...step by step
Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: “This I say-Λέγω (lego)-to say, speak, declare, lay out) then, Walk-περιπατεῖτε (peripateite)-to walk around, walk about, be occupied, (i.e. to conduct oneself) in the spirit, and ye shall not fulfil-τελέσητε (telesete)-to end, (i.e. complete) the lust of the flesh.” -(Galatians 5:16)
This I say-Λέγω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-sayING"]
Walk-περιπατεῖτε: Verb, Present, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-walking!"]
1. Fruits of the Spirit
3. Love (pending)
of the Spirit
Fruits of The Spirit
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root Word, but not the same Inflection / Parsing.
Open Bracket [(abc)] : My commentary insert/input.
StudyLight.org: SL (click)
BibleHub.com: BH (click)
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Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
22 ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ Πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις, 23 πρᾳότης, ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστι νόμος 24 οἱ δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς παθήμασι καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις 25 Εἰ ζῶμεν Πνεύματι, Πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν.
22 "But-δὲ (de)-but, yet) the-Ὁ (ho)-the) fruit-καρπὸς (karpos)-literally: fruit, (figuratively: result, outcome, deed)) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) spirit-Πνεύματός (Pneumatos)-spirit) is-ἐστιν (estin)-'to be') *love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love, charity, (i.e. affection or benevolence)), *joy-χαρά (chara)-joy, gladness), peace-εἰρήνη (eirene)-peace, unity, concord, (by implication: prosperity)), *longsuffering-μακροθυμία (makrothumia)-longanimity, (i.e. (objectively) forbearance or (subjectively) fortitude:—longsuffering, patience)), *gentleness-χρηστότης (chrestotes)-kindness, usefulness, benignity), goodness-ἀγαθωσύνη (agathosune)-goodness, (i.e. virtue or beneficence:—goodness)), faith-πίστις (pistis)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness), 23 Meekness-πρᾳότης (praotes)-meekness, mildness, gentleness (by implication: humility)), *temperance-ἐγκράτεια (egkrateia)-self restrain, continence): against-κατὰ (kata)-against) such-τοιούτων (toiouton)-such as this, (i.e. one who is of such a character, such a one)) there is-ἔστι (esti)-'to be') no-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not (the absolute negative)) law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)). 24 And-δὲ (de)-yet, but, moreover, and) they-οἱ (hoi)-the (ones)) that are-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Christ's-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), have crucified-ἐσταύρωσαν (estauposan)-to crucify, (metaphorically: of a believer's renouncing his old sinful way of living to be united to his Lord)) the-τὴν (ten)-the) flesh-σάρκα (sarka)-flesh, (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions)) with-σὺν (oun)-with, etc.:—beside, with) the-τοῖς (tois)-with the) //affections-παθήμασιν (pathemasin)-feeling, passion, (something undergone, i.e. hardship or pain; (subjectively) an emotion or influence:—affection, affliction, motion, suffering)) (Or, passions) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) *lusts-ἐπιθυμίαις (epithumias)-desire, over desire, (a longing (especially for what is forbidden):—concupiscence, desire, lust (after)). 25 If-Εἰ (Ei)-if) *we live-ζῶμεν (somen)-to live, have life) in the Spirit-Πνεύματι (Pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. Holy Spirit)), *let us also-καὶ (kai)-even, also) walk-στοιχῶμεν (stoichomen)-to walk, proceed or step in order, (i.e. walk (orderly)) in the Spirit-Πνεύματι (pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. the Holy Spirit)."
Example of Greek word:
*ἀγάπη (agape)-love click: Romans 5:5
*μακροθυμία (makrothumia)-longsuffering click: 1 Peter 3:20
*χρηστότης (chrestotes)-gentleness click: Titus 3:4-(kindness)
*G19: (ἀγαθωσύνη-goodness) click: Ephesians 5:9 (ἀγαθωσύνῃ-goodness)
*ἐγκράτεια (egkrateia)-temperance click: 2 Peter 1:6
*ἐπιθυμίαις (epithumias)-lusts click: Romans 6:12
*G4748: (στοιχῶμεν-let us walk) click: Philippians 3:16 (στοιχεῖν-let us walk)
is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: But the fruit of the spirit ["IS"] love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance: against such
there is-ἔστι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"//"there-is"] . And they that are Christ's,no law
have crucified-ἐσταύρωσαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["crucify"] the flesh with the affections and lusts.
If-εἰ: CONDitional: ["IF"]
we live-ζῶμεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-MAY-BE-LIVING"] in the Spirit,
let us walk-στοιχῶμεν: Verb, Present, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-MAY-BE-elementING"//"WE-MAY-BE-walkING"] also in the Spirit.
