Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: "And this is-ἐστὶν (estin)-'to be') the record, that God hath given-ἔδωκεν (edoken)-to give) to us eternal life, and this life is-ἐστιν (estin)-'to be') in-ἐν (en)-in) his Son."
-(1 John 5:11)
hath given-ἔδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["GIVES"]
Redemption & Adoption
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation, Capitalization, & Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root Word, but not the same Inflection / Parsing.
Brackets w/ Parenthesis [(abc)] : My commentary insert/input.
StudyLight.org: SL (click)
BibleHub.com: BH (click)
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Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
23 πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ, 24 δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 25 ὃν προέθετο ὁ Θεὸς ἱλαστήριον, διὰ τῆς πίστεως, ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι, εἰς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ, διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων, ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ· 26 πρὸς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν δίκαιον καὶ δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ.
21 “But now the righteousness of God without the Law is manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets. 22 Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all, and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: 23 “For all-πάντες (pantes)-all, every (plural)) *have sinne- dἥμαρτον (hemarton)- properly: to miss the mark (and so not share in the prize), i.e. (figuratively) to err, especially (morally) to sin:—for your faults, offend, sin, trespass)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) come short-ὑστεροῦνται (husterountai)-come short (of), (i.e. generally: to fall short (be deficient):—come behind (short), be destitute, fail, lack, suffer need, (be in) want) of the glory of God, 24 Being justified-δικαιούμενοι (dikaioumenoi)-to make or declare right) *freely-δωρεὰν (dorean)-freely, gratis, for naught, gratuitously) by his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him, his) grace-χάριτι (chariti)-grace, graciousness, favour, goodwill), through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the-τῆς (tes)-the) *redemption-ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-a loosing away, (i.e. deliverance)) that is-τῆς (tes)-of the) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", the Son of God, (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind): 25 Whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) *hath //set forth-προέθετο (proetheto)-to put before, to place before, purpose) (Or, foreordained) *to be a propitiation-ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion)-place of propitiation, an expiatory sacrifice, relating to an appeasing or expiating, having placating or expiating force, expiatory; a means of appeasing or expiating, a propitiation), through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) *faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-believe, faithfulness, steadfasness) in-ἐν (en)-in) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) *blood-αἵματι (haimati)-of man or animals, (specially: the atoning blood of Christ); by implication: bloodshed)), to-εἰς (eis)-into, to, toward) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) *righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice) for-διὰ (dia)-on account of, because of, for the sake of) the-τὴν (ten)-the) //remission-πάρεσιν (paresin)-a sending over, passing by, letting pass) (Or, passing over) of sins-ἁμαρτημάτων (hamartematon)-a sin, transgression), that are past-προγεγονότων (progegonoton)-to become before, of sins committed previously ,to become or arise before, happen before, having occurred before), through-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῇ (te)-the) *forbearance-ἀνοχή (anoche)-a holding back, toleration) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity). 26 To-πρὸς (pros)-toward) *declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation)), I say, at-ἐν (en)-in) this-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) time-καιρῷ (kairo)-a fixed time or season) his-αὐτὸν (auton)-of him) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice): that-εἰς τὸ (eis to)-with the view to) he-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) might be-εἶναι (einai)-'to be') *just-δίκαιον (dikaion)-just, righteous, (equitable (in character or act); by implication: innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively):—just, meet, right(-eous)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) *the justifier-δικαιοῦντα (dikaiounta)-to make or declare right, (to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable) of him which believeth-τὸν ἐκ πίστεως (ton ek pisteos)-who is of the faith of) in Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)."
Example of Greek word:
*ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-redemption click: Ephesians 4:30
*προέθετο (proetheto)-hath set forth click: Ephesians 1:9 (he hath purpose)
*ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion)-to be a propitiation click: Hebrews 9:5 (mercyseat)
*G463: (ἀνοχή-forbearance) click: Romans 2:4 (ἀνοχῆς-forbearance)
*ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-declare click: 2 Corinthians 8:24 (the proof)
*δικαιοῦντα (dikaiounta)-the justifier click: Romans 4:5 (him that justifieth)
have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: For all ["missED"//"sinned"], and
come short-ὑστεροῦνται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-WANTING"] of the glory of God,
Being justified-δικαιούμενοι: Verb, Present, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["beING-JUSTIFIED"] freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God
hath set forth-προέθετο: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["purposed"] to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins,
that are past-προγεγονότων: Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Neuter: ["HAVING-BEFORE-BECOME"//"having-occurred-before"], through the forbearance of God. To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he
might be-εἶναι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Infinitive: ["TO-BE"] just, and
the justifier-δικαιοῦντα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["One-JUSTIFYING"] of him which believeth in Jesus.
