεία (basileia)-kingdom click: Matthew 4:17

  • are-ἐστι: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Now the works of the flesh ["IS"] manifest, which

  • are-ἐστι: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"]  these, adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which

  • I tell before-προλέγω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-BEFORE-sayING"//"I-am-predicting"] you, as

  • I have told you in time past-προεῖπον : Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-BEFORE-said"] also, that

  • they which do-πράσσοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["PRACTISING"] such things

  • shall inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-tenantING"//"shall-be-inheriting"] not the kingdom of God.

the-τὰ (ta)-the) works-ἔργα (erga)-work, deed, doing, business (i.e. an act, thing done) of the-τῆς (tes)-of the) flesh-σαρκός (sarkos)-flesh, (by implication: human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specially), a human being (as such):—carnal(-ly, + -ly minded), flesh(-ly):

     Now the works of the flesh -What the flesh, or what corrupt and unrenewed human nature produces.  -(Barnes).

    First, the Apostle gives a list of the works of the flesh—not complete but comprehensive—the commission of which excludes men from the inheritance. They cannot plead the promise. It is not for such as they. They shall not inherit the Kingdom of God.-(Cambridge BSC).

    Now the works of the flesh are manifest.—It needs no elaborate disquisition to show what is meant by fulfilling the lust of the flesh. The effects which the flesh produces are plain and obvious enough. The catalogue which follows is not drawn up on any exact scientific principle, but divides itself roughly under four heads: (1) sins of sensuality; (2) sins of superstition; (3) sins of temper; (4) excesses.-(Ellicott).

     Now the works of the flesh are manifest,....or, By "flesh" is meant corrupt nature, as before, and by the works of it, not only external acts of sin, but inward lusts; for such are here mentioned among its works, as "hatred", "wrath", "envyings", &c. and both external and internal acts are so called, because they spring from the flesh, or corrupt nature, and are what that urges and solicits to, and are wrought thereby, and are what denominate and show men to be carnal: these are said to be "manifest"; not that they are all, and always publicly done, and are open to the sight of men; for they are works of darkness, and often done in secret, though they are always manifest to God the searcher of hearts, and will be brought to light in the day of judgment;..."-(Gill). 

are-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') manifest-φανερὰ (phanara)-manifest, apparent, evident, known):

    they are always manifest to God, the searcher of hearts, and will be brought to light in the day of judgment. The world is full of illustrations of what corrupt human nature produces, and as to the existence and nature of those works, no one can be ignorant. It is evident here that the word "flesh," is used to denote corrupt human nature, and not merely the body; since many of the vices here enumerated are the passions of the mind or the soul, rather than of the body. Such are "wrath," "strife," "heresies," "envyings," etc., which cannot be said to have their seat in the body.-(Gill).

    Are manifest - Plain, well-known. The world is full of illustrations of what corrupt human nature produces, and as to the existence and nature of those works, no one can be ignorant. It is evident here that the word σὰρξ sarx, "flesh," is used to denote corrupt human nature, and not merely the body; since many of the vices here enumerated are the passions of the mind or the soul, rather than of the body. Such are "wrath," "strife," "heresies," "envyings," etc., which cannot be said to have their seat in the body. If the word, therefore, is used to denote human nature, the passage furnishes a sad commentary on its tendency, and on the character of man. -(Barnes).

shall not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν (kleronomesousin)-to obtain by lot, be heir):  

   Shall not inherit the kingdom of God - Cannot possibly be saved; see the notes at 1 Corinthians 6:9-11. In regard to this passage, we may remark:

    (1) That it furnishes the most striking and unanswerable proof of human depravity. Paul represents these things as "the works of the flesh," the works of the unrenewed nature of man. They are such as human nature, when left to itself, everywhere produces. The world shows that such is the fact; and we cannot but ask, is a nature producing this to be regarded as pure? Is man an unfallen being? Can he save himself? Does he need no Saviour? (2) This passage is full of fearful admonition to those who indulge in any or all of these vices. Paul, inspired of God, has solemnly declared, that such cannot be saved. They cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven as they are. Nor is it desirable that they should. What would heaven be if filled up with adulterers, and fornicators, and idolaters, with the proud and envious, and with murderers, and drunkards? To call such a place heaven, would be an abuse of the word. No one could wish to dwell there; and such people cannot enter into heaven. These sins will shut men out of heaven. Christ never will own those who yield themselves up to be the servants of sin. And it is not enough that we cease to do evil, but we must learn to do well.  Bondage to "the flesh" in this life is constantly declared throughout the New Testament. Entrance into the eternal kingdom is through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.-(Barnes).

    and that they which do such things, shall not inherit the kingdom of God; by which is meant the heavenly glory, called a "kingdom", because of the grandeur and magnificence of that state; and "of God", because it is of his preparing and giving, what he calls his own to by his grace, and puts them into the possession of and where he reigns and will reign for ever, and show forth the glory of his majesty: this is possessed in way of inheritance, which shows it to be a bequest of our heavenly Father's, a free grace gift of his, and not to be obtained by the works of the law, or merits of men; but what belongs, and is peculiar to the children of God, who are so by adopting grace: now they that do such works of the flesh as before enumerated; that is, that live in the commission of these things, whose whole lives are employed in such work, living and dying in such a state, without repentance towards God and faith in Christ, shall never enjoy eternal life and happiness; though such who have done these things, being brought to a sense of them, and to the blood and righteousness of Christ for pardon and justification, for life and salvation; such, notwithstanding the works of the flesh done by them, shall, through the free grace of God, and the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, inherit the kingdom and glory of God.-(Gill).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
13 τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν· ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν 14 ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει 15 ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα 16 σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, 17 καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν 18 οὐκ ἔστι φόβος Θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν.

 

Romans 3:13-18

13 "Their throat-λάρυγξ (larugx)-the throat) is an open-ἀνεῳγμένος (aneogmenos)-to open) sepulchre-τάφος (taphos)-burying place, a grave); with their tongues-γλώσσαις (glossais)-a tongue, language) they have used deceit-ἐδολιοῦσαν (edoliousan)-to deceive, to use a bait, guile); the poison of asps-ἀσπίδων (aspidon)-an asp, kind of viper) is under their lips: 14 Whose mouth is full-γέμει (gemei)-to be full, filled, full) of cursing-ἀρᾶς (aras)-a curse, cursing, (i.e. an imprecation, curse, malediction) and *bitterness-πικρίας (pikrias)-sharpness, bitterness, (e.g. bitter gall): 15 Their feet are swift-ὀξεῖς (oxeis)-sharp, swift, acute) to shed-ἐκχέαι (ekcheai)-to pour out, shed forth) *blood-αἷμα (haima)-blood, (by implication: blood shed, to be shed by violence, slay, murder): 16 Destruction-σύντριμμα (sumtrimma)-a breaking together, (i.e. calamity, ruin, destruction) and misery-ταλαιπωρία (talaiporia)-grievous misery, (i.e. trouble, calamity, misery) are in their ways-ὁδοῖς (hodois)-properly: a way, road, journey, custom, (by implication: a course of conduct): 17 And the way-ὁδὸν (hodon)-properly: a way, road, journey, custom, (by implication: a way (i.e. manner) of thinking, feeling, deciding) of *peace-εἰρήνης (eirnens)-peace, unity, concord) *have they not known-ἔγνωσαν (egnosan)-to know, (i.e. understand, perceive): 18 There is-ἔστι (esti)-'to be') no-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) *fear-φόβος (phobos)-fear, terror (i.e. reverential fear) of God before-ἀπέναντι (apenanti)-from over-against, (from in front, i.e. opposite, before or against:—before, contrary, over against, in the presence of, in the sight of) their eyes."

  • *example of Greek word: πικρίας (pikrias)-bitterness click: Acts 8:23

  • *example of Greek word: αἷμα (haima)-blood click: Matthew 27:4

  • *example of Greek word: εἰρήνης (eirnens)-peace click: Luke 1:79

  • *example of Greek word: ἔγνωσαν (egnosan)-have known click: John 16:3

  • *example of Greek word: φόβος (phobos)-fear click: Acts 5:5

  • is an open-ἀνεῳγμένος: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Their throat ["HAVING-been-UP-OPEN"//"having-bee-opened"] sepulchre; with their tongues

  • they have used deceit-ἐδολιοῦσαν: Verb, Imperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-deFRAUD"]; the poison of asps is under their lips: Whose mouth

  • is full-γέμει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-beING-REPLETE"//"is-being-crammed"] of cursing and bitterness: Their feet are swift

  • to shed-ἐκχέαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-POUR-OUT"//"to-shed"] blood: Destruction and misery are in their ways: And the way of peace

  • have known-ἔγνωσαν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-KNOW"] they not:

  • There is-ἔστι: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"//"there-is"] no fear of God before their eyes.

***Their, &c.—From generals, the apostle here comes to particulars, culling from different parts of Scripture passages which speak of depravity as it affects the different members of the body; as if to show more affectingly how "from the sole of the foot even to the head there is no soundness" in us.-(Jamieson F.B.).

***Their throat ... - This expression is taken from Psalm 5:9, literally from the Septuagint. The design of the psalm is to reprove those who were false, traitorous, slanderous, etc. Psalm 5:6. The psalmist has the sin of deceit, and falsehood, and slander particularly in his eye. The expressions here are to be interpreted in accordance with that. The sentiment here may be, as the grave is ever open to receive all into it, that is, into destruction, so the mouth or the throat of the slanderer is ever open to swallow up the peace and happiness of all. Or it may mean, as from an open sepulchre there proceeds an offensive and pestilential vapor, so from the mouths of slanderous persons there proceed noisome and ruinous words.-(Barnes).