But-δὲ (de)-but, yet) the-Ὁ (ho)-the) fruit-καρπὸς (karpos)-literally: fruit, (figuratively: result, outcome, deed)) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) spirit-Πνεύματός (Pneumatos)-spirit) is-ἐστιν (estin)-'to be'):
But the Spirit produces.- Christians are the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 6:19, /20). The real evidence of the Spirit living in them, is not speaking in tongues and miraculous powers! The real evidence is these things which Paul now mentions. These are what the Holy Spirit produces as fruits in the branches of the true vine (John 15:1-10).-(The Bible Study New Testament). SL
The obvious and undeniable teaching of the New Testament is that the Spirit is in Christians and that Christians are in the Spirit. In addition to the above, it should also be observed that Christians are commanded to "have this mind in you, which was also in Christ Jesus" (Philippians 2:5), Paul declaring that he himself had "the mind of Christ" (1 Corinthians 2:16). Also, it is a commandment to the church of all ages that they shall "let the word of Christ dwell in you richly" (Colossians 3:16). Thus the mind of Christ dwells in Christians, and the word of Christ dwells in Christians.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
But the fruits of the Spirit.- The fruits named are not our fruits, but of the Spirit in us. If we bear these fruits we show that we have the Spirit. There are four groups: (1) Love, the Christian grace which works out the whole law. (2) Joy and peace, which are the normal state of the Christian. (3) The graces which relate to others, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, fidelity (faith), meekness. (4) The last fruit looks to oneself, temperance, or self-control. It implies not only abstinence from injurious drinks and food, but control of the temper, the tongue, the desires, the passion for money or power.-(People's New Testament). SL
The fruit of the Spirit.—The singular fruit, as compared with the plural works, suggests that the effect of the Spirit’s inworking is one harmonious whole, while carnality tends to multitudinousness, distraction, chaos. We are not to look for a rigorous logical classification in either catalogue. Generally, the fruit of the Spirit may be arranged as: I. Inward graces—“love, joy, peace.” II. Graces towards man—“longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith.” III. A more generic form of inward graces—“meekness, temperance.”-(Preacher's Complete Homiletical). SL
But the fruit of the Spirit — Both flesh-the sinful dispositions of the human heart and spirit-the changed or purified state of the soul, by the grace and Spirit of God, are represented by the apostle as trees, one yielding good the other bad fruit; the productions of each being according to the nature of the tree, as the tree is according to the nature of the seed from which it sprung. The bad seed produced a bad tree, yielding all manner of bad fruit; the good seed produced a good tree, bringing forth fruits of the most excellent kind. The tree of the flesh, with all its bad fruits, we have already seen; the tree of the Spirit, with its good fruits, we shall now see.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
In Galatians 5:19 we read about the “works [plural] of the flesh”. In Galatians 5:22 Paul mentions the “fruit [singular] of the Spirit”. If you think of the works of the flesh, you see those works more as a result of what a man does. As to the fruit of the Spirit, you rather think of an inner attitude. It is a fruit, not of ourselves, as is the case with the works of the flesh, but of the Spirit. You could compare it to a factory and a garden. In a factory, people are working hard to realize a certain production. In a garden grows what is sown in it, without any work of man (except probably weeding). The fruit of the Spirit is not the same as the gifts of the Spirit. Anyone who has received the Holy Spirit has also received certain spiritual gifts. Every believer has different gifts. With the fruit of the Spirit this difference is absent. It is a fruit which has to be present in every believer. As mentioned, the word ‘fruit’ is in the singular. It is one fruit, but it is composed of nine parts. You can think of a diamond which is one stone, but with a difference in brightness, depending on how the light shines on it. You can also think of a flower with nine petals. If you remove a petal, the flower loses its beauty. Similarly, the nine parts of the fruit of the Spirit are not available separately. The Holy Spirit wants every part of the fruit to be fully exposed in unity with the whole.-(Kingcomments). SL
The Spirit also produces His own blessed fruit in the life of the believer. The first three parts: Love, joy and peace. These give the blessed consciousness the believer has in his heart of his relationship to God, which consciousness comes through the Spirit. The other six parts: “long-suffering, kindness, goodness, fidelity, meekness, self-control,” witness in the believer’s walk to the fact that the love, the joy and peace of God are realities in the soul. The believer who walks according to the Spirit manifests in his walk the fruit of the indwelling Spirit and against such there is no law. And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh and its lusts. They have accepted the sentence of the cross which has put the old man with its lusts into the place of death. God declares us as dead with Christ and looks upon us thus (Colossians 3:3). And this great truth must be lived. The believer lives in the Spirit and is called upon to walk in the Spirit so that the righteousness of the law may be fulfilled in him. “Let us not be desirous of vain-glory (the law fosters such a spirit, but grace humbles), provoking one another, envying one another”--which is the sad effect of vain-glory, provocation and envy.-(Arno Gaebelein). SL
love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love, charity, (i.e. affection or benevolence)),:
The list which follows brings out in a striking manner the peculiar finish and perfection which belongs to the Christian morality. It will be seen at a glance how it differs from any form of pagan or philosophic ethics. At the head of the list is “love,” which Christianity takes as its moving principle—not being, perhaps, alone in this, but alone in the systematic consistency with which it is carried out. Next comes “joy,” a peculiarly Christian grace, which has a much deeper root than mere natural cheerfulness of temper, and is rather the unfailing brightness and equanimity which proceeds from calm and settled principles animated by the Divine Spirit itself. It may be questioned whether “peace” is here the tranquility which is shed abroad in the heart by the sense of reconciliation with God, or rather, from the context that follows, peaceableness towards men. The remainder of the list, it will be seen, is made up of those delicate and fragile forms of virtue which the ordinary course of society is least likely to foster. Patriotism, courage, generosity, prudence, fortitude, are virtues that would be produced by the regular action of natural selection left to itself. “Long-suffering,” “gentleness,” “goodness,” “faith,” “meekness,” “temperance,” need a more spiritual process for their development.-(Ellicott's Commentary). SL
Love — αγαπη. An intense desire to please God, and to do good to mankind; the very soul and spirit of all true religion; the fulfilling of the law, and what gives energy to faith itself. See Galatians 5:6.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
is love — To God, his people, and all mankind, the source of all the other fruits; joy — Arising from a sense of the remission of sins, of the favour of God, of adoption into his family, and being constituted his children and his heirs; from a lively hope of the heavenly inheritance, the testimony of a conscience void of offence toward God and man, (2 Corinthians 1:12,) communion with God, and an earnest of heaven in our hearts.-(Benson Commentary).