23 For all haue sinned, and come short of the glory of God, 24 Being iustified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Iesus Christ: 25 Whom God hath set forth to bee a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousnesse for the remission of sinnes, that are past, through the forbearance of God. 26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousnesse: that hee might bee iust, and the iustifier of him which beleeueth in Iesus.
23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; 24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: 25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; 26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.
Being justified-δικαιούμενοι (dikaioumenoi)-to make or declare right) freely-δωρεὰν (dorean)-freely, gratis, for naught, gratuitously) by his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him, his) grace-χάριτι (chariti)-grace, graciousness, favour, goodwill), through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) the-τῆς (tes)-the) redemption-ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-a loosing away, (i.e. deliverance)) that is-τῆς (tes)-of the) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", the Son of God, (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)::
Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. Glorious is the thought that justification in God's sight is now available to all people, not upon the basis of their success in keeping the commandments of any law, nor upon the basis of their having achieved any degree of moral perfection, or even excellence, and not upon the basis of their fulfilling any kind of law whatever, except that of meeting the terms upon which God provided it. True, those terms are called "a law of faith," a "perfect law of liberty," and a "royal law"; but such "law" is not in view here. Freely ... is appropriate, because nothing that man could ever do in a million years of righteous living could ever earn the tiniest fraction of the salvation God gives to people in Christ. The redemption that is in Christ ... The expression "in Christ" is, in some ways, the most important in all the Pauline writings, where this expression, or its equivalent, "in whom," "in him," etc., is used no less than 169 times. What does it mean to be "in Christ"? It means to be in his spiritual body, called the church, the body of which Christ is the head, of which he is declared to be the Saviour, and which means having a spiritual relationship to Christ, a relationship of intimate union and identification with him. Redemption is not in faith, or baptism, or in anything else except being "in Christ." Right here is that device contrived by God himself by which a man might truly and legitimately be justified; and it might be looked upon as a divine corporation.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
Redemption.—Literally, ransoming. The notion of ransom contains in itself the triple idea of a bondage, a deliverance, and the payment of an equivalent as the means of that deliverance. The bondage is the state of sin and of guilt, with the expectation of punishment; the deliverance is the removal of this state, and the opening out, in its stead, of a prospect of eternal happiness and glory; the equivalent paid by Christ is the shedding of His own blood.-(Ellicott's Commentary). BH
by his grace—His free love. through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus—a most important clause; teaching us that though justification is quite gratuitous, it is not a mere fiat of the divine will, but based on a "Redemption," that is, "the payment of a Ransom," in Christ's death. That this is the sense of the word "redemption," when applied to Christ's death, will appear clear to any impartial student of the passages where it occurs.-(Jamieson Fausset Brown.). BH
And are justified — Pardoned and accepted. Freely — Without any merit of their own. By his grace — Not their own righteousness or works. Through the redemption — The price Christ has paid.-(Wesley's Explanatory Notes). SL
Redemption The word signifies a ransoming, being derived from the word λυτρον , a ransom. (Note Matthew 20:28.) Dr. Hodge’s note on this word is very admirable: “The word translated redemption has two senses in the New Testament. 1. It means properly ‘a deliverance effected by the payment of a ransom.’ This is its primary etymological meaning. 2. It means deliverance simply, without any reference to the means of its accomplishment, whether by power or wisdom Luke 21:28: ‘The day of redemption (that is, of deliverance) draweth nigh;’-(Whedon's Commentary). SL
