The Law

Beloved of the Lord;

Remember: “This only would I learn of you, received ye-ἐλάβετε (elabete)-to take, receive) the spirit, by the works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith?” (Galatians 3:2)

  • received ye-ἐλάβετε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-GOT"]

 

Step 4:

1. The Law

2. Grace

3. The Royal Law (pending)

The Law

 

The Law, also know as the Law of Moses, it was given through Moses at Mount Sinai after God delivered the Israelite's from the bondage of Egypt.

 

The great design of the law was that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those that believe; that, being convinced of their guilt, and the insufficiency of the law to bring righteousness and justification for us, we might be persuaded to believe on Christ.

Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]

&

King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]

Concordance // Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.

Hebrew Text:

Westminster Leningrad Codex

Key:

  •  H/G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Hebrew or Greek words that share the same Root word, but not the same Parsing / Inflection.

  • Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.

 

The Law

 

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598

17 Ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωσέως ἐδόθη· ἡ χάρις καὶἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.

John 1:17

17 "For the *Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) was given-ἐδόθη (edothe)-to give) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Moses-Μωσέως (Moseos)-"drawer out", (He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses), *but grace-χάρις (charis)-grace, favour, good-will, pleasure) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) truth-ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth:—true, truth, verity) came-ἐγένετο (egeneto)-to become, (i.e. came into being) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)."

  • *example of Greek word: νόμος (nomos)-Law click: Galatians 3:12

  • *example of Greek word: χάρις (charis)-but grace click: Colossians 1:2

  • *example of Greek word: ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth click: John 8:32

 

  • was given-ἐδόθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For the Law ["WAS-GIVEN"] by Moses, but grace and truth

  • came-ἐγένετο: Verb, Second Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["BECAME"] by Jesus Christ.

Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

    The law was given - The Old Testament economy. The institutions under which the Jews lived.-(Barnes).

    Because the Law was given through Moses; "Law," which in Paul's writings had been even looked at by itself as an "antithesis to grace" (Romans 4:15Romans 6:14; Romans 7:3; Romans 10:4Galatians 3:10Galatians 4:4). The Law principle of approach to God fails through the weakness of the flesh. The Law condemns, - it is incapable of justifying the ungodly: the Law terrifies, - it never reconciles. The Law even provokes to sin and excites the passions which it punishes -(Pulpit).

    For the law was given by Moses- Both moral and ceremonial... and points out what is man's duty both to God and men; uncovers sin, accuses him of it, convicts him of it, and condemns him for it; "nor could it give strength to perform its demands; nor does it give the least hint of forgiveness; nor will it admit of repentance... The ceremonial law pointed out the pollution of human nature, the guilt and punishment of sin" -(Gill). 

    [The] Law commands and demands; it says: ‘This shalt thou do, or else-’; and it has nothing more that it can say-(MacLaren).

Moses-Μωσέως (Moseos)-"drawer out", (He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses): 

   By Moses - By Moses, as the servant of God. He was the great legislator of the Jews, by whom, under God, their polity was formed. The law worketh wrath Romans 4:15; it was attended with many burdensome rites and ceremonies Acts 15:10; it was preparatory to another state of things. The gospel succeeded that and took its place, and thus showed the greatness of the gospel economy, as well as its grace and truth. -(Barnes).

   For the law was given by Moses; The law, moral and ceremonial, was given by Moses as God’s minister and servant; that law by which no man can be justified,  Romans 3:28. -(Matthew P).

but grace-χάρις (charis)-grace, favour, good-will, pleasure) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) truth-ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth:—true, truth, verity): 

    Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ - A system of religion full of favors, and the "true" system, was revealed by him. The old system was one of "law," and "shadows," and "burdensome rites;" [but] "this" was full of mercy to mankind, and was true in all things. We may learn from these verses: 1. that all our mercies come from Jesus Christ. 2. "All true believers receive from Christ's fulness; the best and greatest saints cannot live without him, the meanest and weakest may live by him. This excludes proud boasting that we have nothing but 'we have received it,' and silenceth perplexing fears that we want nothing but 'we may receive it.'"-(Barnes).

    but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ: By grace and truth, is meant the Gospel, in opposition to the law; which is called grace, because it is a declaration of the love, and grace, of God to men; it ascribes salvation, in all the parts of it, to the free grace and favour of God; and is the means of implanting and increasing grace in the hearts of men. And "truth", not only because it contains truth, and nothing but truth, it coming from the God of truth; and the substance of it being Christ, who is the truth; and being revealed, applied, and led into by the Spirit of truth; but because it is the truth of the types, and the substance of the shadows of the law-(Gill).

    Previously the world had neither known, nor had had grace-(Bengel).

came-ἐγένετο (egeneto)-to become, (i.e. came into being) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)

    His gift is not like the gift that Moses brought down from the mountain, merely a writing upon tables; His gift is not the letter of an outward commandment, nor the letter of an outward revelation. It is the thing itself which He reveals by being it. He does not speak about grace, He brings it; He does not show us God by His words, He shows us God by His acts. He does not preach about Him, but He lives Him, He manifests Him. His gentleness, His compassion, His miracles, His wisdom, His patience, His tears, His promises; all these are the very Deity in action before our eyes; and instead of a mere verbal revelation, which is so imperfect and so worthless, grace and truth, the living realities, are flashed upon a darkened world in the face of Jesus Christ-(MacLaren).

    Through Moses, here taken as representing the pre-Christian dispensation, was given the law, which made great demands but gave nothing, which was a true revelation of God’s will, and so far was good, but brought men no ability to become liker God. But through Jesus Christ (here for the first time named in the Gospel [of John], because we are now fully on the ground of history) came grace and truth. In contrast to the inexorable demands of a law that brought no spiritual life. Jesus Christ brought “grace,” the unearned favour of God. The Law said: Do this and live; Christ says: God gives you life, accept it. “Truth” also was brought by Christ.—ἀλήθεια here means “reality” as opposed to the symbolism of the Law (cf. John 4:23). In the Law was a shadow of good things to come: in Christ we have the good things themselves.-(Expositor).

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
28 λογιζόμεθα οὖν πίστει δικαιοῦσθαι ἄνθρωπον, χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου.

 

Romans 3:28

28 "Therefore we conclude-λογιζόμεθα (logizometha)-to reckon, account), that a man *is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι (dikaiousthai)-to make or declare right) *by faith-πίστει (pistei)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief), *without-χωρὶς (choris)-apart, beside, apart from) *the deeds-ἔργων (ergon)-work, (by implication: an act:—deed, doing, labour, work) *of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law, by extension: any law of man:—moral or ceremonial)."

  • *example of G1344: (dikaiousthai-is justified) click: 1 Corinthians 6:11  (edikaiothete-ye are justified)

  • *example of Greek word: πίστει (pistei)-by faith click: Hebrews 11:7

  • *example of Greek word: χωρὶς (choris)-without click: 1 Timothy 2:8

  • *example of Greek word: ἔργων (ergon)-the deeds click: Hebrews 9:14 (works)

  • *example of Greek word: νόμου (nomou)-of the Law click: Galatians 3:10

  • we conclude-λογιζόμεθα: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person Plural: Therefore ["WE-ARE-accountING"//"we-are-reckoning"], that a man

  • is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι: Verb, Present, Passive, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-beING-JUSTIFIED"] by faith, without the deeds of the Law.

***deeds: i.e. the Law of works, as a principle of justification. That is, works as a meritorious ground of justification. The apostle, of course, does not mean that Christianity does not produce good works...but that no righteousness of their own will be the ground of their justification."-(Barnes).

***“When the apostle tells us, that by faith man is justified without the works of the law, or rather, works of law, his plain meaning is, that men are justified gratuitously by faith, and not meritoriously by perfect obedience to any law whatever.”-(Benson).

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
19 Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις οὗ ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ἐπήγγελται· διαταγεὶς δι᾽ ἀγγέλων, ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου.

 

Galatians 3:19

19 "Wherefore-Τί (ti)-what) then-οὖν (oun)-then) serveth the- (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)? It was added-προσετέθη (prosetethe)-to add (on, to) because of-χάριν (charin)-for or on account of) *transgressions-παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgression, trespass, (violation:—breaking, transgression)till-ἄχρις (achris)-till, up to) the-τὸ (to)-the) seed-σπέρμα (sperma)-seed, progeny, (i.e. offspring, descendant) should come-ἔλθῃ (elthe)-to come, (i.e. arrive), to whom-(ho)-who) *the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-to profess, promise), and it was ordained-διαταγεὶς (diatageis)-to arrange throughout, (i.e. set in order, ordain) by-δι (di)-through, by means of, (i.e. through (the agency of) *Angels-ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-messenger, agent)  in-ἐν (en)-in) *the hand-χειρὶ (cheiri)-hand (literally or figuratively) *of a Mediator-μεσίτου (mesitou)-middle man, mediator)."