1. The first part that is mentioned is “love”. That is understandable. It is the nature of God. God is love (1 John 4:8; 1 John 4:16) and His love “has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us” (Romans 5:5). 2. The second part is “joy”. This is the joy which the Holy Spirit works in us as we think of God and what He has done for us in His Son, despite the difficult circumstances in which we can sometimes be. It is the joy “in the Lord” (Philippians 3:1) and that is our strength (Nehemiah 8:10).-(Kingcomments). SL
peace-εἰρήνη (eirene)-peace, unity, concord, (by implication: prosperity),:
Peace — ειρηνη. The calm, quiet, and order, which take place in the justified soul, instead of the doubts, fears, alarms, and dreadful forebodings, which every true penitent less or more feels, and must feel till the assurance of pardon brings peace and satisfaction to the mind. Peace is the first sensible fruit of the pardon of sin. See Romans 5:1, and the notes there.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
3. “Peace”, the third characteristic of the fruit, is the inner calmness and peace which is in God. It is the peace of God which, through the Holy Spirit, is worked in us if we are led by Him. Again, this peace will be ours, regardless of the difficult circumstances in which we can sometimes be.
Of these three: love, joy and peace, the Lord Jesus speaks of in John 14 and 15: “My love”, “My joy”, “My peace” (John 14:27; John 15:10). Between Him and the Spirit is a perfect agreement. 4. How important “patience” (the fourth feature) is. How your patience is tested sometimes if you are in a difficult or hopeless situation or if you have to deal with difficult people.
5. A subsequent feature (the fifth) is “kindness”. In Titus 3, this feature is used for God (Titus 3:4). It shows His friendly mind and benevolent attitude to sinners. Are His mind and attitude, seen in your life? They surely are, if you are led by the Spirit.
6. “Goodness” (the sixth characteristic) shows that you are generously and compassionately looking for what is good for others. In Ephesians 5, goodness is connected with the fruit of the light (Ephesians 5:9).-(Kingcomments). SL
faith-πίστις (pistis)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness),:
Faithfulness ... includes not merely the inward qualities of "keeping on believing in Christ," but it also means remaining loyal and faithful to the church. Goodness and kindness are likewise determined by actions involving others outside the person of the believer. Significant especially in this list are the things left out of it. The apostle Paul did not list tongue-speaking, charismatic experiences, visions, premonitions, and things like that as being connected in any manner with the "fruit of the Spirit." Strangely enough, some who believe that those omitted things are the fruit of the Spirit very frequently stop being faithful to the church.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
Faith - On the meaning of the word faith, see the note at Mark 16:16. The word here may be used in the sense of fidelity, and may denote that the Christian will be a faithful man, a man faithful to his word and promises; a man who can be trusted or confided in. It is probable that the word is used in this sense because the object of the apostle is not to speak of the feelings which we have toward God so much as to illustrate the influences of the Spirit in directing and controlling our feelings toward people. True religion makes a man faithful. The Christian is faithful as a man; faithful as a neighbor, friend, father, husband, son. He is faithful to his contracts; faithful to his promises. No man can be a Christian who is not thus faithful, and all pretensions to being under the influences of the Spirit when such fidelity does not exist, are deceitful and vain.-(Barnes' Notes).
7. You show “faithfulness” (the seventh feature) if people can trust you, if you are trustworthy.
8. “Gentleness” (the eighth feature) means that you are willing to take a humble position. It is not a spineless weakness, but an attitude you consciously take and for which you need much spiritual strength.
9. The list ends with the ninth characteristic: “self-control”. The Holy Spirit leads you to a disciplined life, in which you don’t yield to the impulses of passions and desires. He gives you the ability to control yourself.
against-κατὰ (kata)-against) such-τοιούτων (toiouton)-such as this, (i.e. one who is of such a character, such a one)) there is-ἔστι (esti)-'to be') no-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not (the absolute negative)) law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)).:
"Christian character is not mere moral or legal correctness, but the possession and manifestation of the graces of Galatians 5:22-23. Taken together they present a moral portrait of Christ, and may be understood as the apostle’s explanation of Galatians 2:20." [Note: The New Scofield Reference Bible, p. 1270.]. There are laws against the deeds of the flesh because they are destructive, but there are none against the fruit of the Spirit because it is edifying (cf. Romans 8:1). This fruit involves both character and conduct. ". . . the law is not against those who walk by the Spirit because in principle they are fulfilling the law (Galatians 5:14)." [Note: Ridderbos, p. 208.]. "Law exists for the purpose of restraint, but in the works of the Spirit there is nothing to restrain . . ." [Note: Lightfoot, p. 213.]-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
Against such (saith the apostle) there is no law; no law to accuse or to condemn them; for these are things which the law commandeth to be done, and are acts of obedience to the law. So as those who do these things are led by the Spirit, and are not under the condemning power or curse of the law.-(Matthew Poole). BH
The Law finds nothing to condemn in these things, and therefore no ground for condemning those who live in the practice of them; the same idea as is more explicitly brought out in Romans 8:1-4."-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
Violates no law.—“Against such there is no law” (Galatians 5:23; comp. Galatians 5:18). The fruit of the Spirit is love; and the law, so far from being against love, commands it (Galatians 5:14). The practice of love and all its works is the fulfilling of the law and disarms it of all terror. The expression, “Against such there is no law,” so far from being more than superfluous, as Hofmann asserts, is intended to make evident how it is that, by virtue of this, their moral frame, those who are led by the Spirit are not subject to the Mosaic law. For whosoever is so constituted that a law is not against him, over such a one the law has no power.-(Preacher's Complete Homiletical). SL