If sinners then are to be “ justified,” it must be “ gratuitously” ( cf. “ the gift of righteousness,” Romans 5:17)— a justification effected “ through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.”—“ To justify” is “ to count righteous” , p. 811 , whether (Romans 2:13, Romans 3:4) the subject has been such in conduct or (as here) the opposite; the term is relative to status. The change of character ensues, as ch. 6 will show; God makes men righteous by treating them as such on Christ’ s account. Justification is forgiveness, and more; it implies reinstatement (see Romans 8:14-Esther :; cf. Luke 15:20-Jeremiah :).— By derivation “ redemption” is recovery by ransom” : the Greek term, however, like the English, came to include “ deliverance” broadly; the stricter connotation holds in this connexion— the thought of “ price,” the sense of the immense cost of man’ s salvation ( cf. 1 Corinthians 6:20 *, 1 Timothy 2:6), attaches to the word; Romans 3:25 speaks of “ the blood” (Mark 10:45, 1 Peter 1:18 f.).-(Arthur Peake's Commentary). SL
'Justified' -1344. dikaioo dik-ah-yo'-o; from 1342; to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent: -free, justify(-ier), be righteous. 'Freely' -'free gift'. To receive the benefits of Christ's death is conditional (faith-Romans 3:22); but the 'basis' of our redemption, the reason WHY Christ died for us, contained no conditions. ( Rom_5:8 ). 'Grace' -Favor bestowed on the unworthy by a God who is tender and kind.."the idea of grace is a gift, given out of the sheer generosity of the giver's heart, a gift which the receiver could never have earned and could never have deserved by any efforts of his own". 'Redemption' -629. apolutrosis ap-ol-oo'-tro-sis; from a compound of 575 and 3083; (the act) ransom in full, i.e. (figuratively) riddance, or (specially) Christian salvation: -deliverance, redemption. -a 'ransoming from', a price paid for the deliverance of that which is delivered. 'Lutron'-is common in the papyri as the purchase-money in freeing slaves. (Robertson p. 347). This 'buying back' wasn't accomplished with silver or gold ( 1Pe_1:18-19 ), nor was it achieved with brains and brawn. 'It wasn't by culture or social standing. Deliverance doesn't lie in working our way out, or inventing our way out or subverting our way out, or carousing our way out, or thinking our way out, or warring our way out, but by admitting that CHRIST IS THE WAY OUT!'-(Mark Dunagan). SL
“Being freely justified by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.”- If the people could have been saved through legal obedience and good works, the Son of God might have stayed in heaven, enjoying forever the throne of his glory. Counterfeit religion, girdling the globe and deluding the people with the vain hallucination that they can be saved by priestly absolutions, church loyalty and legal obedience, hurls daily into the face of God the most abominable of all insults by actually treating with contempt the dying love and precious blood of His Son.-(Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament). SL
Whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) hath //set forth-προέθετο (proetheto)-to put before, to place before, purpose) (Or, foreordained) to be a propitiation-ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion)-place of propitiation, an expiatory sacrifice, relating to an appeasing or expiating, having placating or expiating force, expiatory; a means of appeasing or expiating, a propitiation), through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-believe, faithfulness, steadfasness) in-ἐν (en)-in) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) blood-αἵματι (haimati)-of man or animals, (specially: the atoning blood of Christ); by implication: bloodshed)),:
To be a propitiation - ἱλαστήριον hilastērion. This word occurs but in one other place in the New Testament. Hebrews 9:5, "and over it (the ark) the cherubim of glory shadowing the mercy-seat. It is used here to denote the lid or cover of the ark of the covenant. It was made of gold, and over it were the cherubim. . .And the blood of the bullock offered on the great day of atonement, was to be sprinkled "upon the mercy-seat," and "before the mercy-seat," "seven times," Leviticus 16:14-15. This sprinkling or offering of blood was called making "an atonement for the holy place because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel," etc. Leviticus 16:16. It was from this mercy-seat that God pronounced pardon, or expressed himself as reconciled to his people. The atonement was made, the blood was sprinkled, and the reconciliation thus effected. The name was thus given to that cover of the ark, because it was the place from which God declared himself reconciled to his people. Still the inquiry is, why is this name given to Jesus Christ? In what sense is he declared to be a propitiation? It is evident that it cannot be applied to him in any literal sense. Between the golden cover of the ark of the covenant and the Lord Jesus, the analogy must be very slight, if any such analogy can be perceived. We may observe, however,
(1) That the main idea, in regard to the cover of the ark called the mercy-seat, was that of God's being reconciled to his people; and that this is the main idea in regard to the Lord Jesus whom "God hath set forth."
(2) this reconciliation was effected then by the sprinkling of blood on the mercy-seat, Leviticus 16:15-16. The same is true of the Lord Jesus - by blood.