  • *example of the Greek word: παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgressions click: Hebrews 9:15

  • *example of Greek word: ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-the promise was made click: Romans 4:21

  • *example of Greek word: ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-Angels click: Mark 8:38

  • *example of Greek word: χειρὶ (cheiri)-the hand click: John 3:35

  • *example of G3316: (mesitou-of a Mediator) click: 1 Timothy 2:5 (mesites-mediator)

  • It was added-προσετέθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Wherefore then serveth the Law? ["WAS-addED"//"it-was-added"] because of transgressions,

  • till-ἄχρις: PREPosition: ["UNTIL"] the seed

  • should come-ἔλθῃ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-COMING"], to whom

  • the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται: Verb, Perfect Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: [He-HAS-promisED"]and it was

  • ordained-διαταγεὶς: Verb, Second-Aorist, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["BEING-prescribED"] by Angels  in the hand of a Mediator. 

Wherefore-Τί (ti)-what) then-οὖν (oun)-then) serveth the- (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)

    Wherefore then serveth the law —If the inheritance was not by the law, but by the promise, as a free gift, for what purpose was the law given, or what significancy had it? -(Benson).

    Wherefore then serveth the law?  This is obviously an objection which might be urged to the reasoning which the apostle had pursued. It was very obvious to ask, if the principles which he had laid down were correct, of what use was the Law?  Why was it given at all? Why were there so many wonderful exhibitions of the divine power at its promulgation? Why were there so many commendations of it in the Scriptures? -(Matthew H.).

It was added-προσετέθη (prosetethe)-to add (on, to) because of-χάριν (charin)-for or on account of) transgressions-παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgression, trespass, (violation:—breaking, transgression): 

    it was added because of transgressions; four hundred and thirty years after the covenant made with Abraham; it did not succeed it [the promise to Abraham], nor [did the Law] take the place of it, and so make it null and void; but was over and above added unto it, for the sake of restraining transgressions; which had there been no law, men would not have been accountable for them [their transgressions].-(Gill).

    Because of transgressions - on account of transgressions, or with reference to them. The meaning is, that the Law was given to show the true nature of transgressions, or to show what was sin. It was not to reveal a way of justification, but it was to disclose the true nature of sin; to deter people from committing it; to declare its penalty; to convince people of it, and thus to be "ancillary" to, and preparatory to the work of redemption through the Redeemer-(Barnes).

    [It was added] for the sake of restraining transgressions; which had there been no law, men would not have been accountable for them; and they would have gone into them without fear, and with impunity; but the law was given, to lay a restraint on men, by forbidding such and such things, on pain of death; and also for the detecting, discovering, and making known transgressions, what they are, their nature and consequences -(Gill).

    It was a temporary system that would last until Christ died at the cross. 

till-ἄχρις (achris)-till, up to) the-τὸ (to)-the) seed-σπέρμα (sperma)-seed, progeny, (i.e. offspring, descendant) should come-ἔλθῃ (elthe)-to come, (i.e. arrive):

     till Christ the promised Seed should come, who is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth, Romans 10:4; upon whose coming the law contained in ordinances ceased. That Christ is here to be understood by the seed,..."(Matthew P.).

    till the seedduring the period up to the time when the seed came. The law was a preparatory dispensation for the Jewish nation (Ro 5:20; Greek, "the law came in additionally and incidentally"), intervening between the promise and its fulfilment in Christ.-(Jamieson F.B.). 

to whom-(ho)-who) the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-to profess, promise)

    till the seed should come, to whom the promise was made; either Christ the seed of the woman, and of Abraham, who was to come in the flesh, and is come; and to whom the grand promise of life, and all the promises of the covenant were made; not for himself, but for those he represented, and in whom they are all secure: until whose coming to finish transgression, and bring in everlasting righteousness, the law was to continue in the form in which, and the use for which it was added, and then to cease as the ministration of Moses; for through the coming of Christ it received its full accomplishment, and came to an end; the ceremonial law was utterly abolished, and the moral law ceased to be a covenant of works, though it continues a rule of walk and conversation; and the whole Mosaic economy was no more: or else the seed here intends the spiritual seed of Abraham; particularly among the Gentiles, to whom the promise of blessedness, of justification, and eternal life was made; and the sense be, that till such time that a generation of faithful men, of believers in Christ, should arise among the Gentiles, the law was to continue with the Jews; but when they should spring up, the middle wall of partition should be broken down, and Abraham's spiritual seed among Jews and Gentiles make up one body, one people, and be fellow heirs and partakers of the promise of God in Christ, through the Gospel-(Gill).

ordained-διαταγεὶς (diatageis)-to arrange throughout, (i.e. set in order, ordain) by-δι (di)-through, by means of, (i.e. through (the agency of) Angels-ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-messenger, agent)

    and it was ordained by angels; not Moses and Aaron, and Joshua, as some say; for though Moses was concerned in the giving of the law, yet not Aaron nor Joshua, nor are any of them ever called angels; but the holy elect angels are here meant, the ten thousands of saints, or holy ones, God came to Mount Sinai with, and the Lord [(LORD)] was among, in the holy place; see Deuteronomy 33:2 and so the Jews say (l) that the Lord [(LORD)] appeared on Mount Sinai gloriously, , "with companies", or "troops of angels", to give the law to his people-(Gill). 

    Ordained by angels.—The idea of angels having had a share in the giving of the Law appears in Deuteronomy 33:2 : “The Lord came from Sinai . . . He shined forth from mount Paran, and He came with ten thousands of saints.” For “saints” the LXX. substitutes, in the next verse, “angels.” Similar allusions are found at the end of St. Stephen’s speech (Acts 7:53): “Who have received the law by the disposition (as ordinances) of angels, and have not kept it.”-(Ellicott).

    was ordained by angels. Luke, Acts 7:38, speaks of the law as published by one angel: the apostle, Hebrews 2:2, calls it, the word spoken by angels. We read of no angels, Exodus 19:20, nor of any of the saints; yet, Deu 33:2: Moses saith God came from Sinai, with ten thousand saints. The law was given either by the ministry of an angel, or by God attended with angels.-(Matthew P.).

in-ν (en)-in) the hand-χειρὶ (cheiri)-hand (literally or figuratively) of a Mediator-μεσίτου (mesitou)-middle man, mediator): 

    "...and so Moses and Christ, the law and Gospel, the old and the new covenant, are continually opposed to each other; besides, the mediator here seems to be represented as inferior to the angels, and as receiving the law into his hands from them, by whom it was ordained; which to conceive of Christ, is very much to the demeaning and lessening of him. Moses is the mediator here meant, who stood between God and the people of Israel...and in his hand the tables of the law were, when he came down from the mount, and was a typical [type of] mediator of Christ-(Gill).

    a mediator] The noun thus rendered occurs in four other passages of the N. T. (1 Timothy 2:5Hebrews 8:6Hebrews 9:15Hebrews 12:24), and in all of them refers to our Lord Jesus Christ. In the three latter He is expressly termed the Mediator of the new or better covenant. Here the mediator is associated with the first covenant. In the epistle to Timothy our Lord is a mediator ‘between God and man’. Here the mediator is between God and the people of Israel, i.e. of course, Moses [See Deuteronomy 5:5].-(Cambridge BSC).

    in the hand of a mediator—namely, Moses. De 5:5, "I stood between the Lord and you": the very definition of a mediator. Hence the phrase often recurs, "By the hand of Moses." In the giving of the law, the "angels" were representatives of God; Moses, as mediator, represented the people-(Jamieson F.B.).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
19 οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐτελείωσεν ὁ νόμος, ἐπεισαγωγὴ δὲ κρείττονος ἐλπίδος, δι’ ἧς ἐγγίζομεν τῷ Θεῷ.

 

Hebrews 7:19

19 "For the Law made *nothing-οὐδὲν (ouden)-not even one, nothing) perfect-ἐτελείωσεν (eteleiosen)-to complete, (literally: accomplish, bring to its goal), but the bringing in-ἐπεισαγωγὴ (epeisagoge)-a leading in upon, (i.e. bringing in besides, introduction) *of a better-κρείττονος (kreittonos)-stronger, more powerful, (figuratively: better, i.e. nobler:—best, better) *hope-ἐλπίδος (elpidos)-hope, (i.e. expectation (abstractly or concretely) or confidence:—faith, hope) did: by the which we draw nigh-ἐγγίζομεν (eggizomen)-to draw near) unto God-Θεῷ (Theo)-God, (i.e. spoken of the only and true God)."