Against such things: in contrast to (Galatians 5:21) those who practise such things, of whom the Law declares that they will not inherit the Kingdom of God. Now, since the Spirit produces as His fruit dispositions which the Law does not condemn, they who (Galatians 5:18) are led by the Spirit are not under law. The law is no longer a burden under which they groan. Just so, upright citizens think nothing of the criminal law; whereas to those who break or wish to break it, the same law is a terrible reality. Thus Paul completes the argument of Galatians 5:18 in support of Galatians 5:16. This deliverance from the Law by fulfilment of it (Galatians 5:14) was a purpose of the mission of the Son of God: Romans 8:4. The unexpected reference to the Law in Galatians 5:14; Galatians 5:18; Galatians 5:23 reveals its large place in the thought of Paul.-(Joseph Beet's Commentary). SL
Against such there is no law - That is, there is no law to condemn such persons. These are not the things which the Law denounces. These, therefore, are the true freemen; free from the condemning sentence of the Law, and free in the service of God. Law condemns sin; and they who evince the spirit here referred to are free from its denunciations.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
Against such there is no law; meaning, against such fruits, graces, and good things; these being perfectly agreeable to the law of God, which is holy, just, and good, and spiritual; and are so far from being forbidden by it, that they are highly esteemed and approved of by it: or against persons that are possessed of such fruits; for these appear to be in the spirit, and to be led by the Spirit; and therefore are not under the law, and have nothing to fear from it, as a terrifying, accusing, cursing, and condemning law. The works of the flesh, and they that are of the flesh [(i.e. carnal minded)], are such that come under the notice and lash of the law; and not the fruits of the Spirit, and they that are after the Spirit, as such are who partake of his fruit.-(Gill's Exposition). BH
And-δὲ (de)-yet, but, moreover, and) they-οἱ (hoi)-the (ones)) that are-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Christ's-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), have crucified-ἐσταύρωσαν (estauposan)-to crucify, (metaphorically: of a believer's renouncing his old sinful way of living to be united to his Lord)) the-τὴν (ten)-the) flesh-σάρκα (sarka)-flesh, (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions)) with-σὺν (oun)-with, etc.:—beside, with) the-τοῖς (tois)-with the) //affections-παθήμασιν (pathemasin)-feeling, passion, (something undergone, i.e. hardship or pain; (subjectively) an emotion or influence:—affection, affliction, motion, suffering)) (Or, passions) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) lusts-ἐπιθυμίαις (epithumias)-desire, over desire, (a longing (especially for what is forbidden):—concupiscence, desire, lust (after)).:
And they that are Christ's — All genuine Christians have crucified the flesh-are so far from obeying its dictates and acting under its influence, that they have crucified their sensual appetites; they have nailed them to the cross of Christ, where they have expired with him; hence, says St. Paul, Romans 6:6, our old man-the flesh, with its affections and lusts, is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. By which we see that God has fully designed to save all who believe in Christ from all sin, whether outward or inward, with all the affections, παθημασι, irregular passions, and lusts, επιθυμιαις, disorderly wishes and desires. All that a man may feel contrary to love and purity; and all that he may desire contrary to moderation and that self-denial peculiar to the Christian character.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
they have crucified it [(the flesh)], namely, when they became believers and received baptism, whereby they entered into moral fellowship with the death of Jesus (see on Galatians 2:19, Galatians 6:14; Romans 6:3; Romans 7:4) by becoming νεκροὶ τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ [(dead to sin)] (Romans 6:11). The symbolical idea: “to have crucified the flesh,” expresses, therefore, the having renounced all fellowship of life with sin, the seat of which is the flesh (σάρξ); so that, just as Christ has been objectively crucified, by means of entering into the fellowship of this death on the cross the Christian has subjectively—in the moral consciousness of faith—crucified the σάρξ [(flesh)], that is, has rendered it entirely void of life and efficacy, by means of faith as the new element of life to which he has been transferred. To the Christians ideally viewed, as here, this ethical crucifixion of the flesh is something which has taken place (comp. Romans 6:2 ff.), but in reality it is also something now taking place and continuous (Romans 8:13; Colossians 3:5).-(Meyer's NT Commentary). BH
They that are Christ's— These are the same with those who are led by the Spirit, Gal 5:18 and are opposed to those who live after the flesh; Romans 8:13, where it is said, conformably to what we find here, they through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body. That principle in us, whence spring vicious inclinations and actions, is sometimes called the flesh, sometimes the old man: the subduing and mortifying of this evil principle, so that the force and power wherewith it used to rule in us is extinguished, the Apostle, by a very engaging accommodation to the death of our Saviour, calls crucifying the flesh; and in Romans 6:6 crucifying the old man. It is likewise called mortifying the members which are on the earth, Colossians 3:5. See also Colossians 2:11.-(Thomas Coke Commentary). SL
Continuing to walk in the Spirit, centering and continuing the thoughts and meditations of the heart upon the teachings of the Lord, actively seeking to maintain identity with the mind of Christ, consciousness of the indwelling Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - these things will indeed "crucify" the lusts and evil imaginations which feed them. This is possible only in the spiritual religion of Christ Jesus, free from the externals and attractive allurements of spectacular Judaism, the same being the blessed "freedom in Christ."-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
And they that are Christ’s — Who are true believers in him, and therefore possessed of union with him, and shall be finally owned as belonging to him; have crucified the flesh — Have doomed it to a certain death, like the body of one that is nailed to a cross, and left to expire upon it; with the affections and lusts — All its evil passions, appetites, and inclinations. The word affections, or passions, as παθηματα should rather be rendered, as distinguished from the lusts of the flesh, are pride, self-will, discontent, anger, malice, envy, revenge. “This is a beautiful and affecting allusion to our Lord’s sufferings on the cross. The restraining of our fleshly lusts may be very painful to us, as the word crucify implies. But the same word, by putting us in mind of Christ’s suffering much greater pain for us, touches all the generous feelings of the heart, and excites us, from gratitude to him, to disregard the pain which so necessary a duty may occasion to us.”-(Benson Commentary). BH