(3) in the former case it was by the blood of atonement; the offering of the bullock on the great day of atonement, that the reconciliation was effected, Leviticus 16:17-18. In the case of the Lord Jesus it was also by blood; by the blood of atonement. But it was by his own blood. This the apostle distinctly states in this verse.
(4) in the former case there was a sacrifice, or expiatory offering; and so it is in reconciliation by the Lord Jesus. In the former, the mercy-seat was the visible, declared place where God would express his reconciliation with his people. So in the latter, the offering of the Lord Jesus is the manifest and open way by which God will be reconciled to people.
(5) in the former, there was joined the idea of a sacrifice for sin, Leviticus 16. So in the latter. And hence, the main idea of the apostle here is to convey the idea of a sacrifice for sin; or to set forth the Lord Jesus as such a sacrifice. Hence, the word "propitiation" in the original may express the idea of a propitiatory sacrifice, as well as the cover to the ark. The word is an adjective, and may be joined to the noun sacrifice, as well as to denote the mercy-seat of the ark. This meaning accords also with its classic meaning to denote a propitiatory offering, or an offering to produce reconciliation. Christ is thus represented, not as a mercy-seat, which would be unintelligible; but as the medium, the offering, the expiation, by which reconciliation is produced between God and man.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
There are two possible meanings of "propitiation" (NASB) or "sacrifice of atonement" (NIV). The Greek word (hilasterion) is an adjective that can substitute for a noun. It means having placating or expiating force. [Note: A Greek-English . . ., s.v. "hilasterios," p. 301.] It could refer to Jesus Christ as the place where God satisfied His wrath and removed our sins. This is the substantival usage, translated "propitiation." In favor of this interpretation is the use of this Greek word to translate the mercy seat on the ark of the covenant (Exodus 25:17, LXX; Hebrews 9:5). However, it seems more natural to take hilasterion as referring to Jesus Christ as the sacrifice that satisfied God’s wrath and removed our sins (cf. Luke 18:13; Hebrews 2:17). This is the normal adjectival use, translated "sacrifice of atonement" (cf. 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10). Jesus Christ was the sacrifice, but the place where God made atonement was the Cross. The translation "through faith in His blood" (NIV) correctly represents the word order in the Greek text. Paul elsewhere urged faith in the person of Jesus Christ (Romans 3:22; Romans 3:26). Probably Paul mentioned His blood as representing His life poured out as a sacrifice of atonement instead of the person of Christ here to draw attention to what made His sacrifice atoning (cf. Romans 5:9; Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 2:13; Colossians 1:20). This then is a metonymy-[(def. is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept)], in which the name of one thing appears in the place of another associated with it.-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
God offered him.- Blood is often the symbol of death, and it is by the death of Christ—the totality of his sacrifice—that he is the means [propitiation = means] by which sins are forgiven. Christ died so that we could live (see 2 Corinthians 5:14-21; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 2:20). What God has given to the world in Christ, infinitely great and absolutely free, is literally nothing unless it is taken. We must reach out through faith to seize the sacrifice of Christ and make ourselves part of it! God did this. The Jew despised God’s patience with sinners (see Romans 2:4 and note). But Hebrews 9:15 shows it was on the basis of what Jesus would do that God was patient.-(The Bible Study New Testament). SL
Through faith in his blood — This shows what we are to understand both by the απολυτρωσις, redemption, and the ιλαστηριον, propitiation; viz. that they refer to the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ, as the atonement made, and the price paid down, for the redemption of the souls of men.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
Before leaving Romans 3:24, the seeming paradox of how God's grace is free and at the same time all people do not receive it, should be observed. Paul wrote Titus: For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us to the intent that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly and righteously and godly in this present world (Titus 2:11,/12). From this, it is plain that God's grace having appeared, and salvation having been brought to all people, refer to the availability of that grace and salvation, and not to their being unconditionally bestowed. From the farmer who reaps down his fields to the fishermen off the Grand Banks, all men receive God's gifts conditionally, and never unconditionally. Thus, it is no surprise that God's grace and salvation came "instructing men," with the necessary deduction that rejection of the instructions was automatically rejection of the grace and salvation. Failure to comply with divinely imposed conditions is forfeiture of all benefits conditionally given.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