  • *example of Greek word: οὐδὲν (ouden)-nothing click: Mark 15:3

  • *example of Greek word: κρείττονος (kreittonos)-of a better click: Hebrews 7:22

  • *example of Greek word: ἐλπίδος (elpidos)-hope click: Hebrews 10:23 (faith)

  • made perfect-ἐτελείωσεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For the Law ["maturES"//"perfects"] nothing, but the bringing in of a better hope did: by the which

  • we draw nigh-ἐγγίζομεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural["WE-ARE-NEARING"//"we-are-drawing-near"] unto God.

***the law made nothing perfect,.... Or no man perfect; neither any of the priests that offered sacrifices, nor any of the people for whom they were offered: it could not perfectly make atonement for sin; nor make men perfectly holy or righteous; it could neither justify nor sanctify; neither bring in a perfect righteousness, nor bring men to perfect holiness, and so to eternal life and salvation.-(Gill).

 

 

 

 

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
10 ὅστις γὰρ ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσει, πταίσει δὲ ἐν ἑνί γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598

11 Ὁ γὰρ εἰπὼν, Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, εἶπε καὶ, Μὴ φονεύσῃς. εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.

 

James 2:10-11

10 "For-γὰρ (gar)-for)  whosoever-ὅστις (hostis)-whoever, whosoever) *shall keep-τηρήσει (teresei)-to keep, watch, observe) the-τὸν (ton)-the) *whole-ὅλον (holon)-all, the whole, entire) Law-νόμον (nomon)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)), and yet-δὲ (de)-but, yet) offend-πταίσει (ptaisei)-to stumble, fall, (figuratively: to err, sin, fail) in-ἐν (en)-in) one point-ἑνί (heni)-one), he is-γέγονεν (gegonen)-to become) *guilty-ἔνοχος (enochos)-held in, subject to, ( liable to (a condition, penalty or imputation):— guilty of) of all-πάντων (panton)-all, every (plural)11 For he //that said (Or, that Law which said), Do not commit adultery; said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become-γέγονας (gegonas)-to become) *a transgressor-παραβάτης (parabates)-transgressor, breaker) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law))."

  • *example of Greek word: τηρήσει (teresei)-shall keep click: John 14:23

  • *example of Greek word: ὅλον (holon)-whole click: Matthew 16:26

  • *example of Greek word: ἔνοχος (enochos)-guilty click: Matthew 26:66

  • *example of Greek word: παραβάτης (parabates)-a transgressor click: Romans 2:25 (breaker)

  • shall keep-τηρήσει: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For  whosoever ["SHALL-BE-KEEPING"] the whole Law, and yet

  • offend-πταίσει: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-OFFENDING"] in one point,

  • he is-γέγονεν: Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["HAS-BECOME"] guilty of all. For he that said, Do not commit adultery; said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, 

  • thou art become-γέγονας: Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["YOU-HAVE-BECOME"] a transgressor of the Law.

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) whosoever-ὅστις (hostis)-whoever, whosoever) shall keep-τηρήσει (teresei)-to keep, watch, observe) the-τὸν (ton)-the) whole-ὅλον (holon)-all, the whole, entire) Law-νόμον (nomon)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law))

    For whosoever shall keep the whole law - The apostle does not say that this in fact ever did occur, but he says that if it should, and yet a man should have failed in only one particular, he must be judged to be guilty. The case supposed seems to be that of one who claimed that he had kept the whole law. The apostle says that even if this should be admitted for the time to be true in all other respects, yet, if he had failed in any one particular - he would be held to be a transgressor, The design of this is to show the importance of yielding universal obedience, and to impress upon the mind a sense of the enormity of sin from the fact that the violation of any one precept is in fact an offence against the whole law of God -(Barnes).

and yet-δὲ (de)-but, yet) offend-πταίσει (ptaisei)-to stumble, fall, (figuratively: to err, sin, fail) in-ἐν (en)-in) one point-ἑνί (heni)-one):    

    And yet offend in one point; slip, or trip, or stumble at; it seems to signify the least failing in any point of the law -(Matthew P.).

    For whosoever shall keep...— Better, have kept the whole Law, but shall have offended in one, has become guilty of all. As a chain is snapped by failure of the weakest link, so the whole Law, in its harmony and completeness as beheld by God, is broken by one offence of one man; and the penalty falls, of its own natural weight and incidence, on the culprit -(Ellicott).

    And yet offend in one point - In one respect; or shall violate any one of the commands included in the general word law. The word offend here means, properly, to stumble, to fall; then to err, or fail in duty. See the notes at Matthew 5:29; Matthew 26:31.-(Barnes).

    and yet offend in one point; sin, which is a transgression of the law, is an offense to God the Father, who is of purer eyes than to behold it; to Jesus Christ, who loves righteousness, and hates iniquity; and to the blessed Spirit who is grieved and vexed by it; and to the justice of God, which being injured by it, demands satisfaction; and to the law of God, which accuses, convinces, reproves, and condemns for it. The word used signifies to "fall", and designs more than stumbling, even an open breach and violation of the law; and which being made, by any, in a single instance, he is guilty of all:..."-(Gill).

he is-γέγονεν (gegonen)-to become) guilty-ἔνοχος (enochos)-held in, subject to, ( liable to (a condition, penalty or imputation):— guilty of) of all-πάντων (panton)-all, every (plural): 

    He is guilty of all - He is guilty of violating the law as a whole, or of violating the law of God as such; he has rendered it impossible that he should be justified and saved by the law. This does not affirm that he is as guilty as if he had violated every law of God; or that all sinners are of equal grade because all have violated some one or more of the laws of God; but the meaning is, that he is guilty of violating the law of God as such; he shows that be has not the true spirit of obedience; he has exposed himself to the penalty of the law, and made it impossible now to be saved by it -(Barnes).

    He is guilty of all; guilty of the breach, and obnoxious to the punishment, of all; not distributively, or separately, as if he transgressed every precept distinctly; but: Conjunctively or copulatively; he is guilty of not keeping the whole law, though not of breaking each particular command; he breaks the whole law, though not the whole of the law: as he that wounds a man’s arm wounds the whole man, though not the whole of the man; he that breaks one link breaks the whole chain, and he that fails in one musical note spoils the whole harmony -(Matthew P.).

    The best manuscripts read, "Whosoever shall have kept the whole law, and yet shall have offended (literally, 'stumbled'; not so strong as 'fall,' [comp. with Romans 11:11) in one (point; here, the respecting of persons), is (hereby) become guilty of all." The law is one seamless garment which is rent if you but rend a part; or a musical harmony which is spoiled if there be one discordant note [Tirinus]; or a golden chain whose completeness is broken if you break one link [Gataker]. You thus break the whole law, though not the whole of the law, because you offend against love, which is the fulfilling of the law. If any part of a man be leprous, the whole man is judged to be a leper. God requires perfect, not partial, obedience. We are not to choose out parts of the law to keep, which suit our whim, while we neglect others.-(Jamieson F.B.).

thou art become-γέγονας (gegonas)-to become) a transgressor-παραβάτης (parabates)-transgressor, breaker) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)):

    thou art become a transgressor of the law; "not of that particular precept of the law, the seventh command [adultery], for the contrary is supposed before, but of the sixth only [murder]; and yet by so doing, a man becomes a violator of the whole law; for the law is but one, though it consists of various precepts; and the breach of one precept, as well as of another, is the breach of the Law..."-(Gill). 

    "This is the apostle's argument, and way of reasoning, proving the above assertion, that he that breaks the law in one particular instance, is guilty of the breach of the whole Law" -(Gill). 

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
27 Ποῦ οὖν ἡ καύχησις ἐξεκλείσθη διὰ ποίου νόμου τῶν ἔργων οὐχί ἀλλὰ διὰ νόμου πίστεως

 

Romans 3:27

27 “Where *is boasting-καύχησις (kauchesis)-boasting (act of), (i.e. the act of glorying) then? It is excluded-ἐξεκλείσθη (exekleisthe)-to shut out). By-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) what Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (i.e. principle, rule)? Of *works-ἔργων (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour, (by implication: of Moses:—Law, by extension: of any law:—moral or ceremonial)? Nay: but by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law *of faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief).”

  • *example of Greek word: καύχησις (kauchesis)-is boasting click: 2 Corinthians 11:10

  • *example of Greek word: ἔργων (ergon)-works click: Galatians 3:5

  • *example of Greek word: πίστεως (pisteos)-of faith click: Acts 6:5

  • It is excluded-ἐξεκλείσθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Where is boasting then? ["it-IS-OUT-LOCKED"//"it-is-debarred"]. By what Law? Of works? Nay: but by the Law of faith.