If-Εἰ (Ei)-if) we live-ζῶμεν (somen)-to live, have life) in the Spirit-Πνεύματι (Pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. Holy Spirit)), let us also-καὶ (kai)-even, also) walk-στοιχῶμεν (stoichomen)-to walk, proceed or step in order, (i.e. walk (orderly)) in the Spirit-Πνεύματι (pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. the Holy Spirit).:
If we live in the Spirit - See the note at Galatians 5:16. The sense of this verse probably is, "We who are Christians profess to be under the influences of the Holy Spirit. By his influences and agency is our spiritual life. We profess not to be under the dominion of the flesh; not to be controlled by its appetites and desires. Let us then act in this manner, and as if we believed this. Let us yield ourselves to his influences, and show that we are controlled by that Spirit." It is an earnest exhortation to Christians to yield wholly to the agency of the Holy Spirit on their hearts, and to submit to his guidance; see Romans 8:5, note9, note.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
If we live by the Spirit: an assumed fact: for He is in us the breath of immortal life. Therefore, Paul says, we should allow Him to direct our steps. For, in proportion as we yield to His influence, will the life He imparts be rich. Similar thought in Romans 8:2 : for the law of the Spirit is the Holy Spirit guiding our action; and since He has made us free from the law of sin and of death, He is to us the Spirit of life. Walk: different from the word in Galatians 5:16, but found in Galatians 6:16; Romans 4:12; Philippians 3:16; Acts 21:24; all very instructive parallels. It calls attention to the path in which we walk.-(Joseph Beet's Commentary). SL
If we live in the Spirit, &c.— Living in the Spirit expresses, in terms nearly resembling these in Act 17:28 -[("For in him we live, and move, and have our being...")]our continual dependence on its influences; and also illustrates the significancy of the word στοιχωμεν, in the latter part of the verse. Let us walk in the Spirit,—"in a regular and orderly manner, viewing God with the eye of faith; taking every step according to rule, and under the holy influence of the Spirit of God; regulating our whole life and actions by his light and dictate.-(Thomas Coke Commentary). SL
By describing the works of the flesh and fruits of the Spirit, we are told what to avoid and oppose, and what we are to cherish and cultivate; and this is the sincere care and endeavour of all real Christians. Sin does not now reign in their mortal bodies, so that they obey it, Romans 6:12, for they seek to destroy it. Christ never will own those who yield themselves up to be the servants of sin. And it is not enough that we cease to do evil, but we must learn to do well. Our conversation will always be answerable to the principle which guides and governs us, Romans 8:5. We must set ourselves in earnest to mortify the deeds of the body, and to walk in newness of life. Not being desirous of vain-glory, or unduly wishing for the esteem and applause of men, not provoking or envying one another, but seeking to bring forth more abundantly those good fruits, which are, through Jesus Christ, to the praise and glory of God.-(Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary). BH
Therefore "we live in the Spirit" (v.25). This is true of every child of God. Since this is so, then let our walk be consistent with it, seeking no other motivating power except that which is of God. To desire personal and worldly honor is just the reverse of this, for such motives really put God out of sight. Self is then puffed up, a most obnoxious attitude for a Christian, and productive of every evil -- rivalry, controversy, envy -- in our associations with one another. "Let us not be" (v.26) is a negative to be taken seriously.-(L.M. Grant's Commentary). SL
“If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.”- If we have this new life, if linked up now with our risen Christ, then let Him control our ways, let us be yielded to Him, let us walk in the Spirit, let us not be desirous of fame or glory, let us not seek anything that would lead to empty boasting, provoking one another, saying and doing things that may pain others needlessly, or envying one another. Some of you may say, “That is a tremendously high standard, and I am afraid I can never attain to it.” No, and I can never attain to it in my own strength, but if you and I are yielded to the Holy Spirit of God and allow Him to make these things real in our lives, then we will indeed attain to the ideal set before us here, but it will not be ourselves, it will be Christ living in us manifesting His life, His holy life, in and through the members of our body. God give us to know the reality of it!-(Ironside's Notes). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
16 ὅπου γὰρ ζῆλος καὶ ἐριθεία, ἐκεῖ ἀκαταστασία καὶ πᾶν φαῦλον πρᾶγμα. 17 ἡ δὲ ἄνωθεν σοφία πρῶτον μὲν ἁγνή ἐστιν, ἔπειτα εἰρηνική, ἐπιεικής, εὐπειθής, μεστὴ ἐλέους καὶ καρπῶν ἀγαθῶν, ἀδιάκριτος καὶ ἀνυπόκριτος. 18 καρπὸς δὲ τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἐν εἰρήνῃ σπείρεται τοῖς ποιοῦσιν εἰρήνην.
16 “For-γὰρ (gar)-for, verily, therefore) where *envying-ζῆλος (zelos)-envy, jealousy, (properly: heat, i.e. (figuratively) "zeal" in an unfavorable sense:—jealousy)) and *strife-ἐριθεία (eritheia)-contention, strife, quarrel) is, there is //*confusion-ἀκαταστασία (akatastasia)-instability, (i.e. disorder:—commotion, confusion, tumult)) (Gr. tumult or unquietness), and every evil-φαῦλον (phaulon)-worthless, bad, foul) work-πρᾶγμα (pragma)-any thing done, affair, (a deed; by implication: an affair). 17 But the *wisdom-σοφία (sophia)-wisdom) that is from above-ἄνωθεν (anothen)-from above, from a higher place, (i.e. from heaven)), is-ἐστιν (estin)-'to be') first *pure-μὲν ἁγνή (men hagne)-indeed chaste, pure, (pure from every fault, immaculate, properly: clean)), then *peaceable-εἰρηνική (eirenike)-peaceable, peaceful), *gentle-ἐπιεικής (epieikes)-yielding, pliant, (equitable, fair, mild, gentle)), and easy to be intreated-εὐπειθής (eupeithes)-easily persuaded, good for persuasion, (i.e. (intransitively) compliant:—easy to be intreated)), full-μεστὴ (meste)-replete, full) of mercy-ἐλέους (eleous)-kindness, beneficence, compassion), and good-ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-a primary word; "good" (in any sense, often as noun):—benefit, good(-s, things), well)) *fruits-καρπῶν (karpon)-fruit, (i.e. benefit)), //without partiality-ἀδιάκριτος (adiakritos)-not judging diversely, impartial, without variance, (i.e. free from prejudice)) (Or, without wrangling), and *without hypocrisy-ἀνυπόκριτος (anupokritos)-without hypocrisy or dissimulation, (i.e. unfeigned, undisguised, sincere)). 18 And the fruit-καρπὸς (karpos)-fruit, (figuratively: work, act, deed, result, outcome)) of-τῆς (tes)-of the) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice, (i.e. equity (of character or act)) *is sown-σπείρεται (speiretai)-to sow) in *peace-εἰρήνῃ (eirnen)-peace, unity, concord, (by implication: prosperity)), of them that make-ποιοῦσιν (poiousin)-to do, make) peace.”
Example of Greek word:
*ζῆλος (zelos)-envying click: 1 Corinthians 3:3
*G2050: (ἐριθεία-strife) click: Romans 2:8 (ἐριθείας-contentious)
*G181: (ἀκαταστασία-confusion) click: 1 Cor 14:33 (ἀκαταστασίας-of confusion)
*σοφία (sophia)-wisdom click: 1 Corinthians 3:19
*G53: (ἁγνή-pure) click: Philippians 4:8 (ἁγνά-are pure)
*G1516: (εἰρηνική-peaceable) click: Hebrews 12:11 (εἰρηνικὸν-the peaceable)
*G1933: (ἐπιεικής-gentle) click: 1 Timothy 3:3 (ἐπιεικῆ-patient)
*καρπῶν (karpon)-fruits click: Philippians 1:11
*ἀνυπόκριτος (anupokritos)-without hypocrisy click: Rom12:9 (be without dissimulation)
*σπείρεται (speiretai)-is sown click: Mark 4:15
*εἰρήνῃ (eirnen)-peace click: 2 Peter 3:14
is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For where envying and strife is, there is confusion, and every evil work. But the wisdom that is from above, ["IS"] first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy, and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. And the fruit of righteousness
is sown-σπείρεται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-beING-SOWN"] in peace,
of them that make-ποιοῦσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Dative, Plural, Masculine: ["ones-makING"] peace.
***These verses show the difference between men's pretending to be wise, and their being really so. He who thinks well, or he who talks well, is not wise in the sense of the Scripture, if he does not live and act well. True wisdom may be know by the meekness of the spirit and temper. Those who live in malice, envy, and contention, live in confusion; and are liable to be provoked and hurried to any evil work. Such wisdom comes not down from above, but springs up from earthly principles, acts on earthly motives, and is intent on serving earthly purposes. Those who are lifted up with such wisdom, described by the apostle James, is near to the Christian love, described by the apostle Paul; and both are so described that every man may fully prove the reality of his attainments in them. It has no disguise or deceit. It cannot fall in with those managements the world counts wise, which are crafty and guileful; but it is sincere, and open, and steady, and uniform, and consistent with itself. May the purity, peace, gentleness, teachableness, and mercy shown in all our actions, and the fruits of righteousness abounding in our lives, prove that God has bestowed upon us this excellent gift.-(Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary) BH
***"But the wisdom from above" -Such wisdom cannot be found outside of a relationship with God. People try to be all the following things without God, but all such attempts will end in failure ( Jer_10:23 ). "is" -God doesn't beat around the bush. This is what it is, this is what such wisdom looks like in daily life. This is the wisdom that God gives to those who faithfully serve and ask Him ( Jam_1:5 ; Jam_1:17 ). A healthy respect for God is the first step in acquiring this wisdom ( Pro_9:10 ; Pro_15:33 ; Psa_111:10 ). "first pure" -"first"-first in rank and time, "first essentially" (Vincent p. 754). Purity of heart, sincerity, a good and honest heart is a foundation stone for this wisdom ( Luk_8:15 ). The insincere, the doubters and the manipulators can't gain this wisdom, until they change their motives. "Pure"-Barclay says that the word pure in Greek meant, "pure enough to approach the gods"---"The true wisdom is the wisdom which is so cleansed of all ulterior motives, so cleansed of self….The true wisdom is able to bear the very scrutiny of God" (p. 111). This wisdom doesn't argue that the end justifies the means or "whatever it takes to get the job done". This wisdom is concerned with motives, with integrity and honesty. This is the person who wants God to inspect every aspect of their lives ( Joh_3:21 ; Psa_139:23, /24 "Search me, O God, and know my heart; try me and know my anxious thoughts; and see if there be any hurtful way in me"; 2Co_7:1 .-(Mark Dunagan). SL
***The so-called wisdom of verse James 3:14 is not from God, but from the devil, or demons under his control ( 1Ti_4:1 ). It originates on earth instead of in heaven (see Joh_8:23 ; Php_3:18, /19 ; Col_3:1-10 ; 1Jn_2:15-17 ). It comes from an attempt to fulfill physical desires without retaining control over one's body ( Jud_1:17, /18, /19 ). Obviously, a wisdom which causes envy and strife would not be from God since it produces disorder and worthless works ( Jam_3:15, /16 ; 1Co_14:33 ).-(Gary Hampton Commentary). SL
***"the seed whose fruit is righteousness" -the seed that produces righteousness. The fruit which consists of righteousness includes the wonderful qualities mentioned in the previous verse. "Righteousness" is integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, the condition of being in a right relationship with God. Definite fruit or fruits are seen in the life of someone who is truly righteous ( Php_1:11 ; Heb_12:11 ). "the seed" -We have access to this seed! The seed which can produce righteousness in the lives of individuals is the Word of God ( 2Ti_3:16, /17 ). Therefore, righteous fruit can arise out of any family or congregation, when people in that relationship take the Word of God to heart. "is sown" -This seed must be sown! The qualities in 3:17 don't just happen or naturally arise. Such wonderful traits must be taught and nurtured. "in peace" -Teaching or preaching the truth from impure motives won't bring about righteousness in your life. "betokening the spirit and mode in which the sowing takes place, as opposed to 'where envy and rivalry are'" (Alford p. 1614). Too many professed Christians try to cultivate righteousness, while at the same time of insisting upon remaining selfish in their motivation. Too often people follow the Bible from the motive of looking for an instant reward. "by those who make peace" -"by peacemakers" (Gspd); "by those who work for peace" (TCNT).-(Mark Dunagan). SL
***In verses James 3:14, /15, /16 James designates the kind of wisdom that does not come from above (or heaven); the present verse describes the kind that does come from the higher source. First pure signifies that it is of the most importance for a man's information to be pure or unmixed with anything false. Then peaceable indicates that peace is not to be desired unless it is according to the truth. That is why Paul placed it on condition in Rom 12:18. Gentle means to be mild and fair in one's temperament even when insisting on truth as being preferable to peace. Easy to be in-treated is all from one Greek word that means to be of a yielding disposition and not stubborn when the heavenly wisdom is presented. Full of mercy means that one's life is merciful toward those in difficulties whenever the occasion arises, and not only when it is the most convenient to be so. Fruits are the deeds that are performed and heavenly wisdom will prompt one to produce good deeds. Without partiality denotes an attitude that does not show respect of persons. (See chapter 2:1-4.) Without hypocrisy means that our expressions of friendliness to others will be sincere and not a mere pretense. A tree Is known by its fruit, hence if a man is being influenced by the wisdom that is from above, he will exhibit the characteristics that are described in this verse.-(E.M. Zerr's Commentary). SL
***These seven attributes of the wisdom that is from above, are the fruit of righteousness. They come forth from righteousness. When they are exercised in practice they are being sown, as it were. These fruits can only be “sown in peace”. Peace is the motive to sow this fruit. And what does this fruit deliver? Peace (Psalms 85:10). When you make peace, when are a peace maker (Matthew 5:9), you harvest peace. You harvest what you sow (Galatians 6:7). You are always sowing. All the words you speak out and all the deeds you do are seeds sown by you.-(Kingcomments). SL
***And the fruit of righteousness is sown — The whole is the principle of righteousness in the soul, and all the above virtues are the fruits of that righteousness. Is sown in peace — When the peace of God rules the heart, all these virtues and graces grow and flourish abundantly. Of them that make peace. — The peace-makers are continually recommending this wisdom to others, and their own conduct is represented as a sowing of heavenly seed, which brings forth Divine fruit. Perhaps sowing in peace signifies sowing prosperously-being very successful. This is not only the proper disposition for every teacher of the Gospel, but for every professed follower of the Lord Jesus. Some render this verse, which is confessedly obscure, thus: And the peaceable fruits of righteousness are sown for the practisers of peace. He who labours to live peaceably shall have peace for his reward.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
8 Ἦτε γάρ ποτε σκότος, νῦν δὲ φῶς ἐν Κυρίῳ· ὡς τέκνα φωτὸς περιπατεῖτε 9 (Ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς τοῦ Πνεύματος ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ.
10 Δοκιμάζοντες τί ἐστιν εὐάρεστον τῷ Κυρίῳ.
8 "For-γάρ (gar)-for, verily) ye were-Ἦτε (Ete)-was (wast or were)) sometimes-ποτε (pote)-once, at some time or other (i.e. formerly, aforetime)) *darkness-σκότος (akotos)-darkness, (Metaph. of ignorance respecting divine things and human duties, and the accompanying ungodliness and immorality)), but-δὲ (de)-and, but, moreover) now-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) are ye *light-φῶς (phos)-light, radiance, (metaph. of truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity associated with it)) in-ἐν (en)-in) the Lord-κυρίῳ (Kurio)-Lord, Master, (supreme in authority, i.e. (as noun) controller; by implication: Master (as a respectful title)): *walk-περιπατεῖτε (peripateite)-to walk around, (figuratively: be occupied, to regulate one's life, to conduct oneself)) as-ὡς (hos)-as, like, even as, exactly like) children-τέκνα (tekna)-one born, a child) *of light-φωτὸς (photos)-light, radiance, (metaph. of truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity associated with it)), 9 (For-γὰρ (gar)-for, verily) the-ὁ (ho)-the) fruit-καρπὸς (karpos)-literally: fruit, (figuratively: result, outcome, deed)) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) spirit-Πνεύματος (pneumatos)-spirit) is in-ἐν (en)-in) all-πάσῃ (pase)-all, every) goodness-ἀγαθωσύνῃ (agathosune)-goodness) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) *righteousness-δικαιοσύνῃ (dikaiosune)-rightness, justice, (equity (of character or act)) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) truth-ἀληθείᾳ (aletheia)-truth, verity).) 10 *Proving-Δοκιμάζοντες (Dokimasontes)-to try, prove, (i.e. to test, examine, prove)) what-τί (ti)-what) is-ἐστιν (estin)-'to be') *acceptable-εὐάρεστον (euareston)-well-pleasing) unto the-τῷ (to)-to the) Lord-κυρίῳ (Kurio)-Lord, Master, (supreme in authority, i.e. (as noun) controller; by implication: Master (as a respectful title):"
Example of Greek word:
*σκότος (akotos)-darkness click: Luke 11:35
*φῶς (phos)-light click: Matthew 4:16
*περιπατεῖτε (peripateite)-walk click: Galatians 5:16
*δικαιοσύνῃ (dikaiosune)-righteousness click: Romans 6:18
*G1381: (Δοκιμάζοντες-Proving) click: 1 Th 2:4 (δοκιμάζοντι-trieth)
*εὐάρεστον (euareston)-acceptable click: Romans 12:2
ye were-ἦτε: Verb, Imperfect, (No voice stated), Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: For ["YE-WERE"] sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord:
walk-περιπατεῖτε: Verb, Present, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-walking!"] as children of light, (For the fruit of the spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth.)
Proving-δοκιμάζοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["testING"//"provING"] what
is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"] acceptable unto the Lord:
For-γάρ (gar)-for, verily) ye were-Ἦτε (Ete)-was (wast or were) sometimes-ποτε (pote)-once, at some time or other (i.e. formerly, aforetime)) darkness-σκότος (akotos)-darkness, (Metaph. of ignorance respecting divine things and human duties, and the accompanying ungodliness and immorality)),:
The reason Christians should not partake with unbelievers in their evil deeds is that we were formerly darkness (cf. Ephesians 4:17, /18, /19) but are now light, having trusted Jesus Christ (Ephesians 2:1-3; Ephesians 3:17-21; cf. Matthew 5:14; Colossians 1:12, /13). The second command is to walk as children of light. Obviously it is possible for the children of light not to walk (live) as children of light (cf. 1 John 1:6, /7). Otherwise the command would be unnecessary. "The gravest disservice that any man can do to a fellow man is to make him think lightly of sin." [Note: Barclay, p. 194.]-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
“For”: God has already given us one very important and motivational reason why we should abstain from such things, eternal condemnation. Here is another incentive, all such sins are part of a life lived in darkness and ignorance. “Ye were once darkness”: See Act_26:18 . “Paul saw the heathen life as life in the dark” (Barclay p. 164). “The light and darkness imagery shows the uncompromising nature of Paul's ethical demands. There appears to be no room for shady gray areas” (Boles p. 301). Practicing sin without feeling guilty is not evidence that a person is open minded or is enlightened, rather it is proof that one is filled with darkness.-(Mark Dunagan). SL
The Ephesian brethren had been involved in the wicked ways of darkness before they obeyed the truth. In Christ, they were light because sin had been put away. So, Paul admonished them to live like the children of light they had become (5:8; Mat_5:14, /15, /16 ; 2Co_4:4, /5, /6 ). Light is a necessary ingredient of plant growth and fruit bearing. It is also important for a Christian to stay in the light so he can bear the fruits of goodness, righteousness and truth (5:9).-(Gary Hampton Commentary). SL
Ye were sometimes darkness,— St. Paul, to express the great darkness in which the Gentiles were, calls them darkness itself. The kingdom of Satan over the Gentile world was a kingdom of darkness. See ch. Ephesians 6:12. And so, on the other hand, we find Jesus is pronounced by Simeon a light to lighten the Gentiles, Luke 2:32. The parenthesis in Eph 5:9-[((For the fruit of the spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth.))] serves to give us the literal sense of all that is here required by the Apostle in this allegorical discourse of light. See Colossians 1:12, /13.-(Thomas Coke Commentary). SL
This section immediately follows the exhortation to personal purity. The clear light of God’s holiness is to be our standard. “Ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light” (Ephesians 5:8). Notice that he does not say, “Ye were sometimes in the dark,” but, “Ye were darkness.” Darkness is ignorance of God, and we were once, in our unconverted days, in ignorance of God and therefore said to be “darkness.” We did not have the Light of life. Every natural man is in that condition. Zophar asked Job the question, “Canst thou by searching find out God?” (Job 11:7) And the answer is in the negative, for all philosophizing or reasoning about divine things ends in confusion because men in their natural state are darkness.-(Ironside's Notes). SL
but-δὲ (de)-and, but, moreover) now-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) are ye light-φῶς (phos)-light, radiance, (metaph. of truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity associated with it)) in-ἐν (en)-in) the Lord-κυρίῳ (Kurio)-Lord, Master, (supreme in authority, i.e. (as noun) controller; by implication: Master (as a respectful title))::
Walking in the light will cause a Christian to be living proof of what is "well-pleasing" (A.S.V.) to the Lord. Such proof will result from careful prayer, study of God's word and the transformation of mind that comes from such (5:10; 1Th_5:17 ; 2Ti_2:15 ; Rom_12:1 -). Nothing good, in the spiritual realm, is grown in darkness, thus no good fruit is produced there. Those in Christ cannot be in partnership, or have anything in common, with such works but must expose them ( Joh_16:8, /9, /10, /11 ). This can be done through preaching and living as God would have one live (5:11; 2Ti_4:15 ; 1Pe_2:11, /12 ).-(Gary Hampton Commentary). SL
“The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him” (1 Corinthians 2:14). They are spiritually discerned. We were once in that condition, and when in that darkened state, we walked in darkness, and practiced things of which we are now ashamed. But having become children of the light, being born of God and made light in the Lord, we are to walk as children of the light.-(Ironside's Notes). SL
“Walking as children of light is the same as ‘walking in love’ (5:2); 'walking worthily' (4:1); 'walking in the truth' ( 3Jn_1:4 ); and ‘walking by the Spirit’ ( Gal_5:16 ). Thus, walking as children of ;ight means that we must live by the light of God's word ( Psa_119:105 ). 'You are light', Paul says, 'now live like it’” (Boles p. 301). Compare with 1Jn_1:5, /6, /7 ; 1Jn_2:8, /9, /10, /11 ). Thus we have the obligation to live in such a manner that others in sin "see the light" ( Mat_5:16 ; Php_2:15 ). “Their behaviour must conform to their new identity. They must radiate the light they are” (Stott p. 199). “Let no-one say that doctrine does not matter! Good conduct arises out of good doctrine. It is only when we have grasped clearly who we are in Christ , that the desire will grow within us to live a life that is worthy of our calling and fitting to our character as God's new society” (Stott p. 194). We walk as children of light, when we pattern our moral and ethical behaviour after the God who is Light ( 1Jn_1:5 ; Eph_5:1, /2 ).-(Mark Dunagan). SL