Propitiation. Ιλαστηριον signifies mercy-seat. Ιλασμος , propitiation. The whole Hebrew ritual prohibited an approach to God without the shedding of blood. The question is, how the Hebrew christians would understand this phrase. Their current language would be, “We have boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus.” Hebrews 10:19. It was by the sprinkling of blood, that is, his own blood, by which he sanctifies his people. Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 13:12. The forgiveness of sins is twice connected with redemption in his blood. Ephesians 1:7. Colossians 1:14.-(Sutcliffe's Commentary). SL
'Set forth' -publicly, openly. 'Propitiation' -satisfaction, appeasement, having a placating or expiating force. To propitiate is to appease, to render favorable. 'Propitiation' -satisfaction, appeasement, having a placating or expiating force. To propitiate is to appease, to render favorable. In the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (LXX), this is the word used to describe the 'mercy seat', where atonement was made in the O.T. In contrast, the true "means" of appeasing the penalty that sin demands, wasn't veiled or hidden, but publicly shown to all, i.e. Christ died in full public view. 'through faith' -such appeasement for sin does have conditions. 'in his blood' -again, not just faith 'in' anything.-(Mark Dunagan). SL
to-εἰς (eis)-into, to, toward) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice) for-διὰ (dia)-on account of, because of, for the sake of) the-τὴν (ten)-the) //remission-πάρεσιν (paresin)-a sending over, passing by, letting pass) (Or, passing over) of sins-ἁμαρτημάτων (hamartematon)-a sin, transgression), that are past-προγεγονότων (progegonoton)-to become before, of sins committed previously ,to become or arise before, happen before, having occurred before), through-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῇ (te)-the) forbearance-ἀνοχή (anoche)-a holding back, toleration) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity).:
to declare-, εις ενδειξιν, for a demonstration of his, God’s, own righteousness: both his justice and mercy, especially the former, that thereby it might appear he could pardon sin, without any impeachment [(def. treason)] of his righteousness, in that he did not pardon it without full satisfaction made to the law by the sufferings of Christ, who was wounded for our transgressions, and on whom was laid that chastisement of sin which was necessary to procure our peace, and render our acceptance with God consistent with the divine perfections, and the equity of his government.- (Benson Commentary). BH
To show his righteousness ... Here in the heart of this magnificent passage, called by Olshausen "the Acropolis of the Christian faith," a true definition of the kind of righteousness which constituted Paul's principal theme in Romans is delivered. It is the intrinsic righteousness of God. It is true that there is some reference to the other class of righteousness (imputed, or forensic); but, throughout this great letter, it is the character of God that Paul discussed. At the beginning of this verse, Paul mentioned the offering of Christ; and here, in these words, the reason for God's so doing is stated. It was for the purpose of showing, or making known to all people, the righteous character of God. God was not merely winking at sin in those long pre-Christian ages; in the fullness of time, God would sacrifice the Son himself, "whom he made to be sin on our behalf," that he might show just what a terrible thing sin is, and to demonstrate that no sin will at last be tolerated by God. Such a view of God's eternal righteousness could never have been known until God gave his only begotten Son.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
The full idea of the first part of the verse would then be this. God has publicly displayed Jesus Christ in the gospel as a sacrifice of atonement that satisfied God’s wrath and removed our sins. His sacrifice becomes efficacious for those who trust in Him. The antecedent of "this"-[(i.e. "...this was to demonstrate His righteousness...")]-(NASB) is the redemption (Romans 3:24) God provided in Christ, as is clear in the NIV translation. Another reason God provided a sacrifice of atonement was to justify (declare righteous) God’s own character (i.e., to vindicate Him). This was necessary because God had not finally dealt with sins committed before Jesus died. God had shown forbearance, not out of weakness or sentimentality but because He planned to provide a final sacrifice in the future, namely, at the Cross. "Passed over" (NASB) or "left . . . unpunished" (NIV) is not the same as "forgave." Two different though related Greek words describe these two ideas, paresis and aphesis respectively. God did not forgive the sins of Old Testament saints finally until Jesus died on the cross. The blood of the animal sacrifices of Judaism only covered (removed) them temporarily. God did not exact a full penalty for sin until Jesus died. It is as though the Old Testament believers who offered the sacrifices for the expiation of sin that the Mosaic Law required paid for those sins with a credit card. God accepted those sacrifices as a temporary payment. However the bill came due later, and Jesus Christ paid that off entirely. [Note: See also Jarvis Williams, "Violent Atonement in Romans: The Foundation of Paul’s Soteriology," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 53:3 (September 2010):579-99.]