  ***works: The Law which commands works, and on which the Jews relied. If this were complied with, and they were thereby justified, they would have had ground of self-confidence, or boasting, as being justified by their own merits. But a plan which led to this, which ended in boasting, and self-satisfaction, and pride, could not be true.-(Barnes).

  ***Law of faith: not by a law requiring faith; nor as if the Gospel was a law, a new law, a remedial law, a law of milder terms; but the word "Law" here answers to the Hebrew word which signifies any "doctrine" or "instruction", and oftentimes the doctrine of the Gospel..."-(Gill).

***This [justification by faith] is also a law, inasmuch as being of Divine appointment, to which subjection [submission] is due ch. Romans 10:3. [They have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God]- (Bengel).

***Nay: but by the law of faith; i.e. the gospel law which requires faith, by which the righteousness of Christ is imputed to us, and attained by us. And this is called a law of faith, as some think, in condescension to the Jews’ custom of speaking, who are so much delighted with the name of the law; and so that he might not be suspected of novelty: but, as most, it is a Hebraism, denoting no more than the doctrine or prescript of faith.-(Matthew P.).

Law of faith: The law demanding faith.

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
1 Σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων νόμος τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν, οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων, κατἐνιαυτὸν ταῖς αὐταῖς θυσίαις ἃς προσφέρουσιν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς, οὐδέποτε δύναται τοὺς προσερχομένους τελειῶσαι·

 

Hebrews 10:1

1 "For-γὰρ (gar)-for) the- (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) having-ἔχων (echon)-to have) *a shadow-Σκιὰν (skian)-a shade, shadow) *of good things-ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-a good thing, benefit) to-τῶν (ton)-of the) come-μελλόντων (mellonton)-to be about), and not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) the-τὴν (ten)-the) very-αὐτὴν (auten)-same, the same, selfsame) image-εἰκόνα (eikona)-image, figure, likeness) of the-τῶν (ton)-of the) things-πραγμάτων (pragmaton)-a doing, deed, anything done, (i.e. that which is or exists, a thing), can-δύναται (dunatai)-to be able) *never-οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-not even at any time, (i.e. never at all:— never) with those-αὐταῖς (autais)-same, selfsame)  *sacrifices-θυσίαις (thusiais)-a slaughter, slaughter animal, sacrifice) which-ἃς (has)-which) they offered-προσφέρουσιν (prospherousin)-to bear toward, to bring to, lead to) year by-κατ (kat)-according to) year-ἐνιαυτὸν (eniauton)-a year, repetition, revolution, (i.e. yearly)  *continually-εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-to the unbroken continuance, (i.e. perpetually), *make the-τοὺς (tous)-the) *comers thereunto-προσερχομένους (proserchomenous) -to come to, approach, draw near) perfect-τελειῶσαι (teleiosai)-to complete, (i.e. (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character):—consecrate, finish, fulfil, make) perfect):"

  • *example of G4639: (skian-shadow) click: Colossians 2:17 (skia-a shadow)

  • *example of Greek word: ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-of good things click: Hebrews 9:11

  • *example of Greek word: εἰκόνα (eikona)-image click: Luke 20:24

  • *example of Greek word: οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-never click: Acts 10:14

  • *example of G2378(thusiais-sacrifices) click: Matthew 9:13 (thusian-sacrifice)

  • *example of Greek word: εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-continually click: Hebrews 7:3

  • *example of Greek word: τελειῶσαι (teleiosai)-make perfect click: Hebrews 2:10

  • *example of Greek word: προσερχομένους -comers thereunto click: Hebrews 7:25 (come unto)

  • having-ἔχων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: For the Law ["HAVING"] a shadow of good things to

  • come-μελλόντων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Neuter: ["impending], and not the very image of the things,

  • can-δύναται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-ABLE"] never with those  sacrifices which

  • they offered-προσφέρουσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural["THEY-ARE-TOWARD-CARRYING"//"they-are-offering"] year by year continually,

  • make perfect-τελειῶσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-mature"// "to-perfect"] the

  • comers thereunto-προσερχομένους: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Accusative, Plural, Masculine: ["ones-TOWARD-COMING"//"ones-coming"]

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) the- (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) having-ἔχων (echon)-to have) a shadow-Σκιὰν (skian)-a shade, shadow) of good things-ἀγαθῶν (agathon)-a good thing, benefit) to-τῶν (ton)-of the) come-μελλόντων (mellonton)-to be about):

    For the law having a shadow of good things to come,.... By which is meant not the moral law, for that is not a shadow of future blessings, but a system of precepts; the things it commands are not figuratively, but really good and honest; and are not obscure, but plain and easy to be understood; nor are they fleeting and passing away, as a shadow, but lasting and durable: but the ceremonial law is intended; this was a "shadow", a figure, a representation of something true, real, and substantial; was dark and obscure, yet had in it, and gave, some glimmering light; and was like a shadow, fleeting and transitory: and it was a shadow of good things; of Christ himself, who is the body, the sum and substance of it, and of the good things to come by him; as the expiation of sin, peace and reconciliation, a justifying righteousness, pardon of sin, and eternal life; these are said to be "to come", as they were under the former dispensation, while the ceremonial law was in force, and that shadow was in being, and the substance not as yet." -(Gill).

    For the law having a shadow - That is, The whole of the Mosaic economy was a shadow; for so the word "Law" is often used. The word "shadow" here refers to a rough outline of anything, a mere sketch, such as a carpenter draws with a piece of chalk, or such as an artist delineates when he is about to make a picture. He sketches an outline of the object which he designs to draw, which has "some" resemblance to it, but is not the "very image,"  for it is not yet complete." -(Barnes).

and not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) the-τὴν (ten)-the) very-αὐτὴν (auten)-same, the same, selfsame) image-εἰκόνα (eikona)-image, figure, likeness) of the-τῶν (ton)-of the) things-πραγμάτων (pragmaton)-a doing, deed, anything done, (i.e. that which is or exists, a thing)

    not the very image of the things] “The Law,” says St Ambrose, “had the shadow; the Gospel the image; the Reality itself is in Heaven.” By the word image is meant the true historic form. The Gospel was as much closer a resemblance of the Reality as a statue is a closer resemblance than a pencilled outline.-(Cambridge BSC).

    "The good things of which the law contained only a shadow, were, 1st, The cleansing of the mind of believers from evil dispositions, by the doctrines of the gospel, and by the influences of the Spirit of God. Of this the washings and purifications of the bodies of the Israelites, enjoined in the law, were a shadow. 2d, That real atonement for sin, which was made by the offering of the body of Christ once for all, Hebrews 10:10. Of this the Levitical atonements, made by the offering of beasts, were a shadow. 3d, The eternal pardon of sin, procured for believers by the atonements which Christ made. Of this the political pardon, obtained for the Israelites by the sacrifice of beasts which the priests offered, was a shadow. 4th, Access to worship God on earth through the blood of Christ with the hope of acceptance. Of this the drawing nigh of the Israelites to worship in the court of the tabernacle, through the blood of the Levitical sacrifices, was a shadow. 5th, The eternal possession of heaven, through believing and obeying the gospel. Of this the continued possession of Canaan, secured to the Israelites by their obedience to the law, was a shadow. Now since the good things which Christ hath obtained for believers through his ministrations in the heavenly tabernacle, were not procured, but only typified, by the ministrations of the high-priests in the tabernacle on earth, it was fit that those shadows should be done away after the things of which they were shadows were accomplished. -(Benson).

can-δύναται (dunatai)-to be able) never-οὐδέποτε (oudepote)-not even at any time, (i.e. never at all:— never) with those-αὐταῖς (autais)-same, selfsame)  sacrifices-θυσίαις (thusiais)-a slaughter, slaughter animal, sacrifice) which-ἃς (has)-which) they offered-προσφέρουσιν (prospherousin)-to bear toward, to bring to, lead to) year by-κατ (kat)-according to) year-ἐνιαυτὸν (eniauton)-a year, repetition, revolution, (i.e. yearly) continually-εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς (eis to dienekes)-to the unbroken continuance, (i.e. perpetually): 

    can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually: namely, the sacrifices of bullocks and goats, which were offered on the day of atonement, year after year, in successive generations, from the first appointment of that day, to the writing of this epistle: sacrifices of such a kind, and so often repeated, could never make the comers thereunto perfect;-(Gill).

    with those sacrifices …] Rather, “with the same sacrifices, year by year, which they offer continuously, make perfect them that draw nigh,” i.e. the Priests can never with their sacrifices, which are the same year by year, perfect the worshippers. -(Cambridge BSC). 

make the-τοὺς (tous)-the) comers thereunto-προσερχομένους (proserchomenous) -to come to, approach, draw near) perfect-τελειῶσαι (teleiosai)-to complete, (i.e. (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character):—consecrate, finish, fulfil, make) perfect):     

    Can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually -"The sacrifices here particularly referred to were those which were offered on the great day of atonement. These were regarded as the most sacred and efficacious of all, and yet the apostle says that the very fact that they were offered every year showed that there must be some deficiency about them, or [else] they would have ceased to be offered" -(Barnes).

