Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: “This only would I learn of you, received ye-ἐλάβετε (elabete)-to take, receive) the spirit, by the works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith?” -(Galatians 3:2)
received ye-ἐλάβετε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-GOT"]
1. The Law
3. Faith (pending)
4. The Royal Law (pending)
The Law, also know as the Law of Moses, it was given through Moses at Mount Sinai after God delivered the Israelites from the bondage of Egypt.
The great design of the law was that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those that believe; that, being convinced of their guilt, and the insufficiency of the law to bring righteousness and justification for us, we might be persuaded to believe on Christ.
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation, Capitalization, & Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same root word, but not the same inflection / parsing.
Brackets w/ Parenthesis [(abc)] : My commentary insert/input.
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Beza Greek New Testament 1598
17 Ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωσέως ἐδόθη· ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.
17 "For-ὅτι (hoti)-because) the-ὁ (ho)-the) *Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)) was given-ἐδόθη (edothe)-to give) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Moses-Μωσέως (Moseos)-"drawer out", (He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses)), *but grace-χάρις (charis)-grace, favour, good-will, pleasure) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) *truth-ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth:—true, truth, verity) came-ἐγένετο (egeneto)-to become, (i.e. came into being)) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ))."
Example of Greek word:
*νόμος (nomos)-Law click: Galatians 3:12
*χάρις (charis)-but grace click: Colossians 1:2
*ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth click: John 8:32
was given-ἐδόθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: For the Law ["WAS-GIVEN"] by Moses, but grace and truth
came-ἐγένετο: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["BECAME"] by Jesus Christ.
17 For the Law was giuen by Moses, but grace and trueth came by Iesus Christ.
17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
For-ὅτι (hoti)-because) the-ὁ (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law)) was given-ἐδόθη (edothe)-to give) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Moses-Μωσέως (Moseos)-"drawer out", (He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses)),:
The law was given by Moses — Moses received the law from God, and through him it was given to the Jews, Acts 7:38. The law of Moses, however excellent in itself, was little in comparison of the Gospel: as it proceeded from the justice and holiness of God, and was intended to convict men of sin, that the way of the Gospel might be the better prepared, it was a law of rigour, condemnation, and death: Romans 4:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7-8. It was a law of shadows, types, and figures: Hebrews 10:1, and incapable of expiating sin by its sacrifices: Romans 8:3; Hebrews 7:18, /19; Hebrews 10:1, Hebrews 10:11. But Christ has brought that grace which is opposed to condemnation: Romans 5:15, Romans 5:20-21; Romans 8:1; Galatians 3:10; and he is himself the spirit and substance of all those shadows: Colossians 2:19; Hebrews 10:1. -(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
While the Law of Moses brought mankind under judgment and a curse because of his sinful nature, Jesus brought blessings by redeeming us from under the curse of the Law. We see examples of this contrast in the ministry of Jesus Christ as He confronted the religious leaders. For example, the Law required that the woman caught in adultery be stoned (John 8:1-11). However, Jesus forgave her and her let go free. On another occasion a woman with an issue of blood pressed through the crowd and touched the helm of His garment. According to the Law she was unclean and required to separate herself from society (Luke 8:43-48). However, Jesus commended her faith. There were times that Jesus and His disciples picked grain on the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1-8). When the Pharisees condemned this action, Jesus replied that He was Lord over the Sabbath.-(Gary H. Everett's Study Notes). SL
For the law was given by Moses- Both moral and ceremonial... and points out what is man's duty both to God and men; uncovers sin, accuses him of it, convicts him of it, and condemns him for it; "nor could it give strength to perform its demands; nor does it give the least hint of forgiveness; nor will it admit of repentance... The ceremonial law pointed out the pollution of human nature, the guilt and punishment of sin"-(Gill's Exposition). BH
[(The)] Law commands and demands; it says: ‘This shalt thou do, or else-’; and it has nothing more that it can say.-(MacLaren). BH
For the law- [the Old Dispensation with its condemnation ( Romans 3:20, Galatians 2:21) and its types and shadows-- Colossians 2:16, Colossians 2:17, Hebrews 8:4, Hebrews 8:5, Hebrews 10:1] was given through Moses- [by angels at Mt. Sinai-- Hebrews 2:2]; grace and truth- [the New Dispensation with its justification ( Romans 3:21-26) and its realities-- Hebrews 9:1-15] came through Jesus Christ. [ Hebrews 1:1, Hebrews 1:2, Hebrews 2:3.]-(The Fourfold Gospel). SL
The law was given - The Old Testament economy. The institutions under which the Jews lived. By Moses - By Moses, as the servant of God. He was the great legislator of the Jews, by whom, under God, their polity was formed. The law worketh wrath Romans 4:15; it was attended with many burdensome rites and ceremonies Acts 15:10; it was preparatory to another state of things. The gospel succeeded that and took its place, and thus showed the greatness of the gospel economy, as well as its grace and truth.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
The law was given by Moses. It was not a system of grace, nor could it make men perfect; in contrast with it the system of grace and truth (see Joh 1:14) was given by Jesus Christ.-(People's New Testament). SL
For the law was given by Moses; The law, moral and ceremonial, was given by Moses as God’s minister and servant; that law by which no man can be justified, Romans 3:28.-(Matthew Poole). BH
but grace-χάρις (charis)-grace, favour, good-will, pleasure) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) truth-ἀλήθεια (aletheia)-truth:—true, truth, verity) came-ἐγένετο (egeneto)-to become, (i.e. came into being)) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)).:
Through Moses, here taken as representing the pre-Christian dispensation, was given the law, which made great demands but gave nothing, which was a true revelation of God’s will, and so far was good, but brought men no ability to become liker God. But through Jesus Christ (here for the first time named in the Gospel-[(of John)], because we are now fully on the ground of history) came grace and truth. In contrast to the inexorable-[(def. impossible to stop or prevent.)] demands of a law that brought no spiritual life. Jesus Christ brought “grace,” the unearned favour of God. The Law said: Do this and live; Christ says: God gives you life, accept it. “Truth” also was brought by Christ.—ἀλήθεια here means “reality” as opposed to the symbolism of the Law (cf. John 4:23). In the Law was a shadow of good things to come: in Christ we have the good things themselves.-(Expositor's Greek Testament). BH
“but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ” Comments - Grace and truth were the instruments that God used to pardon our iniquity. We are saved by grace through faith in Jesus Christ (Ephesians 1:6; Ephesians 2:6). Jesus declared Himself as the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John 14:6). . . . God poured forth His grace upon us through Jesus Christ because of His great love for mankind. It is because God is still a holy and just God that Jesus spoke of truth and righteousness and judgment. It was because of His truth and righteousness that Jesus had to bear the death of the Cross in behalf of all humanity. -(Gary H. Everett's Study Notes). SL
This verse clearly contrasts the two dispensations in view. Even non-dispensationalists acknowledge this and admit that they recognize two different economies, the Old Testament legal economy and the New Testament gracious economy. Significantly, Moses’ first plague in Egypt involved turning water into blood (Exodus 7:14 /15), whereas Jesus’ first recorded miracle involved turning water into wine (John 2:1-11).-(Expository Notes of Dr, Thomas). SL
but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ: By grace and truth, is meant the Gospel, in opposition to the law; which is called grace, because it is a declaration of the love, and grace, of God to men; it ascribes salvation, in all the parts of it, to the free grace and favour of God; and is the means of implanting and increasing grace in the hearts of men. And "truth", not only because it contains truth, and nothing but truth, it coming from the God of truth; and the substance of it being Christ, who is the truth; and being revealed, applied, and led into by the Spirit of truth; but because it is the truth of the types, and the substance of the shadows of the law-(Gill's Exposition). BH
The mention of ‘grace’ reminds the Evangelist that this was the characteristic of the Gospél and marked its superiority to the Law; for the Law could only condemn transgressors, grace forgives them.-(Cambridge Greek Testament). SL
His gift is not like the gift that Moses brought down from the mountain, merely a writing upon tables; His gift is not the letter of an outward commandment, nor the letter of an outward revelation. It is the thing itself which He reveals by being it. He does not speak about grace, He brings it; He does not show us God by His words, He shows us God by His acts. He does not preach about Him, but He lives Him, He manifests Him. His gentleness, His compassion, His miracles, His wisdom, His patience, His tears, His promises; all these are the very Deity in action before our eyes; and instead of a mere verbal revelation, which is so imperfect and so worthless, grace and truth, the living realities, are flashed upon a darkened world in the face of Jesus Christ-(MacLaren). BH
For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. Christ was not only greater than the mighty John the Baptist, but was also transcendantly above the great law-giver, Moses. This verse does not mean that grace and truth were not evidenced by the law of Moses, but that the grace and truth through the Lord Jesus Christ far exceeded anything in the old dispensation. The great heroes under the old covenant, all of the majestic ceremonial of the Jewish system, as well as all the burden of the great prophecies reached the zenith-[(e.g. high point)] of their meaning and fulfillment in Christ. The true knowledge of God the Father of all creation came uniquely in the Lord Jesus who could truly say, "He that hath seen me hath seen the Father!" (John 14:9).-(Coffman's Commentaries). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
27 ποῦ οὖν ἡ καύχησις; ἐξεκλείσθη. διὰ ποίου νόμου; τῶν ἔργων; οὐχί, ἀλλὰ διὰ νόμου πίστεως. 28 λογιζόμεθα οὖν πίστει δικαιοῦσθαι ἄνθρωπον, χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου.
27 "Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what Law? Of works? Nay: but by the Law of faith. 28 Therefore we conclude-λογιζόμεθα (logizometha)-to reckon, account), that a man *is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι (dikaiousthai)-to make or declare right) *by faith-πίστει (pistei)-faith, faithfulness, steadfastness, believe, belief), *without-χωρὶς (choris)-apart, beside, apart from) *the deeds-ἔργων (ergon)-work, (by implication: an act:—deed, doing, labour, work)) *of the Law-νόμου (nomou)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law, by extension: any law of man:—moral or ceremonial))."
Example of Greek word:
*G1344: (dikaiousthai-is justified) click: 1 Cor 6:11 (edikaiothete-ye are justified)
*πίστει (pistei)-by faith click: Hebrews 11:7
*χωρὶς (choris)-without click: 1 Timothy 2:8
*ἔργων (ergon)-the deeds click: Hebrews 9:14 (works)
*νόμου (nomou)-of the Law click: Galatians 3:10
we conclude-λογιζόμεθα: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person Plural: Therefore ["WE-ARE-accountING"//"we-are-reckoning"], that a man
is justified-δικαιοῦσθαι: Verb, Present, Passive, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-beING-JUSTIFIED"] by faith, without the deeds of the Law.
27 Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what Law? Of works? Nay: but by the Law of faith. 28 Therefore wee conclude, that a man is iustified by faith, without the deeds of the Law.
27 Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but by the law of faith. 28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
***Therefore we conclude As if he had said, Since it appears, by what has been said, that all are sinners, involved in guilt and condemnation, and so cannot be justified by the law, whether natural or revealed, and that God has appointed another way of justification, we draw this conclusion; that a man is justified- Is accounted righteous, accepted and dealt with as such; by faith- By believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the mercy and grace of God, and the truths and promises of the gospel through him.-(Joseph Benson's Commentary). SL
***Therefore we conclude, c.] Seeing these things cannot be denied, viz., that all have sinned: that all are guilty, that all are helpless: that none can deliver his own soul, and that God, in his endless mercy, has opened a new and living way to the holiest by the blood of Jesus, Hebrews 10:19, /20, &c: therefore we, apostles and Christian teachers, conclude, λογιζομεθα, prove by fair, rational consequence, that a man - any man, is justified - has his sins blotted out, and is received into the Divine favour, by faith in Christ's blood, without the deeds of the law, which never could afford, either to Jew or Gentile, a ground for justification, because both have sinned against the law which God has given them, and, consequently, forfeited all right and title to the blessings which the obedient might claim.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***'Works of the law' -perfect law-keeping, trying to maintain a right standing with God on the basis of flawlessly keeping the law, has been shown to be a system that cannot justify anyone.-(Mark Dunagan). SL
***In other words, we are establishing the law for the purpose that the law was given. It forces me to take God's alternate. The law shows me that I can't be having a standing before Him through my own efforts, and so I've established the law for the purpose which God gave the law by declaring that the law cannot justify me or make me righteous, but the law can only bring me to despair of myself so that I take God's alternate plan of faith in Jesus Christ.-(Chuck Smith Bible). SL
***For we conclude.- He has proved that we are put right with God [justified] only through faith (which includes the obedience of faith). A clear line is drawn between faith and the works of the Law, as these represent two distinctly different religious systems, and this shows us that faith (and the obedience of faith) must not itself be interpreted as a work of law.-(The Bible Study New Testament). SL
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
19 Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις οὗ ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ᾧ ἐπήγγελται· διαταγεὶς δι᾽ ἀγγέλων, ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου.
19 "Wherefore-Τί (ti)-what) then-οὖν (oun)-then) serveth the-ὁ (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law))? It was added-προσετέθη (prosetethe)-to add (on, to) because of-χάριν (charin)-for or on account of) *transgressions-παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgression, trespass, (violation:—breaking, transgression)), till-ἄχρις (achris)-till, up to) the-τὸ (to)-the) seed-σπέρμα (sperma)-seed, progeny, (i.e. offspring, descendant)) should come-ἔλθῃ (elthe)-to come, (i.e. arrive)) to whom-ᾧ (ho)-who) *the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-to profess, promise), and it was ordained-διαταγεὶς (diatageis)-to arrange throughout, (i.e. set in order, ordain)) by-δι (di)-through, by means of, (i.e. through (the agency of)) *Angels-ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-messenger, agent) in-ἐν (en)-in) *the hand-χειρὶ (cheiri)-hand (literally or figuratively)) *of a Mediator-μεσίτου (mesitou)-middle man, mediator)."
Example of the Greek word:
*παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgressions click: Hebrews 9:15
*ἐπήγγελται-the promise was made click: Romans 4:21 (he had promised)
*ἀγγέλων (aggelon)-Angels click: Mark 8:38
*χειρὶ (cheiri)-the hand click: John 3:35
*G3316: (mesitou-of a Mediator) click: 1 Timothy 2:5 (mesites-mediator)
It was added-προσετέθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Wherefore then serveth the Law? ["WAS-addED"//"it-was-added"] because of transgressions,
till-ἄχρις: PREPosition: ["UNTIL"] the seed
should come-ἔλθῃ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-COMING"], to whom
the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται: Verb, Perfect Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: [He-HAS-promisED"], and it was
ordained-διαταγεὶς: Verb, Second-Aorist, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["BEING-prescribED"] by Angels in the hand of a Mediator.
19 Wherefore then serueth the Law? it was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come, to whome the promise was made, and it was ordeyned by Angels in the hand of a Mediatour.
19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.
Wherefore-Τί (ti)-what) then-οὖν (oun)-then) serveth the-ὁ (ho)-the) Law-νόμος (nomos)-a law, ordinance, (by implication: of Moses:—Law))? It was added-προσετέθη (prosetethe)-to add (on, to) because of-χάριν (charin)-for or on account of) transgressions-παραβάσεων (parabaseon)-transgression, trespass, (violation:—breaking, transgression)),:
We have been considering in our studies of the earlier part of this chapter the relationship that the law had, the law as given at Sinai, to the unconditional promise of grace which God gave to Abraham 430 years before [(the Law was ever given at Sinai)], and we have seen that the law coming in afterward could not add to nor take away from the covenant already made [(to Abraham)]. That naturally leads to the question of verse 19, “Wherefore then serveth the law?” If the law did not add anything to what God had given by promise to Abraham, and surely it could not take anything from it, what was its purpose? Why did God give it at all? The apostle answers, “It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.” I think perhaps we may understand it better if we read it, “It was added with a view to transgressions,” in order that it might make men see the specific character of transgression, and thus deepen in each soul a sense of his sinfulness and his need [(of a saviour)].-(Ironside's Notes). SL
Wherefore then serveth the law —If the inheritance was not by the law, but by the promise, as a free gift, for what purpose was the law given, or what significancy had it? -(Benson Commentary). BH
Wherefore then serveth the law? This is obviously an objection which might be urged to the reasoning which the apostle had pursued. It was very obvious to ask, if the principles which he had laid down were correct, of what use was the Law? Why was it given at all? Why were there so many wonderful exhibitions of the divine power at its promulgation? Why were there so many commendations of it in the Scriptures? And why were there so many injunctions to obey it? Are all these to be regarded as nothing; and is the Law to be esteemed as worthless? To all this, the apostle replies that the Law was not useless, but that it was given by God for great and important purposes, and especially for purposes closely connected with the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham and the work of the Mediator. -(Barnes' Notes on the Bible.). BH
Wherefore then serveth the law?—As it is of no avail for justification, is it either useless or contrary to the covenant of God? It was added because of transgressions.—To bring out into clearer view the transgressions of the law; to make men more fully conscious of their sins, by being perceived as transgressions of the law, and so make them long-[(Or, desire//yearn)] for the promised Saviour.-(Preacher's Complete Homiletical). SL
But then the question is given as to what function the law still has. The answer is: the law “was added because of transgressions”. Now you must read very carefully. It does not say ‘because of sin’. How could it? God doesn’t give something by which man becomes a sinner. On the contrary, the law makes it clear that man is a sinner, without pointing him at a possibility to escape the penalty that rests on sin. You can compare it to a mirror that shows you how dirty you are. The mirror shows you are dirty, but the mirror is not a soap you can use to wash off the filth. In the same way the law shows that you are a sinner, but it doesn’t give you the means by which you can be redeemed from your sins. The remission of your sins is only possible through the blood of the Lord Jesus.-(Kingcomments). SL
It was added because of transgressions — It was given that we might know our sinfulness, and the need we stood in of the mercy of God. The law is the right line, the straight edge, that determines the obliquity of our conduct. Romans 4:15; and especially Romans 5:20, where this subject is largely discussed, and the figure explained.-(Clarke's Commentary). BH
Wherefore then serveth the Law? (τί οὖν ὁ νόμος;); what then (or, why then) is the Law? The apostle is wont thus to introduce the statement of some objection or some question relative to the point in hand which requires consideration (cf. Romans 3:1; Romans 4:1). He wishes now to show that, while the Law was a Divine ordinance, it was yet not intended to supersede the previously ratified covenant [(made to Abraham:- Genesis 22:18)], but rather to prepare for its being completely carried out-[(Matthew 5:17)]. It was added because of transgressions (τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη); on account of transgressions it was superadded. -(The Pulpit Commentary). SL
Because of transgressions - on account of transgressions, or with reference to them. The meaning is, that the Law was given to show the true nature of transgressions, or to show what was sin. It was not to reveal a way of justification, but it was to disclose the true nature of sin; to deter people from committing it; to declare its penalty; to convince people of it, and thus to be "ancillary"-[(Or, instrumental)] to, and preparatory to the work of redemption through the Redeemer-[(Jesus Christ)]-(Barnes' Notes). BH
it was added because of transgressions; four hundred and thirty years after the covenant made with Abraham; it did not succeed it, nor take the place of it, and so make it null and void; but was over and above added unto it, for the sake of restraining transgressions; which had there been no law, men would not have been accountable for them; and they would have gone into them without fear, and with impunity; but the law was given, to lay a restraint on men, by forbidding such and such things, on pain of death; and also for the detecting, discovering, and making known transgressions, what they are, their nature and consequences -(Gill's Exposition). BH
If then the promise is not affected by the law, so that no new condition of justification is imposed by it, the question naturally arises, ‘Why was the law given?’ To this the Apostle has an answer ready. It was not given to limit, much less to supersede the promise. The promise and the law are like two circles, which touch, but do not intersect each other: each perfect of its kind, because both alike Divine in their origin. But in answering the question which he has anticipated, St Paul shews the inferiority of the law in several particulars to the earlier and ‘better covenant’ (Hebrews 8:6 ). (1) The law condemns: it cannot give life, because no man can fulfil its conditions. It provokes transgression, convinces of sin, and denounces punishment. (2) It was superadded as a parenthetical and temporary dispensation, commencing with the national life of the Jewish people, and terminating with the Advent of the Seed-[(Jesus Christ)] to whom the promise was given. (3) It was not delivered immediately, like the promises to Abraham, but mediately by Moses in the presence of Angels as attesting witnesses. (4) It was a contract between God and man, life depending on the fulfilment of its terms, and was therefore conditional, and not absolute like the promise.-(Cambridge Greek Testament). SL
till-ἄχρις (achris)-till, up to) the-τὸ (to)-the) seed-σπέρμα (sperma)-seed, progeny, (i.e. offspring, descendant)) should come-ἔλθῃ (elthe)-to come, (i.e. arrive)) to whom-ᾧ (ho)-who) the promise was made-ἐπήγγελται (epeggeltai)-to profess, promise)