***The word "fear" here denotes "reverence, awe, veneration." There is no such regard or reverence for the character, authority, and honor of God as to restrain them from crime. Their conduct shows that they are not withheld from the commission of iniquity by any regard to the fear or favor of God. The only thing that will be effectual in restraining people from sin, will be a regard to the honor and Law of God.-(Barnes).

***There is no fear of God before their eyes. The place referred to is Psalm 36:1, by the "fear of God", is not meant a fear of God's wrath, of hell and damnation; nor a fearful distrust of his presence, power, providence, and grace; much less an hypocritical fear; but a reverential affection for God, and which is peculiar to the children of God, which springs from a sense of divine goodness, is attended with holiness of heart and life, is consistent with faith, even full assurance of it, and with spiritual joy in its highest degree; it stands opposed to pride and haughtiness, and is a blessing of the covenant of grace:..."-(Gill).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
21 ἔσωθεν γάρ, ἐκ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐκπορεύονται, μοιχεῖαι, πορνεῖαι, φόνοι, 22 κλοπαί πλεονεξίαι, πονηρίαι, δόλος, ἀσέλγεια, ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός, βλασφημία, ὑπερηφανία, ἀφροσύνη 23 πάντα ταῦτα τὰ πονηρὰ ἔσωθεν ἐκπορεύεται, καὶ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον

Mark 7:21-23     

21 "For-γὰρ (gar)-for) *from within-ἔσωθεν (esothen)-from within, inwardly, (by implication: inward man), out of-ἐκ (ek)-out of, from out of, out from) the-τῆς (tes)-the) *heart-καρδίας (kardias)-the heart, (figuratively: the thoughts or feelings, of the will and character) of-τῶν (ton)-of the) men-ἀνθρώπων (anthropon)-a human being, whether male or female), proceed-ἐκπορεύονται (ekporeuontai)-to go on out of, to go forth, go out) *evil-κακοὶ (kakoi)-evil, (i.e. bad, evil, harm, ill, noisome, wicked) *thoughts-διαλογισμοὶ (dialogismoi)-reasoning, a thought, inward reasoning), adulteries, fornications, murders, 22 Thefts-κλοπαί (klopai)-a theft), covetousness-πλεονεξίαι (pleonexiai)-the wish to have more, (i.e. greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice), wickedness-πονηρίαι  (oneriai)-malignity, evil), deceit-δόλος (dolos)-bait, guile, craft, subtilty), lasciviousness, an evil-πονηρός (ponepos)-the evil, (in an ethical sense: evil, wicked, bad) eye, blasphemy-βλασφημία (blasphemia)-injurious speaking, (i.e. evil speaking, railing), pride-ὑπερηφανία (huperephania)-arrogance, haughtiness), foolishness-ἀφροσύνη (aphrosune)-senselessness, foolishness, folly): 23 All-πάντα (panta)-all) these-ταῦτα (tauta)-these) evil things-πονηρὰ (ponera)-evil, (i.e. the vices just enumerated) come-ἐκπορεύεται (ekporeuetai)-to go forth, go out, depart, (figuratively, to come forth, to proceed) from within-ἔσωθεν (esothen)-from within, ((inside):—inward(-ly), (from) within)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) defile-κοινοῖ (koinoi)-to make common or unclean, pollute) the-τὸν (ton)-the) man-ἄνθρωπον (anthropon)-a man, a human being)."

  • *example of Greek word: ἔσωθεν (esothen)-within click: Matthew 7:15

  • *example of Greek word: καρδίας (kardias)-heart click: Matthew 12:34

  • *example of Greek word: κακοὶ (kakoi)-evil click: 1 Peter 3:10

  • *example of Greek word: διαλογισμοὶ (dialogismoi)-thoughts click: Luke 24:38

 

  • proceed-ἐκπορεύονται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative,  3rd Person, Plural: For from within, out of the heart of men, ["ARE-OUT-GOING"//"are-going-out"] evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: All these evil things 

  • come-ἐκπορεύεται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative 3rd Person, Singular: ["ARE-OUT-GOING"//"are-going-out"] from within, and

  • defile-κοινοῖ: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["is-contaminating"] the man.

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) from within-ἔσωθεν (esothen)-from within, inwardly, (by implication: inward man)

    The inside of man is very bad, his inward part is not only wicked, but wickedness itself, yea, very wickedness, Psalm 5:9, in him dwells no good thing naturally, his heart is wicked, and desperately so; it is full of evil; and out of the abundance of it, proceed the evil things hereafter mentioned; all its powers and faculties are vitiated, there is no place clean; the understanding and judgment are dreadfully corrupted; the mind and conscience are defiled; the affections are inordinate; not only the thought, but every imagination of the thought of the heart is evil, and that continually:..."-(Gill).

out of-ἐκ (ek)-out of, from out of, out from) the-τῆς (tes)-the) heart-καρδίας (kardias)-the heart, (figuratively: the thoughts or feelings, of the will and character) of-τῶν (ton)-of the) men-ἀνθρώπων (anthropon)-a human being, whether male or female):

    Our wicked thoughts and affections, words and actions, defile us. As a corrupt fountain sends forth corrupt [e.g. muddy] streams, so does a corrupt heart send forth corrupt reasonings, corrupt appetites and passions, and all the wicked words and actions that come from them.-(Matthew Henry).

    That which cometh out of the man - His words; the expression of his thoughts and feelings; his conduct, as the development of inward malice, anger, covetousness, lust, etc. Defileth the man - Makes him really polluted or offensive in the sight of God. This renders the soul corrupt and abominable in his sight. See Matthew 15:18-20.-(Barnes).

    come forth from the heart: are first conceived and formed there, and then come forth from thence, and are expressed by the mouth; as all idle words, foolish talking, filthy jesting, unsavoury communication, and every word that is rotten and corrupt, or which is done in the life and conversation; and they defile the man: the heart is the corrupt fountain from whence all moral defilement flows; and sinful words and actions are the impure streams, which spring from thence, and increase the moral pollution of human nature.-(Gill).

proceed-ἐκπορεύονται (ekporeuontai)-to go on out of, to go forth, go out) evil-κακοὶ (kakoi)-evil, (i.e. bad, evil, harm, ill, noisome, wicked) thoughts-διαλογισμοὶ (dialogismoi)-reasoning, a thought, inward reasoning)

    Christ proceeds to state what does defile the man, or render him a sinner: "Evil thoughts" These are the first things - these are the fountains of all others. Thought precedes action. Thought, or purpose, or motive, gives its character to conduct. All evil thoughts are here intended. Though we labor to suppress them, yet they defile us. They leave pollution behind them.-(Barnes).

    Evil thoughts are the preparation of all other sins, the chief object presented to our inward sight shapes our disposition and life. The wickedness in a man springs from within.

    A spiritual understanding of the law of God, and a sense of the evil of sin, will cause a man to seek for the grace of the Holy Spirit, to keep down the evil thoughts and affections that work within.-(Matthew Henry).

    For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts,.... Of God, of Christ, of the Spirit, of fellow creatures, and of all sorts of wickedness. The thoughts of sin are evil, are to be hated, forsaken, and for which men are accountable to God. All wicked imaginations, carnal reasonings, lustful desires, and malicious contrivances, are here included; which take their rise from, and are devised, and forged, in the corrupt heart of man.-(Gill).

All-πάντα (panta)-all) these-ταῦτα (tauta)-these) evil things-πονηρὰ (ponera)-evil, (i.e. the vices just enumerated) come-ἐκπορεύεται (ekporeuetai)-to go forth, go out, depart, (figuratively, to come forth, to proceed) from within-ἔσωθεν (esothen)-from within, ((inside):—inward(-ly), (from) within)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) defile-κοινοῖ (koinoi)-to make common or unclean, pollute) the-τὸν (ton)-the) man-ἄνθρωπον (anthropon)-a man, a human being): 

    These are the things which defile a man - These are the true sources of pollution in man. These are what corrupt and degrade. It is not the neglect of washing the body which defiles; it is the deep, inward corruption of the heart. And what a fountain of pollution is the human soul! What an array of crimes to proceed from the heart of man! What a proof of guilt! What strictness is there in the law of God! How universal is depravity!-(Barnes).

    These are the things which defile a man,.... These are filthy in themselves, and must pollute all in whom they are; they bring a defilement on the whole man, both body and soul, fasten guilt upon him, and expose him to everlasting punishment: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man: should a man neglect to wash his bands before eating a common meal, this need give him no uneasiness; he contracts no filth to his soul hereby, nor any guilt to his conscience; nor does he break any law of God; nor is he liable to any penalty for such an omission. This is a trifling matter, and merits no regard; but the things before mentioned are in their nature evil: they are contrary to the law of God; they are abominable in his sight; they render men loathsome and odious to the divine being; and expose them to shame and ruin; and it is only the blood of Christ can cleanse them from the pollution and guilt of them, and secure them from that punishment they deserve.-(Gill).