. "Paul has thus pressed into service the language of the law-court (’justified’), the slave-market (’redemption’) and the altar (’expiation’, ’atoning sacrifice’) in the attempt to do justice to the fullness of God’s gracious act in Christ. Pardon, liberation, atonement-all are made available to men and women by his free initiative and may be appropriated by faith." [Note: Bruce, pp. 101-2.]-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
Propitiation] i.e. that which makes it possible for God to be propitious, or favourable to man. In his blood] RV ’by his blood,’ i.e. Christ became a propitiation by shedding His blood. Declare] RV ’shew,’ for, otherwise, it might have been doubted. For the remission, etc.] RV ’because of the passing over of the sins done aforetime’: cp. Acts 17:30. ’Passing over,’ i.e. temporary suspension of punishment (Sanday and Headlam).-(Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible). SL
Sins that are past- Sins committed before the death of Christ. That atoning death reflected back its efficacy upon previous ages and generations. That is, God, in view of that foreknown atonement, withheld penalty until the sacrifice, and then fully pardoned it. Forbearance- God forebore for ages in view of the propitiation.-(Whedon's Commentary). SL
Because of (or, on account of) the prætermission (passing over), [i.e., because He had allowed the sins of the race which were committed before Christ’s death to pass by unpunished, whereby His righteousness was obscured, and hence the need of a demonstration or manifestation in the atoning sacrifice, that fully justified the demands of righteousness, and at the same time effected a complete remission of sins, and justification of the sinner.—P. S.].-(Lange's Commentary). SL
through the forbearance of God—God not remitting but only forbearing to punish them, or passing them by, until an adequate atonement for them should be made. In thus not imputing them, God was righteous, but He was not seen to be so; there was no "manifestation of His righteousness" in doing so under the ancient economy. But now that God can "set forth" Christ as a "propitiation for sin through faith in His blood," the righteousness of His procedure in passing by the sins of believers before, and in now remitting them, is "manifested," declared, brought fully out to the view of the whole world.-(Jamieson Fausset Brown). BH
To declare his righteousness — εις ενδειξις, for the manifestation of his righteousness; his mercy in saving sinners, by sending Jesus Christ to make an atonement for them; thereby declaring his readiness to remit all past transgressions committed both by Jews and Gentiles, during the time in which his merciful forbearance was exercised towards the world; and this applies to all who hear the Gospel now: to them is freely offered remission of all past sins.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
'to show' -to demonstrate. God cannot just let sin slip by. If sin in the past was left unpunished was it because God was ignoring it? Did he think it wasn't very important? This phrase teaches the truth, that if patience was shown to sinful men and sins in the past, it was IN VIEW OF THE COMING SACRIFICE OF CHRIST. God's justifying us, MUST OF ITSELF BE JUST. God cannot deliver us by an unrighteous method. ( Act_17:30 ) Here we encounter another passage that teaches that the benefits of the blood of Christ flow both ways ( Heb_9:15 ). 'That is, to demonstrate that God was not unrighteous when He passed over (left unpunished) sins committed in earlier days, in the period of His forbearance.'-(Mark Dunagan). SL
Now God still desired fellowship with man, but as long as sin was there man could not fellowship with God. Something had to be done with man's sin, or else there is no fellowship. Therefore, in order that God might renew fellowship with man, during the old covenant with the Jewish nation, He established a method by which you could take the guilt of your sin and transfer it onto an animal by faith. Bring your ox to the priest, lay your hands on its head and confess on the head of that ox all of your sins. Then the priest would kill the ox and offer it unto God as a sin offering, whereby your sins could be covered by faith, because the ox had died in your place. The death that you deserved because of your sins, because the soul that sins shall surely die. So that was the righteous basis by which God could restore fellowship with man in the Old Testament. As a man would bring the substitute and let it die in his place and then fellowship with God could be restored until man sinned again. If that were still true today and we had sacrifices here and you had to come and bring your animal for a sacrifice and your sins could be forgiven and you could sit here for a little while just fellowshipping with God and enjoy the blessing of God's presence and all in your life, it probably wouldn't last too long. Just driving from here to the freeway, just getting out of the parking lot you might blow it. Thus, you would have to, before you could fellowship with God again, bring another sacrifice and get things all cleaned up once more. These sacrifices were all done in faith, because they were looking forward to the sacrifice that God was going to provide for man's sins.-(Smith's Bible Commentary). SL