    Can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect: the legal sacrifices are not only impotent in respect of their constitution, but of their very nature, being only shadows, so as they cannot render a soul complete, either in respect of justification or sanctification; they could not free any either from the guilt or punishment of sin at present, much less eternally: with all the renovation of them either on the day of atonement yearly, or those daily offered by them, though they should continue to be offered for ever, yet could they not perfect either the priests ministering, or those for whom they ministered..." -(Jamieson-F).

    make the comers thereunto perfect; either the people that came to the temple, and brought them to the priests to offer them for them, or the priests that offered them; so the Syriac and Ethiopic versions render it, "perfect them that offer"; and if not one, then not the other: legal sacrifices could not make perfect expiation of sin; there is no proportion between them and sin: nor did they extend to all sin, and at most only typically expiated; nor could they justify and cleanse from sin.-(Gill).

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
4 ἀδύνατον γὰρ αἷμα ταύρων καὶ τράγων ἀφαιρεῖν ἁμαρτίας

 

Hebrews 10:4

4"For *it is not possible-ἀδύνατον (adunaton)-not able, not capable, (impossible:—could not do, impotent, not possible) that the blood-αἷμα (haima)-blood, (namely: of animals) of Bulls-ταύρων (tauron)-bull, ox) and *of Goats-τράγων (tragon)-a he goat), should take away-ἀφαιρεῖν (aphairein)-to take away or off, (i.e. remove, carry off) *sins-ἁμαρτίας (hamartias)-sin error, offense)."

  • *example of Greek word: ἀδύνατον (adunaton)-it is not possible click: Hebrews 11:6

  • *example of Greek word: τράγων (tragon)-of Goats click: Hebrews 9:12

  • *example of Greek word: ἁμαρτίας (hamartias)-sins click: Hebrews 10:11

  • should take away-ἀφαιρεῖν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive: For it is not possible that the blood of Bulls and of Goats, ["to-be-eliminating"] sins.

***That the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins: "the blood of these were only carried into the holy of holiest on the atonement day, yearly, Leviticus 16:1-34, to which this is chiefly applied; nor could the blood of all the other sacrifices by expiation pardon their offerers, nor by sanctification cleanse them, nor by removing the sense of them comfort the soul; they could neither pacify God, nor the sinner’s conscience, having no virtue or power to satisfy God’s justice, or merit his grace, only it had by his constitution a power to typify that blood which could do both." -(Matthew P.)

***"...such blood shed can never answer the penalty of the law, satisfy divine justice, or secure the honour of divine holiness: but what the blood of these creatures could not do, the blood of Christ has done, and does: that takes away sin from the sight of justice, and from the consciences of the saints."-(Gill).

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
11 Οὐ γάρ ἐστι προσωπολημψία παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ 12 Ὅσοι γὰρ ἀνόμως ἥμαρτον, ἀνόμως καὶ ἀπολοῦνται· καὶ ὅσοι ἐν νόμῳ ἥμαρτον, διὰ νόμου κριθήσονται 13 (οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἀκροαταὶ τοῦ νόμου δίκαιοι παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ· ἀλλοἱ ποιηταὶ τοῦ νόμου δικαιωθήσονται

Romans 2:11-13

11 “For there is-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') no *respect of persons-προσωποληψία (prosopolepsia)-acceptance of faces, (i.e. favoritism) with God. 12 For-γὰρ (gar)-for) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) *have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses), *shall also-καὶ (kai)-also, even) perish-ἀπολοῦνται (apolountai)-to loose, loose away, destroy, ruin) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses)and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) *have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) in-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law), shall be judged-κριθήσονται (krithesontai)-to account, (i.e. condemn, punish) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)13 (For not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) the *hearers-ἀκροαταὶ (akroatai)-a hearer (merely):—hearer) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) *are just-δίκαιοι (dikaioi)-just, righteous) before God, but-ἀλλ (all)-but, except) the-οἱ (hoi)-the) *doers-ποιηταὶ (pointai)-a maker, performer) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) shall be justified-δικαιωθήσονται (dikaiothesontai)-to make or declare right).”

  • *example of Greek word: προσωποληψία (prosopolepsia)-respect of persons click: Ephesians 6:9

  • *example of Greek word: ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-have sinned click: Romans 3:23

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπολοῦνται (apolountai)-shall perish click: Hebrews 1:11

  • *example of Greek word: ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-have sinned click: Romans 5:1

  • *example of Greek word: ἀκροαταὶ (akroatai)-hearers click: James 1:2

  • *example of Greek word: δίκαιοι (dikaioi)-are just click: Matthew 13:43 (righteous)

  • *example of Greek word: ποιηταὶ (pointai)-doers click: James 1:22

  • there is-ἐστι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For ["IS"//"there-is"] no respect of persons with God. For as many as

  • have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["sinned"//"missED"] without Law,

  • shall perish ἀπολοῦνται: Verb, FutureMiddle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-beING-destroyED"//"shall-be-perishing"] also without Law: and as many as

  • have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["sinned"//"missED"] in the Law,

  • shall be judged-κριθήσονται: Verb, Future, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-BEING-JUDGED"] by the Law. (For not the hearers of the Law are just before God, but the doers of the Law

  • shall be justified-δικαιωθήσονται: Verb, Future, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["SHALL-BE-BEING-JUSTIFIED"].

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses):

    ἀνόμωςi.e. without the standard of the law (without having had it). Comp 1 Corinthians 9:21; Wis 17:2. Those whose sins were not transgressions of the Mosaic law (but of the moral law of nature)-(Meyer).

    sinned without law] Lit. lawlessly. The context here shews that the word means “in the absence of a law;” and that this means “in the absence of an explicit, revealed law [i.e. the Law of Moses];” other law than the law of conscience [which all men have]. Similarly, the context proves that to “perish without law” means to perish not “arbitrarily,” but “without an explicit code as the standard of guilt.” This verse no doubt implies the truth, elsewhere so clear, that no man shall be condemned for ignorance of what was in no wise revealed to him; but its main purpose is to teach the awful truth that even without the revealed law there is yet real sin and real doom. -(Cambridge BSC).

    Without law - That is, they shall not be judged by a Law which they have not. They shall not be tried and condemned by the revelation which the Jews had. They shall be condemned only according to the knowledge and the Law which they actually possess. This is the equitable rule on which God will judge the world. According to this, it is not to be apprehended that they will suffer as much as those who have the revealed will of God; compare Matthew 10:15Matthew 11:24. -(Barnes).

    Without law - ἀνόμως anomōs. This expression evidently means without revealed or written law, as the apostle immediately says that they had a law of nature in Romans 2:14-15. The word "law," νόμος-(nomos), is often used to denote the revealed Law of God; the Scriptures, or revelation in general; Matthew 12:5Luke 2:23-24Luke 10:26John 8:5John 8:17.- (Barnes).

    For as many as have sinned without law,....This is an instance of the strict justice of God, and proves him to be no respecter of persons; for the Gentiles, who were "without Law", [that is,] the written Law of Moses, [yet, they were] not without the law of nature in their hearts, nor without some civil laws and statutes of their own; inasmuch as they "sinned" against the God of nature, and the law and light of nature, they shall also perish without Law [of Moses]. -(Gill).

shall also-καὶ (kai)-also, even) perish-ἀπολοῦνται (apolountai)-to loose, loose away, destroy, ruin) without Law-ἀνόμως (anomos)-lawlessly, (i.e. without (the) law, apart from (the) law, without the knowledge of (the) law, (i.e. of Moses):

     perish“Be doomed to death;” lose the soul. The Greek. word ["apolountai:—shall perish"], which some have held to imply "annihilation of being", by no means does so. Its true import is rather ruin and loss in regard of condition.-(Cambridge BSC). 

     shall also perish without law: not that their condemnation and perdition will be illegal, or not in due course of law; but it will not proceed upon, or according to the law of Moses, they never had; and much less for not believing in Christ, of whom they never heard; but their perdition will be for their sins committed without the law of Moses, against the law of nature: their not having the written law of Moses will be no plea in their favour, or be a reason why they should not be condemned; their persons will not be regarded as with or without the law, but their sins committed by them, to which facts their consciences will bear witness.-(Gill).