    

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
13 Εἰσέλθετε διὰ τῆς στενῆς πύλης· ὅτι πλατεῖα πύλη, καὶ εὐρύχωρος ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ ἀπάγουσα εἰς τὴν ἀπώλειαν, καὶ πολλοί εἰσιν οἱ εἰσερχόμενοι δι’ αὐτῆς 14 ὅτί στενὴ ἡ πύλη, καὶ τεθλιμμένη ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ ἀπάγουσα εἰς τὴν ζωήν, καὶ ὀλίγοι εἰσὶν οἱ εὑρίσκοντες αὐτήν

 

Matthew 7:13-14

13 "Enter ye in-Εἰσέλθετε (eiselthete)-to go or come in) at-διὰ (dia)-through) the *strait-στενῆς (stenes)-strait, narrow, restrained) gate, for wide is-πλατεῖα (plateia)-broad, ample) the gate-πύλη (pule)-a gate, (metaph. the access or entrance into any state), and broad is-εὐρύχωρος (euruchoros)-easy, wide, spacious) the way that leadeth-ἀπάγουσα (apagousa)-to lead away, (by implication: of those who are led off to trial, prison, or punishment) to-εἰς (eis)-into) *destruction-ἀπώλειαν (apoleian)-loss, (i.e. perdition, waste, ruin), and many-πολλοί (polloi)-many, much, (i.e. great) there be-εἰσιν (eisin)-are, be) which go in-εἰσερχόμενοι (eiserchomenoi)-to go into) thereat-δι αὐτῆς (di autes)-through it)14 Because strait is-στενὴ (stene)-narrow, strait) the gate, and narrow is-τεθλιμμένη (tethlimmene)-to press, squeze, afflict, (a compressed way, i.e. narrow, straitened, contracted) the way which leadeth-ἀπάγουσα (apagousa)-to lead away) unto-εἰς (eis)-into) *life-ζωήν (zoen)-life, motion, activity, (by implication: spiritual, and partakers of eternal and immortal life), and *few-ὀλίγοι (oligoi)-little, few) there be-εἰσιν (eisin)-are, be) that find-εὑρίσκοντες (heuriskontes)-to find, (properly: to come upon, hit upon, to meet with, (i.e. to find a thing sought) it."

  • *example of Greek word: στενῆς (stenes)-strait is click: Luke 13:24

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπώλειαν (apoleian)-destruction click: 1 Timothy 6:9

  • *example of Greek word: ζωήν (zoen)-life click: Matthew 19:16

  • *example of Greek word: ὀλίγοι (oligoi)-few click: Matthew 22:14

  • Enter ye in-Εἰσέλθετε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-entering!"] at the strait gate, for wide is the gate, and broad is the way

  • that leadeth-ἀπάγουσα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Feminine: ["leading-away"] to destruction, and many

  • there be-εἰσιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"] which

  • go in-εἰσερχόμενοι: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["ones-INTO-COMING"//ones-entering"]  thereat: Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way which

  • leadeth-ἀπάγουσα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Feminine: ["leading-away"] unto life, and few

  • there be-εἰσιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"] that

  • find-εὑρίσκοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["ones-FINDING"] it.

***Enter ye in at the strait gate — The gate of true conversion, of self-denial, mortification, and universal holiness; the gate in at which few, comparatively speaking, are inclined to enter. “How strait,” says Erasmus, in his paraphrase on the place, “is the gate, how narrow the way that leadeth to life! In the way, nothing is to be found that flatters the flesh, but many things opposite to it, poverty, fasting, watching, injuries, chastity, sobriety. And as for the gate, it receives none that are swollen with the glory of this life; none that are elated and lengthened out with pride; none that are distended with luxury; it does not admit those that are laden with the fardels of riches, nor those that drag along with them the other implements of the world. None can pass through it but naked men, who are stripped of all worldly lusts, and who, having, as it were, put off their bodies, are emaciated into spirits, which is the reason that it is sought after by so few.”-(Benson). 

***Few there be that find it.—The sad contrast between the many and the few runs through all our Lord’s teaching. He comes to “save the world,” and yet those whom He chooses out of the world are but as a “little flock.” They are to preach the gospel, and yet the result will be but discord and division.-(Ellicott).

***And few there be that find it; the way, and so consequently the life it leads to. "The gate is strait"; small and little, and so unobserved: there is but one way to heaven, and the generality of men neglect it. "The way is narrow", and so disagreeable; the company few, and not engaging. Men choose large gates, broad ways, and much company. The flesh loves to walk at liberty, unconfined, and uncontrolled, and with a multitude to do evil:..."-(Gill).

 

 

 

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
9 οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἄδικοι βασιλείαν Θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσι; μὴ πλανᾶσθε· οὔτε πόρνοι, οὔτε εἰδωλολάτραι, οὔτε μοιχοὶ, οὔτε μαλακοὶ, οὔτε ἀρσενοκοῖται, 10 οὔτε κλέπται, οὔτε πλεονέκται, οὔτε μέθυσοι, οὐ λοίδοροι, οὐχ ἅρπαγες, βασιλείαν Θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσι.

 

1 Corinthians 6:9-10  

9 "*Know ye-οἴδατε (oidate)-to see, have seen, known) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) that the unrighteous-ἄδικοι (adikoi)-unjust, unrighteousness, (i.e. sinful) shall not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) inherit-κληρονομήσουσι (kleronomesousi)-to obtain by lot, (be heir, (obtain by) inherit(-ance) the kingdom-βασιλείαν (basileian)-kingdom, (i.e. kingdom of heaven) of God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (i.e. God the Father:— the supreme Divinity)? *Be not-μὴ (me)-no, not least) deceived-πλανᾶσθε (planasthe)-to lead astray, wander, err, (metaph. to lead away from the truth, to lead into error, to deceive): neither *fornicators-πόρνοι (pornoi)-fornicator, whoremonger), nor *idolaters-εἰδωλολάτραι (eidololatrai)-worshipper of idols, (i.e. an image- (servant or) worshipper (literally or figuratively), also, a covetous man such as a worshipper of Mammon), nor *adulterers-μοιχοὶ (moichoi)-literally: adulterer, (figuratively: faithless toward God, ungodly)), nor effeminate-μαλακοὶ (malakoi)-soft, (i.e. effeminate luxurious livers, or else, a catamite), nor abusers of themselves with mankind-ἀρσενοκοῖται (arsenokoitai)-lying with a male, (i.e. sodomy)10 Nor thieves-κλέπται (kleptai)-a thief, robber), nor covetous-πλεονέκται (pleonektai)-one who wishes more, greedy of gain, covetous), nor drunkards-μέθυσοι (methusoi)-softened with drink, (i.e. drunken, intoxicated), nor revilers-λοίδοροι (loidoroi)-reviling, railing, (abusive, i.e. a blackguard:—railer, reviler), nor extortioners-ἅρπαγες (harpages)-one that snatches away), shall inherit-κληρονομήσουσι  (kleronomesousi)-to obtain by lot, (be heir, (obtain by) inherit(-ance) the kingdom of God."

  • *example of Greek word: οἴδατε (oidate)-Know ye click: Romans 6:16

  • *example of Greek word: ἄδικοι (adikoi)-the unrighteous click: Luke 18:11 (unjust)

  • *example of Greek word: πλανᾶσθε (planasthe)-Be deceived click: 1 Corinthians 15:33

  • *example of G4205: (πόρνοι-fornicators) click: 1 Corinthians 5:11 (πόρνος-a fornicator)

  • *example of G1496: (εἰδωλολάτραι-idolaters) click: Ephesians 5:5 (εἰδωλολάτρης-an idolater)

  • *example of G3432: (μοιχοὶ-adulterers) click: James 4:4 (μοιχοὶ-ye adulterers)

 

  • Know ye-οἴδατε: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural["ye-are-aware"//"YE-HAVE-PERCEIVED"] not that the unrighteous

  • shall inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person,  Plural: ["shall-be-enjoying-the-allotment-of"//"SHALL-BE-tenantING"] not the kingdom of God? 

  • Be deceived-πλανᾶσθε: Verb, Present, Passive, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-being-deceived!"] not: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners,

  • shall inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["shall-be-enjoying-the-allotment-of"//"SHALL-BE-tenantING"] the kingdom of God.

 

Know ye-οἴδατε (oidate)-to see, have seen, known) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not)

    The Apostle in this verse sums up what he has been saying in this chapter and the last. First generally, the unjust, wrong-doers, shall not inherit the kingdom of God, that is, His final kingdom in the ‘restitution of all things,’ for which we daily pray. He then proceeds to particulars, and declares that all who lived for themselves, whether set upon sensual indulgence or upon gain, would deprive themselves of the inheritance obtained through faith in Christ.-(Cambridge BSC).

    Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God?.... A way of speaking much like that in the Talmud, "know thou, that the world to come is not made but for the righteous?" (h) Without a righteousness there will be no entrance into the world of bliss and happiness hereafter; and this must be a better righteousness than what a sinful creature is capable of working out, and no other than the righteousness of Christ. It was a loss and want of righteousness that cast the angels down from heaven, and turned Adam out of paradise; and whoever of his posterity: are destitute of one, will fall short of enjoying the glory of God; for it is not agreeable to the holy nature of God, to his infinite justice and righteous law, to admit any into heaven without a righteousness: hence a judgment seat is erected, before which all must stand; and those that will be found without a righteousness, will be for ever excluded the kingdom of heaven; and could any unrighteous persons be received there, it would spoil the pleasure and happiness of the saints.-(Gill).

the unrighteous-ἄδικοι (adikoi)-unjust, unrighteousness, (i.e. sinful)) shall not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) inherit-κληρονομήσουσι (kleronomesousi)-to obtain by lot, (be heir, (obtain by) inherit(-ance)) the kingdom-βασιλείαν (basileian)-kingdom, (i.e. kingdom of heaven)) of God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (i.e. God the Father:—the supreme Divinity))?

    that the unrighteous — That is, not only the unjust, but those destitute of true righteousness and holiness, comprehending the various classes of sinners afterward mentioned, the term unrighteous here including them all: shall not inherit the kingdom of God — Namely, the kingdom of eternal glory. And can you contentedly sacrifice this great and glorious hope which the gospel gives you, for the sake of those pleasures of sin which are but for a short season?-(Benson).

    Shall not inherit - Shall not possess; shall not enter into. The kingdom of heaven is often represented as an "inheritance;"-(Barnes).

    Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God?] The Apostle in this verse sums up what he has been saying in this chapter and the last. First generally, the unjust, wrong-doers, shall not inherit the kingdom of God, that is, His final kingdom in the ‘restitution of all things,’ for which we daily pray. He then proceeds to particulars, and declares that all who lived for themselves, whether set upon sensual indulgence or upon gain, would deprive themselves of the inheritance obtained through faith in Christ.-(Cambridge BSC).

    The unrighteous; better, that wrong doers, the verb being the same as "ye do wrong" in ver. 8. Perhaps the Corinthians thought that they would be saved by the mere fact of having been admitted into God's kingdom (the Christian Church in all its highest privileges) by baptism. St. Paul here lays down, as distinctly as St. James does, that faith without works is dead, and privileges without holiness are abrogated. The spirit of his warning is the same as that of Jeremiah 7:4, "Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The temple of the Lord... are these;" or that of St. John the Baptist, "Say not unto yourselves, We be Abraham's sons." Christians have often been liable to the temptation of underrating the peril which results from the falling asunder of action from knowledge. There can be no greater danger than that of talking slightingly of "mere morality." Religion is not an outward service, but a spiritual life manifested by a holy living.-(Pulpit).

    

Be not-μὴ (me)-no, not least) deceived-πλανᾶσθε (planasthe)-to lead astray, wander, err, (metaph. to lead away from the truth, to lead into error, to deceive):  

     Be not deceived  By a vain imagination that the Christian name and privileges will save you, while you continue in the practice of your vices.-(Benson).

    Be not deceived. Men are very much inclined to flatter themselves that they may live in sin, yet die in Christ, and go to heaven. But we cannot hope to sow to the flesh, and reap everlasting life. They are reminded what a change the gospel and grace of God had made in them. The blood of Christ, and the washing of regeneration, can take away all guilt. Our justification is owing to the suffering and merit of Christ; our sanctification to the working of the Holy Spirit; but both go together. All who are made righteous in the sight of God, are made holy by the grace of God.-(Matthew Henry).

    Be not deceived. So our Lord says," Let no man deceive you" (Mark 13:5; comp1 John 3:7). St. Paul uses the warning very solemnly again in 1 Corinthians 15:33 and Galatians 6:7, and St. James in James 1:16. The self deception of merely verbal orthodoxy is the most dangerous of all.-(Pulpit).

    Be not deceived, ( saith the apostle), either by any false teachers, or by the many ill examples of such sinners that you daily have, nor by magistrates’ connivance at these sins.-(Matthew Poole).

    Be not deceived.—There was great danger of their being led to think lightly of sins which were daily committed by those amongst whom they lived, hence these words of warning with which the sentence opens, as in 1Corinthians 15:33.-(Ellicott).

    

fornicators-πόρνοι (pornoi)-fornicator, whoremonger): 

    such as are guilty of uncleanness with persons in a single state.-(Gill).

Fornication includes any and all sexual cohabitation outside the bonds of lawful marriage.

idolaters-εἰδωλολάτραι (eidololatrai)-worshipper of idols, (i.e. an image- (servant or) worshipper (literally or figuratively), also, a covetous man such as a worshipper of Mammon): 

    He who worships more gods than one, and not the true God; who do service to them that are not gods, and perform what the Jews call "strange service": and not only fall down to stocks and stones, but serve divers lusts and pleasures, the idols of their own hearts.-(Gill).

adulterers-μοιχός (moichos)-literally: adulterer, (figuratively:  faithless toward God, ungodly): 

    such as, being married persons, break their marriage covenant, and commit uncleanness with such as are not their yokefellows [spouse].-(Matthew Poole).

    Such that have criminal conversation with persons in a married state.-(Gill).

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894

14 ἕκαστος δὲ πειράζεται, ὑπὸ τῆς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας ἐξελκόμενος καὶ δελεαζόμενος. 15 εἶτα ἡ ἐπιθυμία συλλαβοῦσα τίκτει ἁμαρτίαν· ἡ δὲ ἁμαρτία ἀποτελεσθεῖσα ἀποκύει θάνατον.

 

James 1:14-15

14"But every man-ἕκαστος (hekastos)-each) is *tempted-πειράζεται (peirazetai)-to try, prove), when he is drawn away-ἐξελκόμενος (exelkoumenos)- to be drawn out or forth, (i.e. (figuratively: to entice (to sin):—draw away) of his own-ἰδίας (idias)-pertaining to one's self, one's own, belonging to one's self) *lust-ἐπιθυμίας (epithumias)-desire, over desire, lust after), and enticed-δελεαζόμενος (deleazomenos)-to bait or entice, catch by a bait, (i.e. to beguile by blandishments, allure, entice, deceive). 15 Then when lust hath *conceived-συλλαβοῦσα (sullabousa)-to conceive (literally or figuratively), (metaph. of lust whose impulses a man indulges), it bringeth forth-τίκτει (tiktei)-to bear forth young, (literally or figuratively:—bear, be born, bring forth, be delivered) *sin-ἁμαρτίαν (hamartian)- sin, error, offence, (e.g. a bad action, evil deed): and sin, when it is finished-ἀποτελεσθεῖσα (apotelestheisa)-to end fully, accomplish), bringeth forth-ἀποκύει (apokuei)-to bring forth) *death-θάνατον (thanaton)-death (literally or figuratively).

  • *example of G3985: (πειράζεται-temptedclick: Matthew 4:1 (πειρασθῆναι-to be tempted)

  • *example of G1939: (ἐπιθυμίας-lust) click: Romans 13:14 (ἐπιθυμίας-to fulfil the lusts)

  • *example of G4815: (συλλαβοῦσα-conceived) click: Luke 1:24 (συνέλαβεν-conceived)

  • *example of Greek word: ἁμαρτίαν (hamartian)-sin click: Romans 6:12

  • *example of Greek word: θάνατον (thanaton)-death click: John 8:51

  • it bringeth forth-τίκτει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, ["IS-BRINGING-FORTH"] sin: and sin,

  • when it is finished-ἀποτελεσθεῖσα: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Feminine: ["being-fully-consummated"],

  • bringeth forth-ἀποκύει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person Singular: ["is-teeming-forth"//"is-bringing-forth"] death.

***"The result of sin when it is fully carried out, is death - death in all forms. The idea is, that death, in whatever form it exists, is to be traced to sin, and that sin will naturally and regularly produce it. There is a strong similarity between this declaration and that of the apostle Paul Romans 6:21-23; and it is probable that James had that passage in his mind"..."Any one who indulges in a sinful thought or corrupt desire, should reflect that it may end in death - death temporal and eternal. Its natural tendency will be to produce such a death. This reflection should induce us to check an evil thought or desire at the beginning. Not for one moment should we indulge in it, for soon it may secure the mastery and be beyond our control; and the end may be seen in the grave, and the awful world of woe.- (Barnes).

***Bringeth forth death; not only temporal, but eternal. Or we may thus take the order and progress of sin: the first indeliberate motion of lust, is the temptation or bait, which by its pleasantness enticeth, and by its vehemency draws the heart after it (as the harlot, Proverbs 7:21, with the flattering of her lips forced the young man, telling him of the pleasure he should enjoy, James 1:14,16-18, and then he goes after her, Jam 1:22); the heart’s lingering about and being entangled with the delightful motion of lust, is its committing folly with it; when the full consent is joined, lust hath conceived; when the outward act is performed, sin is brought forth; and when sin is finished in a settled course, it brings forth death; which, though every sin do in the merit of it, yet sin only finished doth in the event.-(Matthew P.).

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598

26 Διὰ τοῦτο παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς Θεὸς εἰς πάθη ἀτιμίας. αἵ τε γὰρ θήλειαι αὐτῶν μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν 27 Ὁμοίως τε καὶ οἱ ἄρσενες ἀφέντες τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν τῆς θηλείας, ἐξεκαύθησαν ἐν τῇ ὀρέξει αὐτῶν εἰς ἀλλήλους, ἄρσενες ἐν ἄρσεσι τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι καὶ τὴν ἀντιμισθίαν, ἣν ἔδει τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀπολαμβάνοντες.

Romans 1:26-27  ( Read verses 20-25 first.)

26 "For-Διὰ (Dia)-because of, (i.e. for this reason; on this account; since this is so) this cause-τοῦτο (touto)-this) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (i.e. God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) *gave them-αὐτοὺς (autous)-them, the same) up-παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-to give over, hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) unto-εἰς (eis)-into) vile-ἀτιμίας (atimias)-dishonour, ignominy, disgrace, shame) affections-πάθη (pathe)-feeling, passion): for-γὰρ (gar)-for, verily) even-τε (te)-and, also, (i.e. not only... but also) their women-θήλειαι (theleiai)-a woman, a female) did change-μετήλλαξαν (metellazan)-to alter afterward, (i.e. to exchange, change) the-τὴν (ten)-the) natural-φυσικὴν (phusiken)-natural, (i.e. produced by nature, inborn) use-χρῆσιν (chresin)-use, (of the sexual use of a woman) into-εἰς (eis)-into) that which is against-παρὰ (para)-besides, (i.e. contrary to) nature-φύσιν (phusin)-nature, (by implication: natural production): 27 And-τε (te)-and, also, (i.e. not only... but also) likewise-ὁμοίως (homoios)-likewise, equally, in the same way) also-καὶ (kai)-also) the-οἱ (hoi)-the) men-ἄρσενες (arsenes)-a male:—male, man), leaving-ἀφέντες (aphentes)-to send away, let go, (i.e. forsake)) the-τὴν (ten)-the) natural-φυσικὴν (phusiken)-natural, belonging to nature, (i.e. instinctive, natural)) use-χρῆσιν (chresin)-use, manner of using, (i.e. more specifically of sexual intercourse function, sexual use)) of the-τῆς (tes)-of the) woman-θηλείας (theleias)-a female), burned-ἐξεκαύθησαν (exekauthesan)-to burn forth, flame up) in-ἐν (en)-in) their-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them) lust-ὀρέξει (orexei)-eager desire, (i.e. longing, craving) one toward-εἰς (eis)-into) another-ἀλλήλους (allelous)-one another, reciprocally, mutually)men-ἄρσενες (arsenes)-a male) with-ἐν (en)-in) men-ἄρσεσι (arsesi)-a male) working-κατεργαζόμενοι (katergazomenoi)-to work down, thoroughly, (i.e. to perpetrate) that *which is unseemly-ἀσχημοσύνην (aschemosunen)-unseemliness, (i.e. shame), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) receiving-ἀπολαμβάνοντες (apolambanontes)-to receive or take away, off, or back, (i.e. to receive by way of retribution) in-ἐν (en)-in) themselves-ἑαυτοῖς (eautois)-selves, themselves) that-τὴν (ten)-the)  recompence-ἀντιμισθίαν (antimisthian)-a corresponding reward, (i.e. requital) of their-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them) *error-πλάνης (planes)-wandering, a straying about) which-ἣν (hen)-which) was meet-ἔδει (edei)-it behoveth, (i.e. it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper)."

  • *example of Greek word: παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-gave up click: Matthew 18:34 (and delivered)

  • *example of Greek word: ἀσχημοσύνην-which is unseemly click: Revelation 16:15 (shame)

  • *example of Greek word: πλάνης (planes)-error click: Thessalonians 2:11 (delusion)

  • gave up-παρέδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For this cause God ["BESIDES-GIVES"//"gives-over"] them unto vile  affections: for even their women 

  • did change-μετήλλαξαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["alter-CHANGE"] the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the

  • men-ἄρσενες: Noun, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["MALES"],

  • leaving-ἀφέντες: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["FROM-LETTING"//"leaving"] the natural use of the woman,

  • burned-ἐξεκαύθησαν: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["WERE-OUT-BURNED"//"were-inflamed"] in their lust one toward another,

  • working-κατεργαζόμενοι: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["DOWNACTING"//"effecting"]  that which is unseemly, and

  • receiving-ἀπολαμβάνοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["WAS-BINDING"in themselves that recompence of their error which

  • was meet-ἔδει: Verb, Imperfect, Impersonal, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["FROM-GETTING"//"getting-back"].

For-Διὰ (Dia)-because of, (i.e. for this reason; on this account; since this is so) this cause-τοῦτο (touto)-this) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (i.e. God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) gave them-αὐτοὺς (autous)-them, the same) up-παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-to give over, hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) unto-εἰς (eis)-into) vile-ἀτιμίας (atimias)-dishonour, ignominy, disgrace, shame) affections-πάθη (pathe)-feeling, passion):

    For this cause - On account of what had just been specified; to wit, that they did not glorify him as God, that they were unthankful, that they became polytheists [the belief in or worship of more than one god] and idolaters. In the previous verses he had stated their speculative belief. He now proceeds to show its practical influences on their conduct.-(Barnes).

    Vile affections - Disgraceful passions or desires. That is, to those which are immediately specified. The great object of the apostle here, it will be remembered, is to shew the state of the pagan world, and to prove that they had need of some other way of justification than the law of nature. For this purpose, it was necessary for him to enter into a detail of their sins. The sins which he proceeds to specify are the most indelicate, vile, and degrading which can be charged on man.-(Barnes).

    Vile affections; Greek: affections of dishonour, i.e. the most dishonourable and shameful affections; for as we are exhorted, 1 Thessalonians 4:4,5, to possess our vessels in honour, that is, to withhold our body from uncleanness; so they that give up themselves to uncleanness, dishonour themselves and their own bodies; see 1 Corinthians 6:18: if they, as this scripture tells us, that commit fornication dishonour their own bodies; then much more do they that practise the unnatural uncleanness hereafter mentioned.-(Matthew P.).

    Because of their idolatrous practices, God left them to very dishonourable actions, sodomitical ones, both among the men and women:-(Gill).

women-θήλειαι (theleiai)-a woman, a female) did change-μετήλλαξαν (metellazan)-to alter afterward, (i.e. to exchange, change) the natural-φυσικὴν (phusiken)-natural, (i.e. produced by nature, inborn) use-χρῆσιν (chresin)-use, (of the sexual use of a woman) into-εἰς (eis)-into) that which is against-παρὰ (para)-besides, (i.e. contrary to) nature-φύσιν (phusin)-nature, (by implication: natural production)

    for even the women did change the natural use into that which is against nature; either by prostituting themselves to, and complying with the "sodomitical" embraces of men; in a way that is against nature; or by making use of such ways and methods with themselves, or other women, to gratify their lusts, which were never designed by nature for such an use...."-(Gill).

    For even their women — From whom the strictest modesty might reasonably be expected; did change the natural use of their bodies into that which is against nature — Prostituting and abusing them in the most abominable manner.-(Benson).

    for even their women—that sex whose priceless jewel and fairest ornament is modesty, and which, when that is once lost, not only becomes more shameless than the other sex, but lives henceforth only to drag the other sex down to its level.-(Jamieson Fausset Brown).

 

And-τε (te)-and, also, (i.e. not only... but also) likewise-ὁμοίως (homoios)-likewise, equally, in the same way) also-καὶ (kai)-also) the-οἱ (hoi)-the) men-ἄρσενες (arsenes)-a male:—male, man), leaving-ἀφέντες (aphentes)-to send away, let go, (i.e. forsake) the-τὴν (ten)-the) natural-φυσικὴν (phusiken)-natural, belonging to nature, (i.e. instinctive, natural) use-χρῆσιν (chresin)-use, manner of using, (i.e. more specifically of sexual intercourse function, sexual use) of the-τῆς (tes)-of the) woman-θηλείας (theleias)-a female), burned-ἐξεκαύθησαν (exekauthesan)-to burn forth, flame up) in-ἐν (en)-in) their-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them) lust-ὀρέξει (orexei)-eager desire, (i.e. longing, craving) one toward-εἰς (eis)-into) another-ἀλλήλους (allelous)-one another, reciprocally, mutually)men-ἄρσενες (arsenes)-a male) with-ἐν (en)-in) men-ἄρσεσι (arsesi)-a male):

    And likewise also the men leaving the natural use of the women,.... The very sin of "sodomy" is here designed, so called from Sodom, the place where we first hear of it, Genesis 19:5, the men of which place, because they burned in their lust one towards another, as these Gentiles are said to do, God rained upon them fire and brimstone from heaven: an exceeding great sin this is, contrary to nature, dishonourable to human nature, and scandalous to a people and nation among whom it prevails, as it did very much in the Gentile world,...Thus God, because men dishonour him with their evil principles and practices, leaves them to reproach their own nature, and dishonour their own bodies:"-(Gill).

    And likewise the men ... - The sin which is here specified is what was the shameful sin of Sodom, and which from that has been called sodomy. It would scarcely be credible that man had been guilty of a crime so base and so degrading, unless there was ample and full testimony to it. Perhaps there is no sin which so deeply shows the depravity of man as this; none which would so much induce one "to hang his head, and blush to think himself a man."-(Barnes).

    

and-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) receiving-ἀπολαμβάνοντες (apolambanontes)-to receive or take away, off, or back, (i.e. to receive by way of retribution) in-ἐν (en)-in) themselves-ἑαυτοῖς (eautois)-selves, themselves) that-τὴν (ten)-the)  recompence-ἀντιμισθίαν (antimisthian)-a corresponding reward, (i.e. requital) of their-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them) error-πλάνης (planes)-wandering, a straying about) which-ἣν (hen)-which) was meet-ἔδει (edei)-it behoveth, (i.e. it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper):  

    By the "recompense" (ἀντιμισθίαν) is meant here, not any further result, such as disease or physical prostration, but the very fact of their being given up to a state in which they can crave and delight in such odious gratifications of unnatural lust. It is the ἀντιμισθία τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν [that recompence of their error], the final judgment on them for going astray from God. And surely to the pure-minded there is no more evident token of Divine judgment than the spectacle of the unnatural cravings and indulgence of the sated sensualist.-(Pulpit).

    That recompence of their error which was meet.—The “error” is the turning from God to idols. The “recompence of the error” is seen in these unnatural excesses to which the heathen have been delivered up.-(Ellicott).

    And receiving in themselves ... - The meaning of this doubtless is, that the effect of such base and unnatural passions was, to enfeeble the body, to produce premature old age, disease, decay, and an early death. That this is the effect of the indulgence of licentious passions, is amply proved by the history of man. The despots who practice polygamy, and keep harems in the East, are commonly superannuated at forty years of age; and it is well known, even in Christian countries, that the effect of licentious indulgence is to break down and destroy the constitution. How much more might this be expected to follow the practice of the vice specified in the verse under examination! God has marked the indulgence of licentious passions with his frown.-(Barnes).

    and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meetalluding to the many physical and moral ways in which, under the righteous government of God, vice was made self-avenging.-(Jamieson F.B.).

    receiving in themselves the recompence of their error, which was meet: God punishes sin with sin; for as the Jews say (n), as "one commandment draws on another, so one transgression draws on another; for the reward of the commandment is the commandment, and the reward of transgression is transgression.''-(Gill).

    

    

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
7 ὡς Σόδομα καὶ Γόμορρα καὶ αἱ περὶ αὐτὰς πόλεις τὸν ὅμοιον τούτοις τρόπον ἐκπορνεύσασαι καὶ ἀπελθοῦσαι ὀπίσω σαρκὸς ἑτέρας πρόκεινται δεῖγμα πυρὸς αἰωνίου δίκην ὑπέχουσαι

 

Jude 1:7

7"Even as Sodom-Σόδομα (Sodoma)-(A city on the shore of the Salt Sea south of Engedi; a city destroyed by the Lord raining fire and brimstone on it in the days of Abraham and Lot) and Gomorrha-Γόμορρα (Gomorra)-"fissure, submersion", One of the five "cities of the plain" or "vale of siddim." All these cities save Zoar were afterwards destroyed with fire from heaven; now covered by the Dead Sea), and the cities about-περὶ (pepi)-around) them in like-ὅμοιον (homoion)-like, similar, resembling) manner-τρόπον (tropon)-in like manner, way, fashion), giving themselves over to fornication-ἐκπορνεύσασαι (ekporneusasai)-to go a whoring, (i.e. "give one's self over to fornication"), and going after strange-ἑτέρας (heteras)-other, (not the same), (another i.e. one not of the same nature, form, class, kind; different) flesh, are set forth for-πρόκεινται (prokeintai)-to lie before the view, (i.e. to be placed before the eyes, to lie in sight; to stand forth) an example-δεῖγμα (deigma)-sample, exhibition), suffering-ὑπέχουσαι (hupechousai)-to hold up under, (i.e. to sustain, undergo) *the vengeance-δίκην (diken)-justice, vengeance, (i.e. execution of the sentence, punishment) of eternal-αἰωνίου (aionion)-age lasting, forever, ever lasting) fire."

  • *example of Greek word: δίκην (diken)-the vengeance click: Thessalonians 1:9 (punished)

  • giving themselves over to fornication-ἐκπορνεύσασαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Feminine: Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, ["OUT-PROSTITUTing"], and going after strange flesh,

  • are set forth for-πρόκεινται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-ARE-BEFORE-LYING"//"are-lying-before-us"] an example,

  • suffering-ὑπέχουσαι: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural Feminine: ["experiencing"] the vengeance of eternal fire.

***Going after strange flesh - Margin: "other." The reference seems to be to the unusual sin which, from the name Sodom, has been called "sodomy." Compare Romans 1:27. The meaning of the phrase "going after" is, that they were greatly addicted to this vice. The word "strange, or other," refers to that which is contrary to nature. Doddridge, however, explains it, "going after strange and detestable gratifications of their pampered and indulged flesh."-(Barnes).

***and going after strange flesh; or "other flesh"; meaning not other women besides their own wives, but men; and designs that detestable and unnatural sin, which, from these people, is called sodomy to this day; and which is an exceeding great sin, contrary to the light of nature and law of God, dishonourable to human nature, and scandalous to a nation and people, and commonly prevails where idolatry and infidelity do,..."-(Gill).

***Are set forth for an example - They furnish a warning against all such conduct, and a demonstration that punishment shall come upon the ungodly. The condemnation of any sinner, or of any class of sinners, always furnishes such a warning. See the notes, 2 Peter 2:6.-(Barnes).

***are set forth for an example; being destroyed by fire from heaven, and their cities turned into a sulphurous lake, which continues to this day, as a monument of God's vengeance, and an example to all such who commit the same sins, and who may expect the same equitable punishment; and to all who live ungodly lives, though they may not be guilty of the same crimes; and to all that slight and reject the Gospel revelation, with whom it will be more intolerable than for Sodom and Gomorrah; and to antichrist, who bears the same name, and spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt; and particularly to all false teachers, who besides their strange doctrines, go after strange flesh:-(Gill).

***suffering the vengeance of eternal fire; which may be understood of that fire, with which those cities, and the inhabitants of it, were consumed; which, Philo the (k) Jew says, burnt till his time, and must be burning when Jude wrote this epistle. The effects of which still continues, the land being now brimstone, salt, and burning; and is an emblem and representation of hell fire, between which there is a great likeness; as in the matter of them, both being fire; in the efficient cause of them, both from the Lord; and in the instruments thereof, the angels, who, as then, will hereafter be employed in the delivery of the righteous, and in the burning of the wicked; and in the circumstance attending both, suddenly, at an unawares, when not thought of, and expected; and in the nature of them, being a destruction total, irreparable, and everlasting: and this agrees with the sentiments of the Jews, who say (l), that "the men of Sodom have no part or portion in the world to come, and shall not see the world to come.-(Gill).

 

Deuteronomy 22:5

"The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment: for all that do so, are abomination unto the LORD thy God."

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
4 Ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ὅτι ὁ ποιήσας ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς, ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτοὺς;

 

Matthew 19:4 

4“And he answered-ἀποκριθεὶς (apokritheis)-to answer, (i.e. to give an answer to a question proposed) and said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say) unto them, Have ye not-Οὐκ (Ouk)-no, not) read-ἀνέγνωτε (anegnote)-to begin to know again, read, (i.e. to distinguish between, to recognise, to know accurately, to acknowledge), that he-(God) which *made ποιήσας (poiesas)-to do, make, (i.e. create) them at *the beginning-ἀρχῆς (arches)-beginning, (i.e. origin), made-ἐποίησεν (epoiesen)-to do, make, (i.e. create) them male-ἄρσεν (arsen)-a male, a man (by implication: Adam) and female-θῆλυ (thelu)-a woman, a female, (by implication: Eve)

  • *example of Greek word: ποιήσας (poinesas)-made click: Acts 17:24

  • *example of Greek word: ἀρχῆς (arches)-the beginning click: Mark 10:6

  • he answered-ἀποκριθεὶς: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Deponent, Participle Nominative, Singular, Masculine: And ["answerING"]

  • and said-εἶπεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-said"] unto them,

  • Have ye read-ἀνέγνωτε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["ye-did-read"//YE-read-(past)"] not, that he which

  • made-ποιήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["One-making"] them at the beginning,

  • made-ἐποίησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular:  ["maKES"] them male and female?

***He who made them at the beginning — When the human race began to exist; made them male and female.-(Benson).

***Besides, it was surely unnecessary to recur to the history of the creation to convince those Pharisees of what all the world knew, that the human race was composed of men and women, and consequently of two sexes. The weight of the argument, therefore,” he says, “must lie in this circumstance, that God created at first no more than a single pair, one of each sex, whom he united in the bond of marriage, and, in so doing, exhibited a standard of that union to all generations.-(Benson).

***God made the first members of the human family a male and a female, not a male and females. The lower animals were created separately, male and female; "mankind was created in one person in Adam, and when there was found no help meet for Adam, no companion in body, soul, or spirit, fit for him, then God, instead of creating a wholly new thing, made Eve out of Adam" (Sadler). Two individuals of opposite sexes were thus formed for each other; one was the complement of the other, and the union was perfect and lasted, as long as life. There was in this original institution no room for polygamy, no room for divorce. It was a concrete example of the way in which God unites man and wife.-(Pulpit).

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
1 Τοῦτο δὲ γίνωσκε, ὅτι ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις ἐνστήσονται καιροὶ χαλεποί. 2 ἔσονται γὰρ οἱ ἄνθρωποι φίλαυτοι, φιλάργυροι, ἀλαζόνες, ὑπερήφανοι, βλάσφημοι, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, ἀχάριστοι, ἀνόσιοι, 3 ἄστοργοι, ἄσπονδοι, διάβολοι, ἀκρατεῖς, ἀνήμεροι, ἀφιλάγαθοι, 4 προδόται, προπετεῖς, τετυφωμένοι, φιλήδονοι μᾶλλον ἢ φιλόθεοι, 5 ἔχοντες μόρφωσιν εὐσεβείας, τὴν δὲ δύναμιν αὐτῆς ἠρνημένοι· καὶ τούτους ἀποτρέπου.

2 Timothy 3:1-5

1 "This-Τοῦτο (Touto)-this) know-γίνωσκε (ginoske)-to know) also-δὲ (de)-moreover, yet, also), that in-ἐν (en)-in) *the last-ἐσχάταις (eschatais)-last, (i.e. ends, latter end) days-ἡμέραις (emerais)-days) *perilous-χαλεποί (chalepoi)-hard, difficult, perilous, fierce) times-καιροὶ (kairoi)-a fixed time or season, (i.e. a measure of time) shall come-ἐνστήσονται (enstesontai)-to stand in sight, stand near) to be upon, impend, be imminent). 2 For-γὰρ (gar)-for) men-ἄνθρωποι (anthropoi)-a human being (whether male or female) shall be-ἔσονται (esontai)-future third person plural of 'to be') lovers of their own selves-φίλαυτοι (philautoi)-loving oneself; too intent on one's own interests, selfish, fond of self), *covetous-φιλάργυροι (philarguroi)-a lover of silver (money), i.e. avaricious:—covetous), boasters-ἀλαζόνες (alzones)-taking on great airs, (i.e. an empty pretender, a boaster), proud-ὑπερήφανοι (uperephanoi)-exceeding proud, (i.e. showing oneself above others, overtopping), blasphemers-βλάσφημοι (blasphemoi)-one speaking injuriously), *disobedient-ἀπειθεῖς (apeitheis)-disobidient, not persuaded, (e.g. impersuasible, not compliant) to parents, unthankful-ἀχάριστοι (acharistoi)-ungreatful, unthankful, ungracious), unholy-ἀνόσιοι (anosioi)-unholy, unkind, impious)3 Without natural affection, trucebreakers-ἄσπονδοι (aspondoi)-implacable, irreconcileable), false accusers-διάβολοι (diaboloi)-prone to slander, slanderous, accusing falsely), incontinent-ἀκρατεῖς (akrateis)-incontinent, without strength, (e.g. without self-control, intemperate), fierce-ἀνήμεροι (anemeroi)-not mild, savage), despisers of those that are good-ἀφιλάγαθοι (aphilagathoi)-not friendly to the good), 4 *Traitors-προδόται (prodotai)-one who gives over, forth, or up, (i.e. a betrayer), heady-προπετεῖς (propeteis)-falling forward, (i.e. headlong (figuratively: precipitate):—heady, rash(-ly), highminded-τετυφωμένοι (tetuphomenoi)-to raise a smoke, to wrap in a mist, (i.e. to make proud, puff up with pride), lovers of pleasures-φιλήδονοι (philedonoi)-lover of pleasure, (i.e. voluptuous:—lover of pleasure) more than lovers of God; 5 Having -ἔχοντες (echontes) -to have, (i.e. to hold) a form-μόρφωσιν (morphosin)-form, appearance, (i.e. a forming, shaping) *of godliness-εὐσεβείας (eusebeias)-piety, reverence, holiness), but-δὲ (de)-but, yet) denying-ἠρνημένοι (ernemenoi)-to deny, disown, (i.e. abnegate) the power-δύναμιν (dunamin)-ability, power, strength) thereof-αὐτῆς (autes)-of same, it(-self), the (same): from-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) such-τούτους (toutous)-these) turn away-ἀποτρέπου (apotrepou)-to turn away (to turn oneself away from, to shun, avoid)."

  • *example of Greek word: ἐσχάταις (eschatais)-the last click: James 5:3

  • *example of Greek word: χαλεποί (chalepoi)-perilous click: Matthew 8:28 (fierce)

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπειθεῖς (apeitheis)-covetous click: Luke 16:14

  • *example of Greek word: φιλάργυροι (philarguroi)-disobedient click: Titus 1:16

  • *example of Greek word: προδόται (prodotai)-Traitors click: Acts 7:52 (the betrayers)

  • *example of Greek word: εὐσεβείας (eusebeias)-of godliness click: 1 Timothy 3:16

  • know-γίνωσκε: Verb, Present, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: This ["be-you-knowing!"//"BE-KNOWING"] also, that in the last days perilous times

  • shall come-ἐνστήσονται: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-IN-STANDING"//"shall-be-being-present"]. For men

  • shall be-ἔσονται: Verb, Future, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person Plural: ["SHALL-BE"] lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, Traitors,

  • *highminded-τετυφωμένοι: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["HAVING-been-SMOULDERED"//conceited"], lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;

  • Having-ἔχοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["HAVING"] a form

  • of godliness-εὐσεβείας: Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine: ["OF-devoutness"], but

  • denying-ἠρνημένοι: Verb, Perfect, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["HAVING-disownED"//"denying"] the power thereof: from such

  • turn away-ἀποτρέπου: Verb, Present, Middle, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["BE-FROM-REVERTING"//"be-you-shunning!"].

 

This-Τοῦτο (Touto)-this) know-γίνωσκε (ginoske)-to know) also-δὲ (de)-moreover, yet, also):

     The apostle, at the close of the preceding chapter, having intimated to Timothy that false teachers did and would arise in the church, he, in the beginning of this chapter, foretels that in future times, through the pernicious influence of corrupt doctrines propagated by these teachers, many professing Christians, and, among the rest, the false teachers themselves, would become so wicked, that it would become dangerous to the truly pious to live among them.-(Benson).

    "But know this"that in succeeding ages there would be worse men.

in-ἐν (en)-in) the last-ἐσχάταις (eschatais)-last, (i.e. ends, latter end) days-ἡμέραις (emerais)-days) perilous-χαλεποί (chalepoi)-hard, difficult, perilous, fierce) times-καιροὶ (kairoi)-a fixed time or season, (i.e. a measure of time) shall come-ἐνστήσονται (enstesontai)-to stand in sight, stand near) to be upon, impend, be imminent):

   in the last days] ‘Not only the very last days, towards the end of the world, but in general [from the time of the Apostles, to the end of the world] (according to the Hebrew phrase) the days to come, or the future time, whether nearer or afar off. He [the Apostle Paul] supposeth this would begin to happen in the age [days] of Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:5 from such do thou (thou, Timothy) turn away and avoid them,’ Bp Bull, Serm. xv. init. So Calvin, ‘universum Ecclesiae Christianae statum.’-(Cambridge BSC).

    perilous times shall come] Lit. ‘difficult,’ grievous; the meaning is well seen from the only other place where it occurs in N.T. Matthew 8:28, ‘two possessed with devils exceeding fierce,’ i.e. difficult to deal with, ‘so that no man could pass by that way.’ ‘Shall come,’ lit., will set in.-(Cambridge BSC).

    This know also — Besides what I formerly told thee concerning the apostacy, (1 Timothy 4:1,) that in the last, or latter days — That is, under the gospel dispensation, called the latter days, as being intended to wind up the economy of providence, and to remain in full force even to the end of the world: perilous times shall come — In which it will be difficult for the faithful followers of Jesus to discharge their consciences, and yet, at the same time, to maintain their safety.-(Benson).

    that in the last days perilous times shall come; "or hard" and difficult times to live in; not by reason of the outward calamities, as badness of trade, scarcity of provisions, the ravages of the sword, &c. but by reason of the wickedness of men, and that not of the profane world, but of professors of religion; for they are the persons afterwards described, who will make the times they live in difficult to others, to live soberly, righteously, and godly; the days will be evil, because of these evil men: or they will be "troublesome" times, very afflicting and distressing to pious minds;..."-(Gill).

    

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) men-ἄνθρωποι (anthropoi)-a human being (whether male or female) shall be-ἔσονται (esontai)-future third person plural of 'to be') lovers of their own selves-φίλαυτοι (philautoi)-loving oneself; too intent on one's own interests, selfish, fond of self)

    For men shall be lovers of their own selves; that is, the generality of men shall be persons that will neither love God nor men, in comparison with themselves; charity, which seeketh not her own, shall wax cold, men shall be wholly for themselves.-(Matthew P.).

    For men shall be lovers of their own selves,.... Not in a good sense, as men may be, and as such are who love their neighbours as themselves, and do that to others they would have done to themselves; and who take all prudent and lawful care to preserve the life and health of their bodies, and seek in a right way the salvation of their immortal souls: but in a bad sense, as such may be said to be, who only love themselves; their love to God, and Christ, and to the saints, being only in pretence, not in reality; and who do all they do in a religious way, from a principle of self-love, and to selfish and mercenary ends; either to gain glory and applause from men, or to merit something for themselves at the hands of God, without any view to the glory of God, the honour and interest of Christ, and the good of others; and ascribe all they have and do to themselves, to their industry, diligence, power, free will, worth, and merit, and not to the grace of God: and this character may be seen in the principles and practices of the church of Rome, in their doctrines of merit and free will, in works of supererogation &c. "Coveteous"; lovers of silver, greedy of filthy lucre, doing nothing but for money; everyone looking for his gain from his quarter; making merchandise of the souls of men; and which are reckoned among the wares of Babylon, the Romish antichrist, Revelation 18:13. "No penny, no pater noster".-(Gill).

 

Having-ἔχοντες (echontes)-to have, (i.e. to hold) a form-μόρφωσιν (morphosin)-form, appearance, (i.e. a forming, shaping) of godliness-εὐσεβείας (eusebeias)-piety, reverence, holiness), but-δὲ (de)-but, yet) denying-ἠρνημένοι (ernemenoi)-to deny, disown, (i.e. abnegate) the power-δύναμιν (dunamin)-ability, power, strength) thereof-αὐτῆς (autes)-of same, it(-self), the (same):

    but denying the power thereof; though in words they profess religion and godliness, the fear of God, and the pure worship of him, yet in works they deny all; and though they may have a set of notions in their heads, yet they feel nothing of the power of them on their hearts; and are strangers to experimental religion, and powerful godliness: or though they profess the Scriptures to be the word of God, yet they deny the use, the power, and efficacy of them; they deny the use of them to the laity, and affirm that they are not a sufficient rule of faith and practice, without their unwritten traditions; and that they are not able to make men wise, or give them a true knowledge of what is to be believed and done, without them; and that the sense of them is not to be understood by private men, but depends upon the infallible judgment of the church or pope:-(Gill).

    Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof.Keeping up a show of observing the outward forms of religion, but renouncing its power and its influence over the heart and the life; shewing openly that they neither acknowledged its guidance or wished to do so. These, by claiming the title of Christians, wearing before men the uniform of Christ, but by their lives dishonouring His name, did the gravest injury to the holy Christian cause.-(Ellicott).

    A form (μόρφωσιν). It should be[:] the form; i.e. "the outward semblance," i.q. μόρφωμα, form, shape, figure (Liddell and Scott)..."-(Pulpit).

    Having a form of godliness - That is, they profess religion, or are in connection with the church. This shows that the apostle referred to some great corruption in the church; and there can be little doubt that he had his eye on the same great apostasy to which he refers in 2 Thessalonians 2: and 1 Timothy 4: All these things to which he refers here have been practiced and tolerated in that apostate church, while no body of men, at any time, have been more zealous in maintaining "a form of godliness;" that is, in keeping up the forms of religion. But denying the power thereof - Opposing the real power of religion; not allowing it to exert any influence in their lives. It imposes no restraint on their passions and carnal propensities, but in all respects, except in the form of religion, they live as if they had None. This has been common in the world. The most regular and bigoted adherence to the forms of religion furnishes no evidence in itself that there is any true piety at heart, or that true religion has any actual control over the soul. It is much easier for people to observe the forms of religion than it is to bring the heart under its controlling influence.-(Barnes).

    But denying the power thereof; but in practice, though not in words, denying all substantial godliness, which lieth not in assuming the empty name of Christians, and making a profession, but lies in truth, righteousness, love and peace, self-denial, mortifying our members; it being a thing attended with life and power, a man being no more a Christian than he acts and lives like a Christian.-(Matthew P.).

   

from-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) such-τούτους (toutous)-these) turn away-ἀποτρέπου (apotrepou)-to turn away (to turn oneself away from, to shun, avoid): 

    from such turn away; have no fellowship with them, depart from their communion, withdraw from them, and come out from among them: this passage sufficiently justifies the reformed churches in their separation from the church of Rome.-(Gill).

    From such turn away.—These, daring to assume the sacred name, no doubt with the thought of claiming its glorious promises, without one effort to please the Master or to do honour to His name—these were to be openly shunned by such as Timothy. No half measures were to be adopted towards these, who tried to deceive their neighbours and possibly deceived themselves.-(Ellicott).

    From such turn away - Have no contact with them as if they were Christians; show no countenance to their religion; do not associate with them; compare 2 John 1:10-11; see the notes at 2 Corinthians 6:17.-(Barnes).

    

Westminster Leningrad Codex
20 הֹ֣וי הָאֹמְרִ֥ים לָרַ֛ע טֹ֖וב וְלַטֹּ֣וב רָ֑ע שָׂמִ֨ים חֹ֤שֶׁךְ לְאֹור֙ וְאֹ֣ור לְחֹ֔שֶׁךְ שָׂמִ֥ים מַ֛ר לְמָתֹ֖וק וּמָתֹ֥וק לְמָֽר׃ ס

 

Isaiah 5:20 

20"Woe-ה֣וֹי (hō-w)-woe!) unto them that call *evil-לָרַ֛ע (lā-ra‘)-evil, bad) good, and *good-ט֖וֹב (ṭō-wḇ)-good, (e.g. better, fine, glad, merry) evil; that put *darkness-חֹ֤שֶׁךְ (ḥō-šeḵ)-darkness, (figuratively: misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, wickedness) for light, and *light-וְא֣וֹר (wə-’ō-wr)-light, (metaph. prosperity, happiness, truth, righteous) for darkness; that put *bitter-מַ֛ר (mar)-bitter, (metaph. sad, sorrow, bitterness) for sweet, *and sweet-וּמָת֥וֹק (ū-mā-ṯō-wq)-sweet, (metaph. pleasant (thing) for bitter!."

  • *example of Hebrew word: לָרַ֛ע (lā-ra‘)-evil click: Proverbs 1:16

  • *example of Hebrew word: ט֖וֹב (ṭō-wḇ)-good click: Proverbs 2:9

  • *example of Hebrew word: חֹ֤שֶׁךְ (ḥō-šeḵ)-darkness click: Proverbs 2:13

  • *example of Hebrew word: וְא֣וֹר (wə-’ō-wr)-light click: Psalms 119:105

  • *example of Hebrew word: מַ֛ר (mar)-bitter click: Zephaniah 1:14

  • *example of Hebrew word: וּמָת֥וֹק (ū-mā-ṯō-wq)-sweet click: Ecclesiastes 11:7

***Woe unto them that call evil good. This is the fourth woe. There are persons who gloss over evil deeds and evil habits by fair-sounding names, who call cowardice caution, and rashness courage, stubbornness thrift, and wasteful profusion generosity. The same men are apt also to call good evil; they brand prudence with the name of cunning, call meekness want of proper spirit, sincerity rudeness, and firmness obstinacy. This deadness to moral distinctions is the sign of deep moral corruption, and fully deserves to have a special "woe" pronounced against it.-(Pulpit).

Wo unto them that call evil good ... - This is the fourth class of sins denounced. The sin which is reprobated here is that of "perverting and confounding" things, especially the distinctions of morality and religion. They prefer erroneous and fake doctrines to the true; they prefer an evil to an upright course of conduct.-(Barnes).

***that put darkness for light, and light for darkness, &c. — Ignorance and error, for knowledge and truth: in other words, who subvert, or pervert, all the great principles of truth, wisdom, and of righteousness.-(Benson).

***This is the fourth class of sins denounced. The sin which is reprobated here is that of "perverting and confounding" things, especially the distinctions of morality and religion. They prefer erroneous and fake doctrines to the true; they prefer an evil to an upright course of conduct.-(Barnes).

***"Darkness," in the Scriptures, is the emblem of ignorance, error, false doctrine, crime. Light denotes truth, knowledge, piety.-(Barnes).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
28 Καὶ καθὼς οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν Θεὸν ἔχειν ἐν ἐπιγνώσει, παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺςΘεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον νοῦν, ποιεῖν τὰ μὴ καθήκοντα, 29 πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ, πορνείᾳ, πονηρίᾳ, πλεονεξίᾳ κακίᾳ· μεστοὺς φθόνου, φόνου, ἔριδος, δόλου, κακοηθείας· ψιθυριστάς, 30 καταλάλους, θεοστυγεῖς, ὑβριστάς, ὑπερηφάνους, ἀλαζόνας, ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, 31 ἀσυνέτους, ἀσυνθέτους, ἀστόργους, ἀσπόνδους, ἀνελεήμονας·

Romans 1:28-31

28 "And-καὶ (kai)-and) even as-καθὼς (kathos)-according as, (i.e. since, seeing that, agreeably to the fact that) they did not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) like-ἐδοκίμασαν (edokimasan)-to make trial, proof, (by implication: to approve:—allow, discern, examine) //to retain-ἔχειν (echein)-to have or hold, (i.e. to hold fast, keep) (Or, to acknowledge) God-Θεὸν (Theon)-God, (i.e. God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) in-ἐν (en)-in) their knowledge-ἐπιγνώσει (epignosei)-full knowledge, (i.e. by implication: full discernment, acknowledgement), God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (i.e. God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) gave them-αὐτοὺς (autous)-them, the (same)) over-παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-to give over, hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) to-εἰς (eis)-into) //*a reprobate-ἀδόκιμος (adokimos)-dissaproved, (i.e. rejected; by implication: worthless (literally or morally):—castaway, rejected, reprobate) mind-νοῦν (noun)-mind, will, understanding) (Or, a mind void of judgment), to do those things which are not-μὴ (me)-no, not least) convenient-καθήκοντα (kathekonta)-the things not seemly, fit)29 Being filled-πεπληρωμένους (pepleromenous)-to fill, make full) with all-πάσῃ (pase)-all, every, (i.e. all manner of) *unrighteousness-ἀδικίᾳ (adikia)-injustice, unrighteousness, (by implication: the act; morally, wrongfulness (of character, life or act):—iniquity, unjust, unrighteousness, wrong), fornication, wickedness-πονηρίᾳ (poneria)-malignity, evil), *covetousness-πλεονεξίᾳ (pleonexia)-the wish to have more, (e.g. greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice), *maliciousness-κακίᾳ (kakia)-evil, badness, (i.e. malignity, malice, ill-will, desire to injure); full-μεστοὺς (mestous)-replete, stored, full (literally or figuratively):—full) of envy-φθόνου (phthonou)-envy, jealousy), *murder-φόνου (phonou)-murder, slaughter), debate-ἔριδος (eridos)-strife, contention), *deceit-δόλου (dolou)-bait, guile, craft), malignity-κακοηθείας (kakoetheias)-evil disposition, (i.e. malignant subtlety, malicious craftiness); whisperers-ψιθυριστάς (psithuristas)-a whisper, detractor, a secret slanderer)30 Backbiters-καταλάλους (katalalous)-one who speaks down or against, (i.e. a defamer, evil speaker), haters of God-θεοστυγεῖς (theostugeis)-hateful to God, exceptionally impious and wicked), despiteful-ὑβριστάς (hubristas)-despiteful, injurious), *proud-ὑπερηφάνους (huperephanous)-exceeding proud), boasters, inventors-ἐφευρετὰς (epheuretas)-one who finds out (something) more) *of evil things-κακῶν (kakon)-evil, bad, (i.e. injurious:—bad, evil, harm, ill, noisome, wicked), *disobedient-ἀπειθεῖς (apeitheis)-disobidient, not persuaded, (e.g. impersuasible, not compliant,) to parents, 31 Without understanding-ἀσυνέτους (asunetous)-unintelligent, (by implication:  wicked:—foolish, without understanding), covenantbreakers-ἀσυνθέτους (asunthetous)-not bound by covenant, (properly: not agreed, i.e. treacherous to compacts:—covenant-breaker), without natural affection-ἀστόργους (astorgous)- without affection, (e.g. hard-hearted towards kindred:—without natural affection), implacable-ἀσπόνδους (aspondous)-implacable, irreconcileable, (by implication: truceless:—implacable, truce-breaker), unmerciful-ἀνελεήμονας (aneleemonas)-unmerciful, without kindness, without mercy):"

  • *example of Greek word: ἀδόκιμος (adokimos)-a reprobate click: 2 Corinthians 13:5

  • *example of Greek word: νοῦν (noun)-mind click: Luke 24:45 (understanding)

  • *example of Greek word: ἀδικίᾳ (adikia)-unrighteousness click: Romans 2:8

  • *example of Greek word: πλεονεξίᾳ (pleonexia)-covetousness click: 2 Peter 2:3

  • *example of Greek word: κακίᾳ (kakia)-maliciousness click: Ephesians 4:31 (malice)

  • *example of Greek word: φόνου (phonou)-murder click: Acts 9:1 (slaughter)

  • *example of Greek word: δόλου (dolou)-deceit click: Acts 13:10 (subtilty)

  •  *example of Greek word: ὑπερηφάνους (huperephanous)-proud click: Luke 1:51  

  • *example of Greek word: κακῶν (kakon)-of evil things click: 1 Corinthians 10:6

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπειθεῖς (apeitheis)-disobedient click: Luke 1:17 

  • they did like-ἐδοκίμασαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: And even as ["THEY-test"] not

  • to retain-ἔχειν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive: ["to-be-having-him"//"TO-BE-HAVING"] God in their knowledge, God

  • gives over-παρέδωκενVerb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["BESIDES-GIVES"//"gives-over"] them to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not

  • convenient-καθήκοντα: Verb, Present, Impersonal-Active, Participle Accusative, Plural, Neuter: ["befitING"]:

  • Being filled-πεπληρωμένους: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Accusative, Plural, Masculine: ["HAVING-been-FILLED"] with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents; Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful;

And-καὶ (kai)-and) even as-καθὼς (kathos)-according as, (i.e. since, seeing that, agreeably to the fact that) they did not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) like-ἐδοκίμασαν (edokimasan)-to make trial, proof, (by implication: to approve:—allow, discern, examine) //to retain-ἔχειν (echein)-to have or hold, (i.e. to hold fast, keep) (Or, to acknowledge) God-Θεὸν