To-πρὸς (pros)-toward) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation)), I say, at-ἐν (en)-in) this-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) time-καιρῷ (kairo)-a fixed time or season) his-αὐτὸν (auton)-of him) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice): that-εἰς τὸ (eis to)-with the view to) he-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) might be-εἶναι (einai)-'to be') just-δίκαιον (dikaion)-just, righteous, (equitable (in character or act); by implication: innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively):—just, meet, right(-eous)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) the justifier-δικαιοῦντα (dikaiounta)-to make or declare right, (to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable) of him which believeth-τὸν ἐκ πίστεως (ton ek pisteos)-who is of the faith of) in Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind).:
at this time] The word translated “time” means usually occasion, “special time,” “due time.” Same word as ch. Romans 5:6. Such a sense is natural here. The “declaration” of God’s righteousness in pardon was made not only “at this time,” as distinct from a previous age (that of the O. T.), but “at this due time,” the crisis fixed by the Divine purpose. that he might be] i.e., practically, “might be seen to be,” “that He might be in His creatures’ view.” just] With the justice of a judge; giving full honour to the Law.-(Cambridge BSC). BH
To declare, I say, at this time — To manifest now, by the dispensation of the Gospel, his righteousness, his infinite mercy; and to manifest it in such a way, that he might still appear to be the just God, and yet the justifier, the pardoner, of him who believeth in Jesus. Here we learn that God designed to give the most evident displays both of his justice and mercy. Of his justice, in requiring a sacrifice, and absolutely refusing to give salvation to a lost world in any other way; and of his mercy, in providing THE sacrifice which his justice required. Thus, because Jesus was an atonement, a ransom price, for the sin of the world, therefore God can, consistently with his justice, pardon every soul that believeth in Jesus. This is the full discovery of God's righteousness, of his wonderful method of magnifying his law and making it honourable; of showing the infinite purity of his justice, and of saving a lost world.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
And the justifier of him ... - Greek, "Even justifying him that believeth, etc." This is the uniqueness and the wonder of the gospel. Even while pardoning, and treating the ill-deserving as if they were innocent, he can retain his pure and holy character. His treating the guilty with favor does not show that be loves guilt and pollution, for he has expressed his abhorrence of it in the atonement. His admitting them to friendship and heaven does not show that he approves their past conduct and character, for he showed how much he hated even their sins by giving his Son to a shameful death for them. When an executive pardons offenders, there is an abandonment of the principles of justice and law. The sentence is set aside; the threatenings of the law are departed from; and it is done without compensation. It is declared that in certain cases the law may be violated, and its penalty "not" be inflicted. But not so with God. He shows no less regard to his law in pardoning than in punishing. This is the grand, glorious, special feature of the gospel plan of salvation. Him which believeth in Jesus - Greek, "Him who is of the faith of Jesus;" in contradistinction from him who is of the works of the Law; that is, who depends on his own works for salvation.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus—Glorious paradox! "Just in punishing," and "merciful in pardoning," men can understand; but "just in justifying the guilty," startles them. But the propitiation through faith in Christ's blood resolves the paradox and harmonizes the discordant elements. For in that "God hath made Him to be sin for us who knew no sin," justice has full satisfaction; and in that "we are made the righteousness of God in Him," mercy has her heart's delight!-(Jamieson Fausset Brown). BH