    Shall also perish - ἀπολοῦνται apolountai. The Greek word used here occurs frequently in the New Testament. It means to destroy, to lose, or to corrupt, and is applied to life, Matthew 10:39[(shall lose)] to a reward of labor, Matthew 10:42[(lose)]; to wisdom 1 Corinthians 1:19[(I will destroy)]; to bottles, Matthew 9:17[(Perish)]. It is also used to denote future punishment, or the destruction of soul and body in hell, Matthew 10:28[(to destroy)]Matthew 18:14[(should perish)]John 3:15[(should perish)], where it is opposed to eternal life, and therefore denotes eternal death; Romans 14:15[(Destroy)]John 17:12[(is lost)]. In this sense the word is evidently used in this verse. The connection demands that the reference should be to a future judgment to be passed on the pagan. It will be remarked here that the apostle does not say they shall be saved without law. He does not give even an intimation respecting their salvation. The strain of the argument, as well as this express declaration, shows that they who had sinned - and in the first chapter he had proved that all the pagan were sinners - would be punished. If any of the pagan are saved, it will be, therefore, an exception to the general rule in regard to them. The apostles evidently believed that the great mass of them would be destroyed. On this ground they evinced such zeal to save them; on this ground the Lord Jesus commanded the gospel to be preached to them; and on this ground Christians are now engaged in the effort to bring them to the knowledge of the Lord Jesus.-(Barnes). 

and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) have sinned-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-to sin, err, miss the mark, (i.e. offend, trespass, transgress) in-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)

    as many as have sinned in the law; who have been in and under the Law of Moses, and have sinned against it, meaning the Jews:-(Gill).

    Have sinned in the law - have sinned having the revealed will of God, or endowed with greater light and privileges than the pagan world. The apostle here has undoubted reference to the Jews, who had the Law of God, and who prided themselves much on its possession.-(Barnes). 

    This gives the other aspect of the case, with reference to the Jews, who do not escape the judgment (of condemnation) on account of their privilege of possessing the Law, but on the contrary are to be judged by means of the law, so that sentence shall be passed on them in virtue of it (see Deuteronomy 27:26; compare John 5:45).-(Meyer's NT).

 

shall be judged-κριθήσονται (krithesontai)-to account, (i.e. condemn, punish) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

    shall be judged by the law—Tried and condemned by the higher standard of that written Revelation.-(Jamieson-F).

    And as many as have sinned in, or under, the law — That is, revelation, whether the patriarchal, the Jewish, or the Christian, shall be judged by the law — By the revelation wherewith they were favoured. Though the word κριθησονται [shall be judged] sometimes signifies, shall be condemned, in this passage it is rightly translated, shall be judged,  because the apostle’s intention is to show, that all who have enjoyed the benefit of an external revelation shall be more severely punished, if [they be more] wicked, than the Gentiles, who have not had that advantage:..."-(Benson).

    Shall be judged by the law - This is an equitable and just rule; and to this the Jews could make no objection. Yet the admission of this would have led directly to the point to which Paul was conducting his argument, to show that they also were under condemnation, and needed a Saviour.-(Barnes).

    shall be judged by the law; and condemned by it, as they were in this world, and will be hereafter: their having this law will be no bar against their condemnation, but rather an aggravation of it; their hearing of it will be no plea in their favour; nor their doing of it neither, unless they could have done it to perfection; for perfect obedience it requires, as a justifying righteousness, otherwise it curses, condemns, and adjudges to death."-(Gill).

but-ἀλλ (all)-but, except) the-οἱ (hoi)-the) doers-ποιηταὶ (pointai)-a maker, performer) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) shall be justified-δικαιωθήσονται (dikaiothesontai)-to make or declare right):

    For not the hearers ... - The same sentiment is implied in James 1:22; Matthew 7:21Matthew 7:24Luke 6:47. the apostle [Paul] here doubtless designed to meet an objection of the Jews; to wit, that they had the law, that they manifested great deference for it, that they heard it read with attention, and professed a willingness to yield themselves to it. To meet this, he states a very plain and obvious principle, that this was insufficient to justify them before God, unless they rendered actual obedience.-(Barnes). 

    Are just - Are justified before God, or are personally holy. Or, in other words, simply hearing the Law is not meeting all its requirements, and making people holy. If they expected to be saved by the Law, it required something more than merely to hear it. It demanded perfect obedience. But the doers of the law - They who comply entirely with its demands; or who yield to it perfect and perpetual obedience. This was the plain and obvious demand, not only of common sense, but of the Jewish Law itself; Deuteronomy 4:1Leviticus 18:5; Romans 10:5; as oppose to believing in Christ Romans 10:9.-(Barnes).

    Shall be justified - This expression is evidently synonymous with that in Leviticus 18:5, where it is said that "he shall live in them." The meaning is, that it is a maxim or principle of the Law of God, that if a creature will keep the Law, and obey it entirely, he shall not be condemned, but shall be approved and live forever. This does not affirm that anyone ever has thus lived in this world, but it is an affirmation of a great general principle of law, that if a creature is justified by the Law, the obedience must be entire and perpetual. If such were the case, as there would be no ground of condemnation, man would be saved by the Law. If the Jews, therefore, expected to be saved by their Law, it must be, not by hearing the Law, nor by being called a Jew, but by perfect and unqualified obedience to all its requirements. This passage is designed, doubtless, to meet a very common and pernicious sentiment of the Jewish teachers, that all who became hearers and listeners to the Law would be saved. The inference from the passage is, that no man can be saved by his external privileges, or by an outward respectful deference to the truths and ordinances of religion.-(Barnes).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
14 ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῇ, οὗτοι, νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες, ἑαυτοῖς εἰσι νόμος· 15 οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου γραπτὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, συμμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως, καὶ μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων τῶν λογισμῶν κατηγορούντων ἢ καὶ ἀπολογουμένων,

 

Romans 2:14-15

14 “For when-ὅταν (hotan)-whenever, while, (i.e. as often as) the Gentiles-ἔθνη (ethene)-gentiles, nations, (i.e. non-Jews), which have-ἔχοντα (echonta)-to have) not-μὴ (me)-not) the Law-νόμον (nomon)-a law, ordinance, custom, (by implication: of Moses:—Law), do-ποιῇ (poie)-to do) *by nature-φύσει (phusei)-nature) the things contained in the Law: these having-ἔχοντες (echontes)-to have, (i.e. to hold) not the Law, are-εἰσι (eisi)-are, be) a Law unto themselves, 15 Which shew-ἐνδείκνυνται (endeiknuntai)-to shew clearly or inwardly) the work-ἔργον (ergon)-an act, work, deed, doing, labour) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) written-γραπτὸν (grapton)-written, inscribed) in-ἐν (en)-in) their hearts-καρδίαις (kardiais)-the heart, (i.e. (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind), inner man), their *conscience-συνειδήσεως (suneideseos)-a knowing with oneself, (co-perception, i.e. moral consciousness:—conscience) *also bearing witness-συμμαρτυρούσης (summarturouses)-to bear witness with, bear joint witness), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) their thoughts-λογισμῶν (logismon)-computation, reckoning, reasoning) the mean while accusing-κατηγορούντων (kategorounton)-to speak down, (i.e. to accuse), or else excusing-ἀπολογουμένων (apologoumenon)-to speak self off, (i.e. defend oneself) one another:”

  • *example of Greek word: φύσει (phusei)-by nature click: Galatians 4:8

  • *example of Greek word: συνειδήσεως (suneideseos)-conscience click: 2 Corinthians 1:12

  • *example of Greek word: συμμαρτυρούσης (summarturouses)-also bearing witness click: Romans 9:1

  • have-ἔχοντα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Neuter: For when the Gentiles, which ["HAVING"] not the Law,

  • do-ποιῇ: Verb, Present, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-DOING"] by nature the things contained in the Law: these

  • having-ἔχοντες: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["HAVING"] not the Law,

  • are-εἰσι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"] a Law unto themselves, Which

  • shew-ἐνδείκνυνται: Verb, Present, Middle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-IN-SHOWING"//"are-displaying"] the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience

  • also bearing witness-συμμαρτυρούσης: Verb, Present, Active, Participle,  Genitive, Singular, Feminine: ["OF-TOGETHER-witnessING"//"of-together-testifying"], and their thoughts

  • the mean while accusing-κατηγορούντων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Masculine: ["accusING"], or else 

  • excusing-ἀπολογουμένων: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Masculine: ["FROM-sayING"//"defending-them"] one another:

***By nature.—Spontaneously; of their own motion; not acting under the coercion of any external rule, but simply by the promptings of their own conscience left to itself.-(Ellicott).

***Though the Gentiles had not the law in form, written on tables, or in a book, yet they had "the work", the matter, the sum and substance of it in their minds; as appears by the practices of many of them, in their external conversation.-(Gill)

***For when - The apostle, in Romans 2:13, had stated a general principle, that the doers of the Law only can be justified, if justification is attempted by the Law. In this verse and the next, he proceeds to show that the same principle is applicable to the pagan; that though they have not the written Law of God, yet that they have sufficient knowledge of his will to take away every excuse for sin, and consequently that the course of reasoning by which he had come to the conclusion that they were guilty, is well founded. This verse is not to be understood as affirming, as an historical fact, that any of the pagan ever did perfectly obey the Law which they had, any more than the previous verse affirms it of the Jews, The main point in the argument is, that if people are justified by the Law, their obedience must be entire and perfect; that this is not to be external only, or to consist in hearing or in acknowledging the justice of the Law; and that the Gentiles had an opportunity of illustrating this principle as well as the Jews, since they also had a law among themselves. The word "when" ὅταν hotan does not imply that the thing shall certainly take place, but is one form of introducing a supposition; or of stating the connection of one thing with another, Matthew 5:11; Matthew 6:2, Matthew 6:5-6, Matthew 6:16; Matthew 10:19. It is, however, true that the main things contained in this verse, and the next, actually occurred, that the Gentiles did many things which the Law of God required.-(Barnes)

***The revealed Law of God was written on tables of stone, and then recorded in the books of the Old Testament. This law the Gentiles did not possess, but, to a certain extent, the same requirements were written on their hearts. Though not revealed to them as to the Jews, yet they had obtained the knowledge of them by the tight of nature. The word "hearts" here denotes the mind itself, as it does also frequently in the Sacred Scriptures; not the heart, as the seat of the affections. It does not mean that they loved or even approved of the Law, but that they had knowledge of it; and that that knowledge was deeply engraved on their minds.-(Barnes)

***Even Gentiles, who had not the written law, had that within, which directed them what to do by the light of nature...Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they kept or broke these natural laws and dictates, their consciences either acquitted or condemned them. Nothing speaks more terror to sinners, and more comfort to saints, than that Christ shall be the Judge.-(Matthew H.)

 

 

 

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
10 ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσὶν, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσί· γέγραπται γὰρ Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά11 ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ, δῆλον· ὅτι Ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται· 12 ὁ δὲ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως, ἀλλ’ Ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς.

Galatians 3:10-12

10For-γὰρ (gar)-for) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) of-ἐξ (ek)-out of) the works-ἔργων (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) *under-ὑπὸ (hupo)-to be under, (i.e. subject to the power of) *the curse-κατάραν (kataran)-a thorough curse, (i.e. an imprecation): for it is written-γέγραπται (gegraptai)-to be written), Cursed-Ἐπικατάρατος (Epikataratos)-one upon whom a curse lies) is every one-πᾶς (pas)-all, every) that-ὃς (hos)-who) *continueth-ἐμμένει (emmenei)-to remain in, (i.e. abide in/by) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) in-ἐν (en)-in) all things-πᾶσιν (pasin)-all, every) which-τοῖς (tois)-the) are written-γεγραμμένοις (gegrammenois)-to "grave", especially to write, to be written) in-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῷ (to)-the) book-βιβλίῳ (biblio)-a (little) book, roll, scroll) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) to-τοῦ (tou)-of the) do-ποιῆσαι (poiesai)-to do) them-αὐτά (auta)-them, selfsame, the same). 11 But that no man-οὐδεὶς (oudeis)-no one, nobody, none) *is justified-δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-to make or declare right) by-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) in the sight-παρὰ (para)-properly: near, (i.e. beside, with one, with) of-τῷ (to)-the) God-Θεῷ (Theo)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity), it is evident-δῆλον (delon)-clear, evident, manifest): for, The-(Ho)-the) just-δίκαιος (dikaios)-just, right(-eous), meet) shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) by-ἐκ (ek)-out of) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief). 12 And the Law is-ἔστιν (estin)-to be) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) of faith: but the man *that doeth-ποιήσας (poiesas)-to do) them, shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) in-ἐν (en)-in) them-αὐτοῖς (autois)-them, the same).”

  • *example of Greek word: ὑπὸ (hupo)-under click: 1 Corinthians 15:25

  • *example of G2671: (κατάραν-the curse) click: Galatians 3:13 (κατάρα-a curse)

  • *example of G1696: (ἐμμένει-continueth) click: Acts 14:22 (ἐμμένειν-to continue)

  • *example of Greek word: δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-is justified click: Acts 13:39

  • *example of Greek word: ποιήσας (poiesas)-that doeth click: Romans 10:5

  •  are-εἰσὶν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: For as many as ["ARE"] of the works of the Law,

  • are-εἰσὶ: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"] under the curse: for

  • it is written-γέγραπται: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["it-HAS-been-WRITTEN"], Cursed is every one that 

  • continueth-ἐμμένει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person,  Singular: ["IS-IN-REMAINING"//"is-remaining-in"] not in all things  which

  • are written-γεγραμμένοις: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Dative, Plural, Neuter: ["HAVING-been-WRITTEN"] in the book of the Law 

  • to do-ποιῆσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-DO"] them. But that no man 

  • is justified-δικαιοῦται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-beING-JUSTIFIED"] by the Law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just

  • shall live-ζήσεται: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular["SHALL-BE-LIVING"] by faith. And the Law

  • is-ἔστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"] not of faith: but the man

  • that doeth-ποιήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["Doing"] them

  • shall live-ζήσεται: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-LIVING"] in them. 

For-γὰρ (gar)-for) as many as-ὅσοι (hosoi)-as many as, (i.e. all who, all those who) are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) of-ἐξ (ek)-out of) the works-ἔργων (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour) of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law):

    as many as: Note the universality of the expression, ‘All to a man are here condemned’. Calvin. -(Cambridge BSC).

    As many as are of the works of the law — Of the number of those who seek justification thereby; are under — Or liable to; the curse: for it is written, (Deuteronomy 27:26,) Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things,..."-(Benson). 

    For as many as are of the works of the law,....The apostle does not say, "as many as were of the law", to whom it belonged, who were born and brought up in it, and to whom it was given, the Jews; for there were some of them who [came to] believed in Christ, [and] were blessed with Abraham [thru faith]and [therefore were] not under the curse of the law; nor does he say, "as many as do the works of the law": for the works of the law are to be done by those who follow it, yet it is not the doing of them, but the not doing of them, that entails the curse on men: his meaning is, that as many as seek for justification by the works of the law, and trust in their own righteousness for acceptance with God, these are so far from being blessed or justified hereby, that they are under the curse, that is, of the Law..."-(Gill).

    For as many as are of the works of the Law are under the curse (ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσίν ὐπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν); under a curse, or, under cursing. "For." The apostle is now making the clause in the preceding verse, "they who are of faith," the limiting description of those who "are blessed with faithful Abraham;" - I say, they who are of faith; for they who are of the works of the Law are in a very different case. In the phrase, "are of the works of the Law," the preposition "of" (ἐκ) has the same force as has been already noted in the phrase (ver. 9), "they who are of faith;" it signifies dependence upon, belonging to, taking position from; and it marks a moral posture of mind voluntarily assumed. The apostle in laying down the aphorism of the present passage has doubtless an eye to those of the Galatians who were moving for the adoption of circumcision and the ceremonies of the Levitical Law. Withdrawing from the category of those who were of faith, they were preparing to join those who were of the works of the Law.-(Pulpit).

are-εἰσὶν (eisin)-to be) under-ὑπὸ (hupo)-to be under, (i.e. subject to the power of) the curse-κατάραν (kataran)-a thorough curse, (i.e. an imprecation):

    Are under the curse - The curse which the Law of God denounces. Having failed by all their efforts to yield perfect obedience, they must, of course, be exposed to the curse which the Law denounces on the guilty. The word rendered "curse" (κατάρα katara) means, as with us, properly, "imprecation," or "cursing."-(Barnes). 

    are under the curse: the reason of which the apostle gives us, Romans 8:3, because it is made weak through the flesh. Could man perfectly fulfil the Law, he might expect life from it, and salvation from his obedience to it; but the Law curseth him that continueth not in all that is written in it: If a man keep the whole Law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all(James 2:10), and as liable to the wrath of God as if he had broken it in many things. Hence it necessarily followeth, if no man can (keep) the Law of God perfectly, that all under the Law must be under the curse, and consequently cannot be blessed in faithful Abraham....The argument is this: Those that are under a curse cannot be under the blessing of justification: but those that are under the law are under the curse. This he proves out of the law, (Deuteronomy 27:26)," -(Matthew P.). 

    Under the curse (ὑπὸ κατάραν) Better, under curse. There is no article [i.e. "the"]. The phrase is general equals accursed. Comp. ὑφ' ἁμαρτίαν under sinRomans 3:9. The specific character of the curse is not stated. It is not merely the wrath of God as it issues in final destruction (Meyer); but it represents a condition of alienation from God, caused by violation of his Law, with all the penalty which accrues from it, either in this life or the next."-(Vincent).

Cursed-Ἐπικατάρατος (Epikataratos)-one upon whom a curse lies) is every one-πᾶς (pas)-all, every) that-ὃς (hos)-who) continueth-ἐμμένει (emmenei)-to remain in, (i.e. abide in/by) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) in-ἐν (en)-in) all things-πᾶσιν (pasin)-all, every)

    cursed is everyone that continues not in all things written in the book of the law to do them. The law requires doing; it is not content with mere theory without practice; it is not enough to know it, or hear it, it must be done. The Jews boasted of their knowledge, and trusted much to the hearing of it read every sabbath day; but not those who had a form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law, or were hearers of it, were just before God, but the doers of it are justified; and it requires perfect obedience, an observance of all things contained in it, which can never be performed by fallen man.-(Gill).

    Are under the curse - The curse which the Law of God denounces. Having failed by all their efforts to yield perfect obedience, they must, of course, be exposed to the curse which the Law denounces on the guilty. The word rendered "curse" (κατάρα katara) means, as with us, properly, "imprecation," or "cursing." It is used in the Scriptures particularly in the sense of the Hebrew אלה 'alah, malediction, or execration Job 31:30Jeremiah 29:18Daniel 9:11;"...the idea is, that all who attempt to secure salvation by the works of the Law, must be exposed to its penalty. It denounces a curse on all who do not yield entire obedience; and no partial compliance with its demands can save from the penalty.-(Barnes).

which-τοῖς (tois)-the) are written-γεγραμμένοις (gegrammenois)-to "grave", especially to write, to be written) in-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῷ (to)-the) book-βιβλίῳ (biblio)-a (little) book, roll, scroll) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) to-τοῦ (tou)-of the) do-ποιῆσαι (poiesai)-to do) them-αὐτά (auta)-them, selfsame, the same)

    The book of the law - That is, in the Law. This phrase is not found in the passage in Deuteronomy. The expression there is, "the words of this law." Paul gives it; a somewhat larger sense, and applies it to the whole of the Law of God. The meaning is, that the whole law must be obeyed, or man cannot be justified by it, or will be exposed to its penalty and its curse. This idea is expressed more fully by James Jam 2:10; "Whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all;" that is, he is guilty of breaking the Law as a whole, and must be held responsible for such violation. The sentiment here is one that is common to all law, and must be, from the nature of the ease. The idea is, that a man who does not yield compliance to a whole Law, is subject to its penalty, or to a curse. All Law is sustained on this principle. A man who has been honest, and temperate, and industrious, and patriotic, if he commits a single act of murder, is subject to the curse of the Law, and must meet the penalty. A man who has been honest and honorable in all his dealings, yet if he commits a single act of forgery, he must meet the curse denounced by the laws of his country, and bear the penalty. So, in all matters pertaining to law: no matter what the integrity of the man; no matter how upright he has been, yet, for the one offence the law denounces a penalty, and he must bear it. It is out of the question for him to be justified by it. He cannot plead as a reason why he should not be condemned for the act of murder or forgery, that he has in all other respects obeyed the law, or even that he has been guilty of no such offences before. Such is the idea of Paul in the passage before us. It was clear to his view that man had not in all respects yielded obedience to the Law of God. If he had not done this, it was impossible that he should be justified by the Law, and he must bear its penalty.-(Barnes).

no man-οὐδεὶς (oudeis)-no one, nobody, none) is justified-δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai)-to make or declare right) by-ἐν (en)-in) the Law-νόμῳ (nomo)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law) in the sight-παρὰ (para)-properly: near, (i.e. beside, with one, with) of-τῷ (to)-the) God-Θεῷ (Theo)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)

    The Law could not bring a blessing. It could not justify. For the condition of justification is faith; and the Law has nothing to do with faith. Its standpoint was entirely different--that of works.-(Ellicott).

    But that no man is justified ... - The argument which Paul has been pursuing he proceeds to confirm by an express declaration of the Bible. The argument is this: "It is impossible that a man should be justified by the Law, because God has appointed another way of justification." But there cannot be two ways of obtaining life, and as he has appointed faith as the condition on which people shall live, he has precluded from them the possibility of obtaining salvation in any other mode.-(Barnes).

    The failure of the Law to justify is further established by a comparison of Habakkuk 2:4 with Leviticus 18:5 : the latter embodies the spirit of the Law: for it demands obedience as a necessary condition antecedent to the gift of life from God (cf. Romans 10:5). The prophet on the contrary makes life dependent upon faith. By thus substituting faith for obedience he virtually supersedes the existing Law, and establishes a new criterion, which takes account of the state of heart instead of the outward life (cf. Romans 1:17). The same passage is adduced in Hebrews 10:38 in proof of the vital importance of faith.-(Expositor Greek T.).

The-(Ho)-the) just-δίκαιος (dikaios)-just, right(-eous), meet) shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) by-ἐκ (ek)-out of) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief)

    For, The just shall live by faith - This is quoted from Habakkuk 2:4. This passage is also quoted by Paul in Romans 1:17; see it explained in the note on that verse. The sense here is, that life is promised to man only in connection with faith. It is not by the works of the Law that it is done. The condition of life is faith: and he lives who believes. The meaning is not, I apprehend, that the man who is justified by faith shall live, but that life is promised and exists only in connection with faith, and that the just or righteous man obtains it only in this way. Of course it cannot be obtained by the observance of the Law, but must be by some other scheme [Faith].-(Barnes).

shall live-ζήσεται (zesetai)-to live, have life) in-ἐν (en)-in) them-αὐτοῖς (autois)-them, the same)

    Here is a reason shown of the former conclusion: because the law promises life to all that keep it, and therefore if it is kept, it justifies and gives life. But the scripture attributing righteousness and life to faith takes it from the Law, seeing that faith justifies by imputation, and the Law by the performing of the work.-(Geneva).

    But, The man that doeth them shall live in them- "...Those under the Law were bound to render strict obedience to all its requirements, whether moral or ceremonial; and whosoever set aside any of whichever class was constituted by the Law a "transgressor" and a man "accursed."- (Pulpit). 

    "...It thus appears that the pronoun "them" recites[:] "my statutes and my judgments" see Leviticus 18:5.- (Pulpit). 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
9 Ὥστε οἱ ἐκ πίστεως εὐλογοῦνται σὺν τῷ πιστῷ Ἀβραάμ.

 

Galatians 3:9

9 “So then, they which be of faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief), are blessed-εὐλογοῦνται (eulogountai)-to speak well of, praise (i.e. bestow favor) with-σὺν (sun)-with, along with, together with) faithful-πιστῷ (pisto)-faithful, steady, (i.e. believing, trusting) Abraham.”

  • are blessed-εὐλογοῦνται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: So then, they which be of faith, ["ARE-beING-blessED"] with  faithful Abraham.

 

***With faithful Abraham—i.e., in company with Abraham. The same idea is presented in two different forms. Abraham’s spiritual descendants are blessed “in him;” they are also blessed “with him.” He is the head of a great company, in which they all are included.-(Ellicott).

***So then they which be of faith - They whose leading characteristic it is that they believe. This was the leading trait in the character of Abraham, and this is the leading thing required of those who embrace the gospel, and in the character of a true Christian. Are blessed with faithful Abraham - In the same manner they are interested in the promises made to him, and they will be treated as he was. They are justified in the same manner, and admitted to the same privileges on earth and in heaven.-(Barnes).

*** Those that believe in Jesus Christ with such a faith as the gospel doth require, they, and they alone, are blessed with spiritual blessings, justified from the guilt of sin, with Abraham; that is, in the same manner that Abraham, the father of the faithful, and who himself was a believer, was justified; which was not (as was before said) by his circumcision, or by any works that he did, but by imputation upon his believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, exhibited and held forth in the promise made to him.-(Matthew Poole).