And the justifier of him that hath faith in Jesus ... As the English Revised Version (1885) margin shows, this clause in the Greek New Testament reads, "the justifier of him that is of faith of Jesus," and the true meaning of the passage is not that the believer's "faith, faith alone, has God's righteousness." "Him that is of the faith of Jesus" does not indicate that the believer's faith is the ground of salvation, but that the faith of the Son of God is the ground of it. Who is he that is "of the faith of Jesus"? Such a one is the person "in Christ," who is dead to himself, walking in newness of life, sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, and having been baptized into God's corporate reality, the spiritual body of Christ, and who is, therefore, possessed of a new identity, being no longer his own self, but Christ. As Paul wrote, "For me to live is Christ" (Philippians 1:20). No person whatsoever may expect salvation upon any other foundation than his total identity with Christ. Only the faith of Christ is sufficient to save any person; and the believer's faith, which is merely one of the conditions upon which he may become possessor of Christ's faith, can never justify him, apart from his being in the Lord Jesus Christ, and actually having put on Christ, in the sense of clothing himself with the Lord, and having taken upon him the name of Christ. As to when a person has such status, the Scriptures are clear. When does the believer put on Christ? For as many of you as were baptized into Christ did put on Christ (Galatians 3:27). And when does the believer take the name of Christ? They were baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus (Acts 19:5).-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
'For the showing' -what God did in Christ not only spoke in relation to the sins that were gone, but it demonstrates 'at the present season' that God is just to declare the sinner, who demonstrates faith in Jesus, to be innocent and right with Him. Without the sacrifice of Christ, any acquittal of the sinner IS UNJUST!. Modern Application: This is a truth that many people miss. Many claim that God will save (declare righteous) those that don't place their faith in Jesus. But such teaching labels God as 'unjust'. Many are under the impression that GOD CAN FORGIVE SIN ANYWAY HE WANTS TO. Such is not the case. A holy and righteous God cannot VIOLATE the demands of justice. Christ was needed to appease such demands (sin must be punished).-(Mark Dunagan's Commentary). SL
When Christ died on the cross, he took the punishment of sin that God’s holy wrath demanded. Now that God’s righteous demands have been satisfied, his grace can flow out in giving a righteous status in Christ to any who will receive it by faith. Even the sins of those who lived before the time of Christ were forgiven on the basis of Christ’s death. God accepted those who had faith in him. Their sacrifices could never remove sin (cf. Hebrews 10:4), but they could be an expression of faith by which they acknowledged their sin as being worthy of God’s punishment and called on God’s mercy to forgive them. God therefore accepted believing sinners, ‘passing over’ their sins, as it were, until Christ came and bore the full punishment (cf. Hebrews 9:15). Christ’s death is the basis on which God justifies all who have faith in him, whether they lived before or after the time of Christ (25-26).(Bridgeway Commentary). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
12 εὐχαριστοῦντες τῷ πατρὶ τῷ ἱκανώσαντι ἡμᾶς εἰς τὴν μερίδα τοῦ κλήρου τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ φωτί, 13 ὃς ἐρρύσατο ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ σκότους, καὶ μετέστησεν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἀγάπης αὐτοῦ, 14 ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν·
12 “*Giving thanks-εὐχαριστοῦντες (eucharistountes)-to thank, be thankful, (i.e. (actively) to express gratitude (towards)) unto the-τῷ (to)-to the) Father-πατρὶ (patri)-father, (God is called the Father)), which-τῷ (to)-the) *hath made us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us, we) meet-ἱκανώσαντι (hikanosanti)-to make sufficient, make able (meet)) to-εἰς (eis)-into) be partakers-μερίδα (merida)-division, portion, (i.e. an assigned part, a portion, share)) of the-τοῦ (tou)-of the) *inheritance-κλήρου (klerou)-a lot, possession, (what is obtained by lot, allotted portion)) of the-τῶν (ton)-of the) Saints-ἁγίων (hagion)-set apart, separate) in-ἐν (en)-in) light-φωτί (photi)-light, (fig. of believers: w. focus on the effect of divine illumination displayed in them)): 13 Who-ὃς (hos)-who) *hath delivered-ἐρρύσατο (errusato)-to rescue, to deliver) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us) from-ἐκ (ek)-out from, out of) the-τῆς (tes)-the) *power-ἐξουσίας (exousias)-authority, jurisdiction, domain) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) *darkness-σκότους (skotous)-darkness), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) hath translated-μετέστησεν (metestesen)-to put over, translate, (properly: to transfer)) us into-εἰς (eis)-into) the-τὴν (ten)-the) kingdom-βασιλείαν (basileian)-kingdom) of //his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) dear-ἀγάπης (agapes)-love) Son-υἱοῦ (huiou)-son, offspring) (Gr. the Sonne of his love), 14 In-ἐν (en)-in) whom-ᾧ (ho)-whom) we have-ἔχομεν (echomen)-to have) *redemption-ἀπολύτρωσιν (apolutrosin)-a loosing away, deliverance) through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) *blood-αἵματος (hamartion)-blood, (i.e. of the blood of Christ)), even the-τὴν (ten)-the) *forgiveness-ἄφεσιν (aphesin)-a sending away, letting go) of-τῶν (ton)-of the) sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamartion)-sin, error, offense):”
Example of Greek word: