Propitiation//Reconciliation

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1. Propitiation

2. Reconciliation

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Concordance / Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.

Key:

  •  G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root Word, but not the same Inflection / Parsing.

  • Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.

Propitiation

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
23 πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ, 24 δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 25 ὃν προέθετοΘεὸς ἱλαστήριον, διὰ τῆς πίστεως, ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι, εἰς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ, διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων, ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ· 26 πρὸς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν δίκαιον καὶ δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ.

Romans 3:24-26

23 For all-πάντες (pantes)-all, every (plural) *have sinne d-ἥμαρτον (hemarton)- properly: to miss the mark (and so not share in the prize), i.e. (figuratively) to err, especially (morally) to sin:—for your faults, offend, sin, trespass) , and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) come short-ὑστεροῦνται (husterountai)-come short (of), (i.e. generally: to fall short (be deficient):—come behind (short), be destitute, fail, lack, suffer need, (be in) want) of the glory of God, 24 Being justified-δικαιούμενοι (dikaioumenoi)-to make or declare right) *freely-δωρεὰν (dorean)-freely, gratis, for naught, gratuitously) by-τῇ (te)-the) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him, his) grace-χάριτι (chariti)-grace, graciousness, favour, goodwill) through-διὰ (dia)-through) the-τῆς (tes)-the) *redemption-ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-a loosing away, (i.e. deliverance) that is-τῆς (tes)-of the) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", the Son of God, (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind): 25 Whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) *hath //set forth-προέθετο (proetheto)-to put before, to place before, purpose) (Or, foreordained) *to be a propitiation-ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion)-place of propitiation, an expiatory sacrifice, relating to an appeasing or expiating, having placating or expiating force, expiatory; a means of appeasing or expiating, a propitiation) through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) *faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-believe, faithfulness, steadfasness) in-ἐν (en)-in) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) *blood-αἵματι (haimati)-of man or animals, (specially: the atoning blood of Christ); by implication: bloodshed), to-εἰς (eis)-into, to) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration,  showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) *righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice, (equity (of character or act), (When affirmed of Christ, denotes his perfect moral purity, integrity, sinlessness) for-διὰ (dia)-on account of, because of, for the sake of) the-τὴν (ten)-the) //remission-πάρεσιν (paresin)-a sending over, passing by, letting pass, disregarding) (Or, passing over) of sins-ἁμαρτημάτων (hamartematon)-a sin, transgression), that are past-προγεγονότων (progegonoton)-to become before, of sins committed previously ,to become or arise before, happen before, having occurred before)through-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῇ (te)-the) forbearance-ἀνοχή (anoche)-a holding back, toleration) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)26 To-πρὸς (pros)-toward) *declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation)), I say, at-ἐν (en)-in) this-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) *time-καιρῷ (kairo)-a fixed time or season) his-αὐτὸν (auton)-of him) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice, uprightness, (equity (of character or act)): that-εἰς τὸ (eis to)-with the view to) he-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) might be-εἶναι (einai)-'to be') *just-δίκαιον (dikaion)-just, righteous, (equitable (in character or act); by implication: innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively):—just, meet, right(-eous)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) *the justifier-δικαιοῦντα (dikaiounta)-to make or declare right, (to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable) of him which believeth-τὸν ἐκ πίστεως (ton ek pisteos)-who is of the faith of) in Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)."

  • *example of Greek word: ἥμαρτον (hemarton)-have sinned click: Romans 5:12

  • *example of Greek word: δωρεὰν (dorean)-freely click: Matthew 10:8

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-redemption click: Ephesians 4:30

  • *example of Greek word: προέθετο-hath set forth click: Ephesians 1:9 (he hath purpose)

  • *example of Greek word: ἱλαστήριον-to be a propitiation click: Hebrews 9:5 (mercyseat)

  • *example of Greek word: πίστεως (pisteos)-faith click: Romans 5:1

  • *example of Greek word: αἵματι (haimati)-blood click: Luke 22:20

  • *example of Greek word: δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-righteousness click: James 3:18

  • *example of Greek word: ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-declare click: 2 Corinthians 8:24 (the proof)

  • *example of Greek word: καιρῷ (kairo)-time click: 1 Peter 1:5

  • *example of Greek word: δίκαιον (dikaion)-just click: Mark 6:20

  • *example of Greek word: δικαιοῦντα-the justifier click: Romans 4:5 (him that justifieth)

  • have sinned-ἥμαρτον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, PluralFor all ["missED"//"sinned"], and

  • come short-ὑστεροῦνται: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-WANTING"] of the glory of God,

  • Being justified-δικαιούμενοι: Verb, Present, Passive, Participle,  Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["beING-JUSTIFIED"] freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God

  • hath set forth-προέθετο: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["purposed"] to be a propitiation through faith in his  bloodto declare his righteousness for the remission of sins,

  • that are past-προγεγονότων: Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Neuter: ["HAVING-BEFORE-BECOME"//"having-occurred-before"], through the forbearance of God. To declare, I sayat this time  his righteousness: that he

  • might be-εἶναι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Infinitive["TO-BE"]   just, and 

  • the justifier-δικαιοῦντα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["One-JUSTIFYING"] of him which believeth in Jesus.

Being justified-δικαιούμενοι (dikaioumenoi)-to make or declare right) freely-δωρεὰν (dorean)-freely, gratis, for naught, gratuitously) by-τῇ (te)-the) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him, his) grace-χάριτι (chariti)-grace, graciousness, favour, goodwill) through-διὰ (dia)-through) the-τῆς (tes)-the) redemption-ἀπολυτρώσεως (apolutroseos)-a loosing away, (i.e. deliverance) that is-τῆς (tes)-of the) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", the Son of God, (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind): 

    Being justified -Being treated as if righteous; that is, being regarded and treated as if they had kept the Law. The apostle has shown that they could not be so regarded and treated by any merit of their own, or by personal obedience to the Law. He now affirms that if they were so treated, it must be by mere favor, and as a matter not of right, but of gift. This is the essence of the gospel.-(Barnes).

    Freely - δωρεὰν dōrean. This word stands opposed to what is purchased, or which is obtained by labor, or which is a matter of claim. It is a free, undeserved gift, not merited by our obedience to the Law, and not that to which we have any claim. The apostle uses the word here in reference to those who are justified. To them it is a mere undeserved gift, It does not mean that it has been obtained, however, without any price or merit from anyone, for the Lord Jesus has purchased it with his own blood, and to him it becomes a matter of justice that those who were given to him should be justified..."-(Barnes).

    Redemption.—Literally, ransoming. The notion of ransom contains in itself the triple idea of a bondage, a deliverance, and the payment of an equivalent as the means of that deliverance. The bondage is the state of sin and of guilt, with the expectation of punishment; the deliverance is the removal of this state, and the opening out, in its stead, of a prospect of eternal happiness and glory; the equivalent paid by Christ is the shedding of His own blood.-(Ellicott).

    by his grace—His free love. through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus—a most important clause; teaching us that though justification is quite gratuitous, it is not a mere fiat of the divine will, but based on a "Redemption," that is, "the payment of a Ransom," in Christ's death. That this is the sense of the word "redemption," when applied to Christ's death, will appear clear to any impartial student of the passages where it occurs.-(Jamieson F.B.).

    That is in Christ Jesus - Or, that has been effected by Christ Jesus; that of which he is the author and procurer; compare John 3:16.-(Barnes).

Whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) hath //set forth-προέθετο (proetheto)-to put before, to place before, purpose) (Or, foreordained) to be a propitiation-ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion)-place of propitiation, an expiatory sacrifice, relating to an appeasing or expiating, having placating or expiating force, expiatory; a means of appeasing or expiating, a propitiation) through-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of) faith-πίστεως (pisteos)-believe, faithfulness, steadfasness) in-ἐν (en)-in) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) blood-αἵματι (haimati)-of man or animals, (specially: the atoning blood of Christ); by implication: bloodshed):

    Whom God had set forth to be a propitiation,.... Redemption by Christ is here further explained, by his being "a propitiation": which word may design either Christ the propitiator, the author of peace and reconciliation; or the propitiatory sacrifice, by which he is so; and both in allusion to the mercy seat [of the old testament], which was a type of him as such....Christ is the propitiation to God for sin; which must be understood of his making satisfaction to divine justice, for the sins of his people [them that believe]; these were imputed to him, and being found on him, the law and justice of God made demands on him for them; which he answered to satisfaction, by his obedience and sacrifice; and which, as it could not be done by any other, nor in any other way, is expressed by "reconciliation", and "atonement": whence God may be said to be pacified, or made propitious [favorable]; not but that he always loved his people, and never hated them; nor is there, nor can there be any change in God, from hatred to love, any more than from love to hatred: Christ has not, by his sacrifice and death, procured [obtained] the love and favour of God, but has removed the obstructions which lay in the way of love's appearing and breaking forth; there was, a law broken, and justice provoked, which were to be attended to, and Christ by his sacrifice has satisfied both; so that neither the wrath of God, nor any of the effects of it, can fall upon the persons [for which] Christ is the propitiation for, even according to justice itself; so that it is not love, but justice that is made propitious: for this is all owing to the grace and goodness of God, who "hath set him forth", for this intent, in his eternal purposes and decrees; in the promises of the Old Testament, in the types, shadows, and sacrifices of the old law; by the exhibition of him in our nature, and in the ministration of the Gospel; and this is said to be through faith in his blood."-(Gill).

    To be a propitiation - ἱλαστήριον hilastērion. This word occurs but in one other place in the New Testament. Hebrews 9:5, "and over it (the ark) the cherubim of glory shadowing the mercy-seat. It is used here to denote the lid or cover of the ark of the covenant. It was made of gold, and over it were the cherubim...And the blood of the bullock offered on the great day of atonement, was to be sprinkled "upon the mercy-seat," and "before the mercy-seat," "seven times," Leviticus 16:14-15. This sprinkling or offering of blood was called making "an atonement for the holy place because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel," etc. Leviticus 16:16. It was from this mercy-seat that God pronounced pardon, or expressed himself as reconciled to his people. The atonement was made, the blood was sprinkled, and the reconciliation thus effected. The name was thus given to that cover of the ark, because it was the place from which God declared himself reconciled to his people. Still the inquiry is, why is this name given to Jesus Christ? In what sense is he declared to be a propitiation? It is evident that it cannot be applied to him in any literal sense. Between the golden cover of the ark of the covenant and the Lord Jesus, the analogy must be very slight, if any such analogy can be perceived. We may observe, however,

(1) That the main idea, in regard to the cover of the ark called the mercy-seat, was that of God's being reconciled to his people; and that this is the main idea in regard to the Lord Jesus whom "God hath set forth."

(2) this reconciliation was effected then by the sprinkling of blood on the mercy-seat, Leviticus 16:15-16. The same is true of the Lord Jesus - by blood.

(3) in the former case it was by the blood of atonement; the offering of the bullock on the great day of atonement, that the reconciliation was effected, Leviticus 16:17-18. In the case of the Lord Jesus it was also by blood; by the blood of atonement. But it was by his own blood. This the apostle distinctly states in this verse.

(4) in the former case there was a sacrifice, or expiatory offering; and so it is in reconciliation by the Lord Jesus. In the former, the mercy-seat was the visible, declared place where God would express his reconciliation with his people. So in the latter, the offering of the Lord Jesus is the manifest and open way by which God will be reconciled to people.

(5) in the former, there was joined the idea of a sacrifice for sin, Leviticus 16. So in the latter. And hence, the main idea of the apostle here is to convey the idea of a sacrifice for sin; or to set forth the Lord Jesus as such a sacrifice. Hence, the word "propitiation" in the original may express the idea of a propitiatory sacrifice, as well as the cover to the ark. The word is an adjective, and may be joined to the noun sacrifice, as well as to denote the mercy-seat of the ark. This meaning accords also with its classic meaning to denote a propitiatory offering, or an offering to produce reconciliation. Christ is thus represented, not as a mercy-seat, which would be unintelligible; but as the medium, the offering, the expiation, by which reconciliation is produced between God and man.-(Barnes).

    through faith in his bloodThe "blood" of Christ is that, by which Christ is the propitiation; for without the shedding of that blood, there is no redemption, no peace, no reconciliation, or remission of sin; and "faith" in his blood is the means by which persons become partakers of the benefits of his propitiation; such as peace, pardon, atonement, justification, and adoption: and the end of Christ's being set forth as a propitiation, on the part of God's people, is, for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God:-(Gill).

    Through faith in his blood — Through believing that Christ’s blood was shed to expiate our sins, and trusting therein for pardon and acceptance with God, and all other benefits which he has thereby procured for us:-(Benson).

to-εἰς (eis)-into, to) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration,  showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him)   righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice, (equity (of character or act), (When affirmed of Christ, denotes his perfect moral purity, integrity, sinlessness) for-διὰ (dia)-on account of, because of, for the sake of) the-τὴν (ten)-the) //remission-πάρεσιν (paresin)-a sending over, passing by, letting pass, disregarding) (Or, passing over) of sins-ἁμαρτημάτων (hamartematon)-a sin, transgression), that are past-προγεγονότων (progegonoton)-to become before, of sins committed previously ,to become or arise before, happen before, having occurred before)through-ἐν (en)-in) the-τῇ (te)-the) forbearance-ἀνοχή (anoche)-a holding back, toleration) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity):

    to declare-, εις ενδειξιν, for a demonstration of his, God’s, own righteousness: both his justice and mercy, especially the former, that thereby it might appear he could pardon sin, without any impeachment [treason] of his righteousness, in that he did not pardon it without full satisfaction made to the law [i.e. of Moses] by the sufferings of Christ, who was wounded for our transgressions, and on whom was laid that chastisement of sin which was necessary to procure our peace, and render our acceptance with God consistent with the divine perfections, and the equity of his government. For the remission of sins that are past — All the sins antecedent to their believing. Or the expression, δια την παρεσιν των προγεγονοτων αμαρτηματων, may be properly rendered, on account of the passing by, or not instantly and adequately punishing, sins which were before committed, that is, before the coming of Christ: the sins of which both Jews and Gentiles had been guilty before the gospel was promulgated, and on account of which both deserved destruction, and were unworthy of the blessings of God’s covenant. Now God’s righteousness or justice might have appeared doubtful, on account of his having so long, in his great forbearance, thus passed by the sins of men, unless in the mean time he had made a sufficient display of his hatred to sin. But such a display being made in the death of Christ, his justice is thereby fully proved. Doddridge thus paraphrases the passage: “The remission extends not only to the present but former age, and to all the offences which are long since past, according to the forbearance of God, who has forborne to execute judgment upon sinners for their repeated provocations, in reference to that atonement which he knew should in due tinge be made.”-(Benson).

    For the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; he means, either the sins committed before justification, while God bore so patiently with the sinner, and did not presently take the forfeiture; or else the sins committed under the Old Testament, before the proposed propitiation was exposed to the world, when God so indulged our fathers, as to pardon them upon the account of what was to come: see Hebrews 9:15-16/17/18.-(Matthew Poole).

    for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God: by "sins that are past", are meant, not sins before baptism, nor the sins of a man's life only, but the sins of Old Testament saints, who lived before the incarnation of Christ, and the oblation of his sacrifice; and though this is not to be restrained to them only, for Christ's blood was shed for the remission of all his people's sins, past, present, and to come; yet the sins of the saints before the coming of Christ, seem to be particularly designed; which shows the insufficiency of legal sacrifices [of the Law], sets forth the efficacy of Christ's blood and sacrifice, demonstrates him to be a perfect Saviour, and gives us reason under the present dispensation to hope for pardon, since reconciliation is completely made: "remission" of sin does not design that weakness which sin has brought upon, and left in human nature, whereby it is so enfeebled, that it cannot help itself, and therefore Christ was set forth, and sent forth, to be a propitiation; but rather God's passing by, or overlooking sin, and not punishing for it, under the former dispensation; or else the forgiveness of it now, and redemption from it by the blood of Christ, "through the forbearance of God"; in deferring the execution of justice, till he sent his Son, and in expecting satisfaction of his Son; which shows the grace and goodness of God to his people, and the trust and confidence he put in his Son: the other end on the part of God, in setting forth Christ to be a propitiation, was to declare his righteousness-(Gill).

To-πρὸς (pros)-toward) declare-ἔνδειξιν (endeixin)-a shewing, demonstration, showing forth, proof: i.e. manifestation)), I say, at-ἐν (en)-in) this-νῦν (nun)-at this time, the present, now) time-καιρῷ (kairo)-a fixed time or season) his-αὐτὸν (auton)-of him) righteousness-δικαιοσύνης (dikaiosunes)-rightness, justice, uprightness, (equity (of character or act)): that-εἰς τὸ (eis to)-with the view to) he-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) might be-εἶναι (einai)-'to be') just-δίκαιον (dikaion)-just, righteous, (equitable (in character or act); by implication: innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively):—just, meet, right(-eous)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) the justifier-δικαιοῦντα (dikaiounta)-to make or declare right, (to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable) of him which believeth-τὸν ἐκ πίστεως (ton ek pisteos)-who is of the faith of) in Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind):

    at this time] The word translated “time” means usually occasion, “special time,” “due time.” Same word as ch. Romans 5:6. Such a sense is natural here. The “declaration” of God’s righteousness in pardon was made not only “at this time,” as distinct from a previous age (that of the O. T.), but “at this due time,” the crisis fixed by the Divine purpose. that he might be] i.e., practically, “might be seen to be,” “that He might be in His creatures’ view.” just] With the justice of a judge; giving full honour to the Law.-(Cambridge BSC).

    To declare, I say, at this time, his righteousness,.... This end is further explained, it being to declare the righteousness of God "at this time", under the Gospel dispensation; in which there was such a display of the grace, mercy, and goodness of God: that he might be just; that is, appear to be so: God is naturally and essentially just in himself; and he is evidentially so in all his works, particularly in redemption by Christ; and when and while he is the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus: Jesus, the Saviour, is the object of faith, as he is the Lord our righteousness; the believer in Jesus is a real, and not a nominal one; God is the justifier of such in a declarative way, and God only, though not to the exclusion of the Son and Spirit; and which sentence of justification is pronounced by him on the foot of a perfect righteousness, which neither law nor justice can find fault with, but entirely approve of; and so he [the justified] appears just and righteous, even though he justifies the sinner and the ungodly.-(Gill)

    And the justifier of him ... - Greek, "Even justifying him that believeth, etc." This is the uniqueness and the wonder of the gospel. Even while pardoning, and treating the ill-deserving as if they were innocent, he can retain his pure and holy character. His treating the guilty with favor does not show that be loves guilt and pollution, for he has expressed his abhorrence of it in the atonement. His admitting them to friendship and heaven does not show that he approves their past conduct and character, for he showed how much he hated even their sins by giving his Son to a shameful death for them. When an executive pardons offenders, there is an abandonment of the principles of justice and law. The sentence is set aside; the threatenings of the law are departed from; and it is done without compensation. It is declared that in certain cases the law may be violated, and its penalty "not" be inflicted. But not so with God. He shows no less regard to his law in pardoning than in punishing. This is the grand, glorious, special feature of the gospel plan of salvation. Him which believeth in Jesus - Greek, "Him who is of the faith of Jesus;" in contradistinction from him who is of the works of the Law; that is, who depends on his own works for salvation.-(Barnes).

    his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus—Glorious paradox! "Just in punishing," and "merciful in pardoning," men can understand; but "just in justifying the guilty," startles them. But the propitiation through faith in Christ's blood resolves the paradox and harmonizes the discordant elements. For in that "God hath made Him to be sin for us who knew no sin," justice has full satisfaction; and in that "we are made the righteousness of God in Him," mercy has her heart's delight!-(Jamieson F.B.).

    

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
1 Τεκνία μου, ταῦτα γράφω ὑμῖν, ἵνα μὴ ἁμάρτητε. καὶ ἐάν τις ἁμάρτῃ, παράκλητον ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν δίκαιον· 2 καὶ αὐτὸς ἱλασμός ἐστι περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν· οὐ περὶ τῶν ἡμετέρων δὲ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ ὅλου τοῦ κόσμου. 3 Καὶ ἐν τούτῳ γινώσκομεν ὅτι ἐγνώκαμεν αὐτόν, ἐὰν τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ τηρῶμεν.

1 John 2:1-3

"My little children-Τεκνία (teknia)-little or young child, (i.e. (plural figuratively) darlings (Christian converts):—little children), these things write I-γράφω (grapho)-to write, inscribe) unto you, that ye sin-ἁμάρτητε (hamartete)-to sin, err, miss the mark, trespass, offend) not-μὴ (me)-no, not lest). And-καὶ (kai)-and, also) if-ἐάν (ean)-if, in case) any man *sin-ἁμάρτῃ (hamarte)-to sin, err, miss the mark, trespass, offend), we have-ἔχομεν (echomen)-to have) an Advocate-παράκλητον (parakenton)-one called alongside (to help), (i.e. an intercessor) with-πρὸς (pros)-toward) the Father-πατέρα (patera)-Father, (God is called the Father), Jesus -Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) Christ- Χριστὸν (Christon)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)) *the righteous-δίκαιον (dikaion)-right, righteous, just)2 And-καὶ (kai)-and, also) he-αὐτὸς (autos)-he) is-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') *the propitiation-ἱλασμός (hilasmos)-what appeases, propitiates, atonement, i.e. (concretely) an expiator) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) our-ἡμῶν (hemon)-of us) sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamartion)-sin, error, offense): and-δὲ (de)-but, yet) not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) ours-ἡμετέρων (hemeteron)-our own) only-μόνον (monon)-only, alone), but-ἀλλὰ (alla)-but) also-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) the sins of the whole-ὅλος (holos)-all, whole, completely, all, altogether, every whit) world-κόσμου (kosmou)-arrangement, beauty, world, adorning, (i.e. the inhabitants of the world)3 And-Καὶ (Kai)-and) hereby-ἐν τούτῳ (en touto)-herein) *we do know-γινώσκομεν (ginoskomen)-to know)) that *we know-ἐγνώκαμεν (egnokamen)-to know (i.e. to become acquainted with, to know)) him, if-ἐὰν (ean)-if) *we keep-τηρῶμεν (teromen)-to keep, observe) his *commandments-ἐντολὰς (entolas)-thing given in charge, (i.e. an authoritative prescription:—commandment, precept))."

  • *example of Greek word: ἁμάρτῃ (hamarte)-sin click: Luke 17:3 (trespass)

  • *example of Greek word: δίκαιον (dikaion)-the righteous click: Acts 3:14 (the Just)

  • *example of Greek word: ἱλασμός (hilasmos)-the propitiation click: 1 John 4:10

  • *example of Greek word: γινώσκομεν (ginoskomen)-we do know click: 1 John 3:24 (we know)

  • *example of Greek word: ἐγνώκαμεν (egnokamen)-we know click: 1 John 3:16 (perceive we)

  • *example of Greek word: τηρῶμεν (teromen)-we keep click: 1 John 5:2 (keep)

  • *example of Greek word: ἐντολὰς (entolas)-commandments click: 2 John 1:6 

  • write I-γράφω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: My little children, these things ["I-AM-WRITTING"] unto you, that

  • ye sin-ἁμάρτητε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YOU-MAY-BE-missING"//"you-may-be-sinning"] not. And if any man

  • sin-ἁμάρτῃ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-missING"//"may-be-sinning"],

  • we have-ἔχομεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-ARE-HAVING"] an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: And he

  • is-ἐστι: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"] the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. And hereby

  • we do know-γινώσκομεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-ARE-KNOWING"] that

  • we know-ἐγνώκαμεν: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-HAVE-KNOWN"] him,

  • if-ἐὰν: CONDitional: ["IF-EVER"]

  • we keep-τηρῶμεν: Verb, Present, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-MAY-BE-KEEPING"] his commandments.

and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) he-αὐτὸς (autos)-he) is-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') the propitiation-ἱλασμός (hilasmos)-what appeases, propitiates, atonement, i.e. (concretely) an expiator) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) our-ἡμῶν (hemon)-of us) sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamartion)-sin, error, offense):

    And he is the propitiation for our sins - The word rendered "propitiation" (ἱλασμός hilasmos) occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, except in 1 John 4:10 of this Epistle; though words of the same derivation, and having the same essential meaning, frequently occur. The corresponding word ἱλαστήριον hilastērion occurs in Romans 3:25, rendered "propitiation" - "whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood;" and in Hebrews 9:5, rendered[:] mercy-seat - "shadowing the mercy-seat." The verb ἱλάσκομαι hilaskomai occurs also in Luke 18:13 - God be merciful to me a sinner;" and Hebrews 2:17 - "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people." For the idea expressed by these words, see the notes at Romans 3:25. The proper meaning of the word is that of reconciling, appeasing, turning away anger, rendering propitious or favorable. The idea is, that there is anger or wrath, or that something has been done to offend, and that it is needful to turn away that wrath, or to appease. This may be done by a sacrifice, by songs, by services rendered, or by bloody offerings. So the word is often used in Homer - Passow. We have similar words in common use, as when we say of one that he has been offended, and that something must be done to appease him, or to turn away his wrath...The essential thoughts in regard to God, as implied in this word, are:

(1) that his will has been disregarded, and his law violated, and that he has reason to be offended with us;

(2) that in that condition he cannot, consistently with his perfections, and the good of the universe, treat us as if we had not done it;

(3) that it is proper that, in some way, he should show his displeasure at our conduct, either by punishing us, or by something that shall answer the same purpose; and,

(4) that the means of propitiation come in here, and accomplish this end, and make it proper that he should treat us as if we had not sinned; that is, he is reconciled, or appeased, and his anger is turned away.

This is done, it is supposed, by the death of the Lord Jesus, accomplishing, in most important respects, what would be accomplished by the punishment of the offender himself..."-(Barnes).

    And he—Greek, "And Himself." He is our all-prevailing Advocate, because He is Himself "the propitiation"; abstract, as in 1Co 1:30: He is to us all that is needed for propitiation "in behalf of our sins"; the propitiatory sacrifice, provided by the Father's love, removing the estrangement, and appeasing the righteous wrath, on God's part, against the sinner. "There is no incongruity that a father should be offended with that son whom he loveth, and at that time offended with him when he loveth him" [Bishop Pearson].-(Jamieson F.B.).

and-δὲ (de)-but, yet) not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) ours-ἡμετέρων (hemeteron)-our own) only-μόνον (monon)-only, alone), but-ἀλλὰ (alla)-but) also-καὶ (kai)-and, also, even) for-περὶ (peri)-concerning, about) the sins of the whole-ὅλος (holos)-all, whole, completely, all, altogether, every whit) world-κόσμου (kosmou)-arrangement, beauty, world, adorning, (i.e. the inhabitants of the world):

    and not for ours only; but for the sins of Old Testament saints, and of those who shall hereafter believe in Christ, and of the Gentiles also, signified in the next clause: but also for the sins of the whole world; the Syriac version renders it, "not for us only, but also for the whole world"; that is, not for the Jews only, for John was a Jew, and so were those he wrote unto, but for the Gentiles also.-(Gill).

    And not for our's only - Not only for the sins of us who are Christians, for the apostle was writing to such. The idea which he intends to convey seems to be, that when we come before God we should take the most liberal and large views of the atonement; we should feel that the most ample provision has been made for our pardon, and that in no respect is there any limit as to the sufficiency of that work to remove all sin. It is sufficient for us; sufficient for all the world. But also for the sins of the whole world - The phrase "the sins of" is not in the original, but is not improperly supplied, for the connection demands it. This is one of the expressions occurring in the New Testament which demonstrate that the atonement was made for all people, and which cannot be reconciled with any other opinion. If he had died only for a part of the race, this language could not have been used. The phrase, "the whole world," is one which naturally embraces all people; is such as would be used if it be supposed that the apostle meant to teach that Christ died for all people; and is such as cannot be explained on any other supposition.-(Barnes).

    and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world] More literally, but also for the whole world: ‘the sins of’ is not repeated in the Greek and is not needed in English. Once more we have a parallel with the Gospel, and especially with chap. 17. ‘Neither for these only do I pray, but for them also that shall believe on Me through their word … that the world may believe that Thou didst send Me … that the world may know that Thou didst send Me, and lovedst them, even as Thou lovedst Me’ (John 17:20-23): ‘Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29): ‘We know that this is indeed the Saviour of the world’ (John 4:24). Comp. 1 John 4:14. S. John’s writings are so full of the fundamental opposition between Christ or believers and the world, that there was danger lest he should seem to give his sanction to a Christian exclusiveness as fatal as the Jewish exclusiveness out of which he and other converts from Judaism had been delivered. Therefore by this (note especially ‘the whole world’) and other plain statements both in Gospel (see John 11:51 in particular) and Epistle he insists that believers have no exclusive right to the merits of Christ. The expiatory offering was made for the whole world without limitation.-(Cambridge BSC).

 

 

 

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
9 ἐν τούτῳ ἐφανερώθη ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν ἡμῖν, ὅτι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ ἀπέσταλκεν Θεὸς εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα ζήσωμεν δι’ αὐτοῦ. 10 ἐν τούτῳ ἐστὶνἀγάπη, οὐχ ὅτι ἡμεῖς ἠγαπήσαμεν τὸν Θεόν, ἀλλ’ ὅτι αὐτὸς ἠγάπησεν ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἀπέστειλε τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἱλασμὸν περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. 11 ἀγαπητοί, εἰ οὕτως ὁ Θεὸς ἠγάπησεν ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἡμεῖς ὀφείλομεν ἀλλήλους ἀγαπᾶν.

1 John 4:9-11

"In-ἐν (en)-in) this-τούτῳ (touto)-to this) was manifested-ἐφανερώθη (ephanerothe)-to manifest, (to become manifest, be made known)) the-(he)-the) love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) toward-ἐν (en)-in) us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-us), because-ὅτι (hoti)-that, seeing that) that God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) sent-ἀπέσταλκεν (apestalken)-to send away, forth, (by implication) to send out (properly, on a mission)) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) only begotten-μονογενῆ (monogene)-only-born, chief, (i.e. sole:—only (begotten, child)) Son-υἱὸν (huion)-son, offspring, (son of God)) into-εἰς (eis)-into) the-τὸν (ton)-the) world-κόσμον (kosmon)-arrangement, beauty, adorning, world (by implication: the world), that-ἵνα (hina)-in order that, so that) we might live-ζήσωμεν (zesomen)-to live, have life) through-διά (dia)-through, by means of) him-αὐτοῦ (autou)-him). 10 Herein-ἐν τούτῳ (en touto)-in this) is-ἐστὶν (estin)-'to be') love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love, affection, good will, benevolence), not-οὐχ (ouch)-no, not) that-ὅτι (hoti)-because, that) we-ἡμεῖς (hemeis)-we) loved-ἠγαπήσαμεν (egapesamen)-to love) God-Θεόν (Theon)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)), but-ἀλλ (all)-but) that-ὅτι (hoti)-because that) he-αὐτὸς (autos)-he) loved-ἠγάπησεν- (egapesen)-to love) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) sent-ἀπέστειλε (apesteile)-to send away, forth, (by implication) to send out (properly, on a mission)) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) Son-υἱὸν (huion)-son, offspring, (son of God)) to be the propitiation-ἱλασμὸν (hilasmon)-what appeases, propitiates, (atonement, i.e. (concretely) an expiator:—propitiation) for-περὶ (peri)-about, concerning) our-ἡμῶν (hemon)-of us) sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamertion)-sin, error, offense). 11 Beloved, if God so-οὕτως (houtos)-thus, (in this way (referring to what precedes or follows)) loved us, we ought-ὀφείλομεν (opheilomen)-to owe, be obliged, indebted) also to love one another.

  • *example of Greek word: ἐφανερώθη (ephanerothe)-was manifested click: 1 John 1:2 /1 John 3:5

  • *example of Greek word: ἀγάπη (agape)-love click: Romans 5:5

  • *example of Greek word: μονογενῆ (monogene)-only begotten click: John 3:16

  • *example of Greek word: ζήσωμεν (zesomen)-we might live click: 1 Peter 2:24  (should live) 

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπέστειλε (apesteile)-sent click: John 3:17

  • was manifested-ἐφανερώθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: In this was ["WAS-made-APPEAR"//"was-manisfested"] the love of God toward us, because that God

  • sent-ἀπέσταλκεν: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["HAS-commissionED"//"has-dispatched"] his only begotten Son into the world, that

  • we might live-ζήσωμεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-SHOULD-BE-LIVING"] through him. Herein

  • is-ἐστὶν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"] love, not that we

  • loved-ἠγαπήσαμεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["LOVE"] God, but that he

  • loved-ἠγάπησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["LOVES"] us, and

  • sent-ἀπέστειλε: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["commissions"//"dispatches"] his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

  • Beloved-ἀγαπητοί: Adjective, Vocative, Plural, Masculine: ["beLOVED-ones"]

  • if-εἰ: CONDitional: ["IF"] God

  • so-οὕτως: ADVerb: ["thus"]

  • loved-ἠγάπησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["LOVES"] us, we 

  • ought-ὀφείλομεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["ARE-OWING"//"ought"] also to

  • to love-ἀγαπᾶν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-LOVING"] love one another.

In-ἐν (en)-in) this-τούτῳ (touto)-to this) was manifested-ἐφανερώθη (ephanerothe)-to manifest, (to become manifest, be made known)) the-(he)-the) love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity) toward-ἐν (en)-in) us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-us), because-ὅτι (hoti)-that, seeing that) that God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) sent-ἀπέσταλκεν (apestalken)-to send away, forth, (by implication) to send out (properly, on a mission)) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) only begotten-μονογενῆ (monogene)-only-born, chief, (i.e. sole:—only (begotten, child)) Son-υἱὸν (huion)-son, offspring, (son of God)) into-εἰς (eis)-into) the-τὸν (ton)-the) world-κόσμον (kosmon)-arrangement, beauty, adorning, world (by implication: the world), that-ἵνα (hina)-in order that, so that) we might live-ζήσωμεν (zesomen)-to live, have life) through-διά (dia)-through, by means of) him-αὐτοῦ (autou)-him):

    In this was manifested the love of God - That is, in an eminent manner, or this was a most signal proof of it. The apostle does not mean to say that it has been manifested in no other way, but that this was so prominent an instance of his love, that all the other manifestations of it seemed absorbed and lost in this. Because that God sent his only begotten Son ... - See the notes at John 3:16That we might live through him - He died that we might have eternal life through the merits of his sacrifice. The "measure" of that love, then, which was manifested in the gift of a Saviour, is to be found, (1) in the worth of the soul; (2) in its exposure to eternal death; (3) in the greatness of the gift; (4) in the greatness of his sorrows for us; and, (5) in the immortal blessedness and joy to which he will raise us.-(Barnes).

    into the world—a proof against Socinians [(denying the divinity of Christ)], that the Son existed before He was "sent into the world." Otherwise, too, He could not have been our life (1Jo 4:9), our "propitiation" (1Jo 4:10), or our "Saviour" (1Jo 4:14). It is the grand proof of God's love, His having sent "His only-begotten Son, that we might live through Him," who is the Life, and who has redeemed our forfeited life; and it is also the grand motive to our mutual love.-(Jamieson F.B.).

    In us- The marginal reading "in our case" instead of "in us" appears as the true meaning, since it is God's sending his Son to die for the sins of the whole world, which is the manifestation spoken of, that not being something "in us" but "in our case," or on our behalf.-(Coffman's Commentaries).

    His only begotten Son ... This is a better rendition than that of making it read merely "only Son," because it is admitted by all scholars that "uniqueness" is an essential quality of meaning in this word.[30] "Only Son" would therefore mean that God has no other sons; yet all Christians are "sons of God." "Only begotten" conveys that essential meaning of "uniqueness," exactly in the sense of the word ([@monogenes]) as translated in Hebrews 11:17 where Isaac is called Abraham's "only begotten son," there being a uniqueness in Isaac's sonship not found in Abraham's many other sons. It is therefore a most happy and appropriate translation which reads "only begotten Son."(Coffman's Commentaries).

    That we might live through him ... The great purpose of that visitation from the Dayspring from on High was that, through obedience to the Son of God, people might have the blessing of eternal life.(Coffman's commentaries).

    In this was manifested the love of God, &c.— All the blessings of Providence are effects of the divine love to man; but St. John has said, 1 John 4:8 that God is Love itself; and to illustrate that, he here pitches upon the most remarkable proof and instance of God's love to man. The love of God was the source and origin of the plan of our redemption: the eternal Son of God, by his patient suffering and perfect obedience unto death, purchased or obtained of his great Father, to be the person who should be honoured with carrying this glorious plan into execution, which in time he will finish in the most complete manner, for all his faithful saints. God's sending his Son into the world, includes his dying for us; see 1 John 4:10. He became the great vicarious Sacrifice, and, through the complete atonement which he has made, God the Father may now be just, and yet a Justifier of those that believe in Jesus. Those false prophets who denied Jesus to have a real body, and really to suffer and die, took away entirely the love which God manifested, in sending his only and dearly-beloved Son to die, that we might live through him.-(Coke's Commentary).

    

Herein-ἐν τούτῳ (en touto)-in this) is-ἐστὶν (estin)-'to be') love-ἀγάπη (agape)-love, affection, good will, benevolence), not-οὐχ (ouch)-no, not) that-ὅτι (hoti)-because, that) we-ἡμεῖς (hemeis)-we) loved-ἠγαπήσαμεν (egapesamen)-to love) God-Θεόν (Theon)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)), but-ἀλλ (all)-but) that-ὅτι (hoti)-because that) he-αὐτὸς (autos)-he) loved-ἠγάπησεν- (egapesen)-to love) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) sent-ἀπέστειλε (apesteile)-to send away, forth, (by implication) to send out (properly, on a mission)) his-αὐτοῦ (autou)-of him) Son-υἱὸν (huion)-son, offspring, (son of God)) to be the propitiation-ἱλασμὸν (hilasmon)-what appeases, propitiates, (atonement, i.e. (concretely) an expiator:—propitiation) for-περὶ (peri)-about, concerning) our-ἡμῶν (hemon)-of us) sins-ἁμαρτιῶν (hamertion)-sin, error, offense):

    Herein is love ... This carries the thought, "notice just what love actually is." John defined it, even in God's love, as being not merely a sentimental fondness for the human race, but a gracious, unselfish and unmerited act of divine giving of his "only begotten Son" to save people from eternal death. As Smith said: "The love which proves us children of God is not native to our hearts. It is inspired by the amazing love of God manifested in the Incarnation, the infinite Sacrifice of His Son's life and death.[33]".(Coffman's commentaries). 

    Herein is love — Worthy of our highest admiration; not that we loved God — First; for we were, on the contrary, in a state of enmity to him, in which, if we had remained unsolicited and untouched by his love and grace, we should have persisted and perished; but that he loved us — First, (1 John 4:19,) without any merit or motive in us to induce him to do it; and, in his boundless compassion to our necessities and miseries; sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins — That is, to make atonement to his injured justice for them by offering himself as a sacrifice, and so to introduce us into his favour on honourable terms. If God so loved us — With such a transcendent, free, and inconceivable love; we ought also to love one another — In imitation of his divine example, from a sense of the happy state into which we are brought, and in gratitude to him for so inestimable a favour. And it is of the greater importance that we should do this, because it is absolutely necessary in order to our having fellowship with him.-(Benson).

    The love which proves us children of God is not native to our hearts. It is inspired by the amazing love of God manifested in the Incarnation—the infinite Sacrifice of His Son’s life and death.(Coffman's commentaries).

    Men are generally very ready to love those by whom they are first loved: now, such was the astonishing love of God to men, that, when they were sinners and enemies, he so loved the world, as to send his most beloved Son to live and die for them! The love wherewith God so loved the world, as to send his dear Son to redeem and save them, does, in some respects, differ from the love wherewith he loves all true believers, in addition to that grand primary instance of his love. The first has been called a love of pity, or benevolence, or the antecedent love of God, and with such a love God has loved the whole race of mankind. The other is called a love of complacency, or delight, or the consequent love of God; and with such a love God loves all sincere believers.-(Coke's Commentary).

    but that he loved us; that is, God; and so the Syriac version reads, "but that God himself loved us". The Vulgate Latin version adds, first, as in 1 John 4:19; the instance of this love follows: and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins: this is a subordinate end to the other, mentioned in 1 John 4:9; for, in order that sinful men may possess everlasting life and happiness, it is necessary that their sins be expiated, or atonement be made for them, which is meant by Christ's being a propitiation for them; that the justice of God should be satisfied; that peace and righteousness, or love and justice, should be reconciled together; and kiss each other; and that all obstructions be removed out of the way of the enjoyment of life, which are brought in by sin; and that the wrath of God, which sin deserved, be averted or appeased, according to our sense apprehension of it; for otherwise the love of God people is from everlasting, and is unchangeable, never alters, or never changes from love to wrath, or from wrath to love; nor is the love of God procured by the satisfaction and sacrifice of Christ, which are the effects of it; but hereby the way is laid open for the display of it, and the application of its effects, in a way consistent with the law and justice of God. This phrase is expressive of the great love of Christ to his people, and of his substitution in their room and stead; and so it is used among the Jews for a substitution in the room of others, , "to express the greatness of love" (u);-(Gill).

 

    

Reconciliation

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
17 ὥστε εἴ τις ἐν Χριστῷ, καινὴ κτίσις· τὰ ἀρχαῖα παρῆλθεν, ἰδοὺ γέγονε καινά τὰ πάντα 18 τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, τοῦ καταλλάξαντος ἡμᾶς ἑαυτῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ δόντος ἡμῖν τὴν διακονίαν τῆς καταλλαγῆς· 19 ὡς ὅτι Θεὸς ἦν ἐν Χριστῷ κόσμον καταλλάσσων ἑαυτῷ, μὴ λογιζόμενος αὐτοῖς τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, καὶ θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν τὸν λόγον τῆς καταλλαγῆς.

 

2 Corinthians 5:17-19

17 "Therefore-ὥστε (hoste)-so that, wherefore) if any man-εἴ τις (ei tis)-if any one) be in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), he is a new-καινὴ (kaine)-new, fresh, recent, newly made) *creature-κτίσις (ktisis)-a making, thing made, creation): old things-ἀρχαῖα (archaia)-the primeval, (i.e. what is old)) are past away-παρῆλθεν (parelthen)-to go past, pass by, (metaphorically: to pass away, perish, come to an end)), behold-ἰδού (idou)-used as imperative lo!; --behold, lo, see), all things-πάντα (panta)-all, every, all things) are become-γέγονεν (gegonen)-to become) *new-καινά (kaina)-new, fresh, recent, newly made).. 18 And all things are of God, who-τοῦ (tou)-the) hath reconciled-καταλλάξαντος (katallaxantos)-to change thoroughly, to change mutually, i.e. (figuratively) to compound a difference:—reconcile) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us) to himself-ἑαυτῷ (heauto)- of himself) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of, (a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act)) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) hath given-δόντος (dontos)-to give) to us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-to us) the-τὴν (ten)-the) *ministry-διακονίαν (diakonian) ministration, ministering, service, office, ministry) of-τῆς (tes)-of the) reconciliation-καταλλαγῆς (katallages)-a thorough change, (i.e. adjustment of a difference, reconciliation, restoration to favor), 19 To wit-ὡς (hos)-as, how), that-ὅτι (hoti)-that) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) was-ἦν (en)-was) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Cristo)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), reconciling-καταλλάσσων (katallasson)-to change thoroughly, to change mutually, i.e. (figuratively) to compound a difference:—reconcile)) the world-κόσμον (kosmon)-arrangement, beauty, world, (orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication, the world; particularly the inhabitants of the earth, men, the human race) unto himself-ἑαυτῷ (eauto)-of himself), not-μὴ (me)-no, not) *imputing-λογιζόμενος (logizomenos)-to reckon, count, compute, calculate, count over, account) their-αὐτοῖς (autois)-to them) trespasses-παράπτωμα (paraptōma)-a trespass, falling aside, (i.e. offence, fall, sin, fault, a lapse or deviation from truth and uprightness; a sin, misdeed) unto them-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) hath committed-θέμενος (themenos)-to place, put, set) unto-ἐν (en)-in) us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-to us) the-τὸν (ton)-the) *word-λόγον (logon)-speech, account, saying, word, matter, reason) of-τῆς (tes)-of the) reconciliation-καταλλαγῆς (katallages)-a thorough change, (i.e. adjustment of a difference, reconciliation, restoration to favor).

  • *example of Greek word: κτίσις (ktisis)-creature click: Galatians 6:15

  • *example of G2537: (καινὰ-new) click: Revelation 21:5 (καινὰ-new)

  • *example of Greek word: διακονίαν (diakonian)-ministry click: Acts 20:24

  • *example of G3049: (λογίζομαι-imputing) click: James 2:23 (ἐλογίσθη-it was imputed)

  • *example of Greek word: λόγον (logon)-word click: Acts 4:31 

  • if-εἴ: CONDitional: Therefore ["IF"] any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things

  • are past away-παρῆλθεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["passed-by"],

  • behold-ἰδού: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["lo!"], all things

  • are become-γέγονεν: Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative 3rd Person,  Singular: ["has-become"] new. And all things are of God, who

  • hath reconciled-καταλλάξαντος: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Masculine: ["One-conciliating"] us to himself by Jesus Christ, and

  • hath given-δόντος: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Masculine: ["GIVING"] to us the ministry of reconciliation, To wit, that God

  • was-ἦν: Verb, Imperfect, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["WAS"] in Christ,

  • reconciling-καταλλάσσων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["conciliatING"] the world unto himself, not

  • imputing-λογιζόμενος: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["accountING"//"reckoning"]  their trespasses unto them, and

  • hath committed-θέμενος: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["beING-placed"//"placing"] unto us the word of reconciliation.

Therefore-ὥστε (hoste)-so that, wherefore) if any man-εἴ τις (ei tis)-if any one) be in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Christo)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), he is a new-καινὴ (kaine)-new, fresh, recent, newly made) creature-κτίσις (ktisis)-a making, thing made, creation): old things-ἀρχαῖα (archaia)-the primeval, (i.e. what is old)) are past away-παρῆλθεν (parelthen)-to go past, pass by, (metaphorically: to pass away, perish, come to an end)), behold-ἰδού (idou)-used as imperative lo!; --behold, lo, see), all things-πάντα (panta)-all, every, all things) are become-γέγονεν (gegonen)-to become) new-καινά (kaina)-new, fresh, recent, newly made).:

    creatureHere it means a new creation in a moral sense, and the phrase new creature is equivalent to the expression in Ephesians 4:24,"The new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness." The idea evidently is, not that he ought to be a new creature, but that he is in fact; not that he ought to live as becomes a new creature - which is true enough - but that he will in fact live in that way, and manifest the characteristics of the new creation.

    old things: In regard to the Jews - that their former prejudices against Christianity, their natural pride, and spirit of seducing others; their attachment to their rites and ceremonies, and dependence on them for salvation had all passed away. They now renounced that independence, relied on the merits of the Saviour, and embraced all as brethren who were of the family of Christ.

(2) in regard to the Gentiles - their attachment to idols, their love of sin and degradation, their dependence on their own works, had passed away, and they had renounced all these things, and had come to mingle their hopes with those of the converted Jews, and with all who were the friends of the Redeemer.

(3) in regard to all, it is also true that old things pass away. Their former prejudices, opinions, habits, attachments pass away. Their supreme love of self passes away. Their love of sins passes away. Their love of the world passes away. Their supreme attachment to their earthly friends rather than God passes away. Their love of sin, their sensuality, pride, vanity, levity, ambition, passes away. There is a deep and radical change on all these subjects - a change which commences at the new birth; which is carried on by progressive sanctification; and which is consummated at death and in heaven.

UPDATING THIS SECTION

who-τοῦ (tou)-the) hath reconciled-καταλλάξαντος (katallaxantos)-to change thoroughly, to change mutually, i.e. (figuratively) to compound a difference:—reconcile) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us) to himself-ἑαυτῷ (heauto)- of himself) by-διὰ (dia)-through, by means of, (a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act)) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) Christ-Χριστοῦ (Christou)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) hath given-δόντος (dontos)-to give) to us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-to us) the-τὴν (ten)-the) ministry-διακονίαν (diakonian) ministration, ministering,  service, office, ministry) of-τῆς (tes)-of the) reconciliation-καταλλαγῆς (katallages)-a thorough change, (i.e. adjustment of a difference, reconciliation, restoration to favor),:

    reconciled: The work of reconciliation, or making atonement for sin, is ascribed to the Father; not that he is the author of it, for it is properly Christ's work; but because he took the first step towards it: he formed the scheme of it; he set forth his Son in his purposes and decrees to be the propitiary sacrifice; he assigned him this work in council and covenant, in promise and in prophecy, and sent him to effect it; therefore he is said to do it "by" him; that is, by his blood and sacrifice, by his sufferings and death, to which, and to which alone, the Scriptures ascribe our peace and reconciliation.

    ministry  of reconciliation: Atonement, reconciliation(-ing): which is the Gospel of peace, the word which preaches, publishes and declares, peace made by the blood of Christ; which is a gift to ministers, and a blessing to the people. The free grace of God greatly appears in this matter; God the Father sets this work of reconciliation on foot, Christ has brought it about, and the ministers of the Gospel publish it.

To wit-ὡς (hos)-as, how), that-ὅτι (hoti)-that) God-Θεὸς (Theos)-God, (God the Father:—the supreme Divinity)) was-ἦν (en)-was) in-ἐν (en)-in) Christ-Χριστῷ (Cristo)-"anointed", (i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)), reconciling-καταλλάσσων (katallasson)-to change thoroughly, to change mutually, i.e. (figuratively) to compound a difference:—reconcile)) the world-κόσμον (kosmon)-arrangement, beauty, world, (orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication, the world; particularly the inhabitants of the earth, men, the human race) unto himself-ἑαυτῷ (eauto)-of himself),:

not-μὴ (me)-no, not) imputing-λογιζόμενος (logizomenos)-to reckon, count, compute, calculate, count over, account) their-αὐτοῖς (autois)-to them) trespasses-παράπτωμα (paraptōma)-a trespass, falling aside, (i.e. offence, fall, sin, fault, a lapse or deviation from truth and uprightness; a sin, misdeed) unto them-αὐτῶν (auton)-of them), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) hath committed-θέμενος (themenos)-to place, put, set) unto-ἐν (en)-in) us-ἡμῖν (hemin)-to us) the-τὸν (ton)-the) word-λόγον (logon)-speech, account, saying, word, matter, reason) of-τῆς (tes)-of the) reconciliation-καταλλαγῆς (katallages)-a thorough change, (i.e. adjustment of a difference, reconciliation, restoration to favor)

    not imputing their trespassesThis will; not to impute sin to his people, or not to punish for it, which existed in God from everlasting, is no other than a justification of them; for to whom  God does not impute sin, he imputes righteousness, and such are properly justified.

    word of reconciliation: Atonement, reconciliation(-ing)a rich and valuable treasure; for such the doctrine of peace and reconciliation, by the blood of Christ, is; a sacred deposition, committed to the trust of faithful men, to be dispensed and disposed of for the use and purpose for which it is given them.

Colossians 1:21-23

21"And you, that were sometimes alienated, and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled22 In the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and unblameable, and unreproveable in his sight, 23 If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the Gospel, which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven, whereof I Paul am made a Minister."

sometimes-ποτέ (pote)- in time past, once, i.e. at some time or other, formerly, aforetime) alienated-ἀπαλλοτριόω (apallotrioō)-to alienate, estrange, to give to others, to be shut out from one's fellowship and intimacy)that is from God, not from his general presence, power, and providence, which reach to all his creatures, but from the life of God; from living agreeably to the will of God, being estranged from him who is the fountain of moral and spiritual, as well as natural life; from the law, the rule of life, and from a principle of life in themselves; and altogether disapproving of such a life, as contrary to their carnal affections and lusts: and which alienation from God greatly lay in their forsaking him, the one only and true God, and following and serving strange gods, not attending to the dictates and  light of nature.

 *** example of Greek word: ἀπαλλοτριόω (apallotrioō) click: Ephesians 4:18

enemies-ἐχθρός (echthros)- foe, opponent)They were enemies to God, the true God, and were lovers and worshipers of idols; they were enemies to the being and perfections of God, as all men in a state of nature are; and more or less show it, by either denying there is a God, or wishing there was none, or fancying him to be such an one as themselves; or they dispute his sovereignty, deny his omniscience, arraign his justice and faithfulness, and despise the riches of his grace and goodness; they are enemies to his purposes, providences, and word.

*** example of Greek word: ἐχθρός (echthros) click: Matthew 5:44

yet now-νυνί (nyni)-now, at this very moment) hath he reconciled-ἀποκαταλλάσσω (apokatallassō)-to reconcile completely): To himself and to the society of his people. That is, he is both reconciled to you, having forgiven you all your trespasses, and also hath reconciled you, or  removed your enmity, by shedding his love abroad in your hearts. Harmony has been secured between you and God, and you are brought to friendship and love. Such a change has been produced in you as to bring your minds into friendship with that of God. All the change in producing this is on the part of man, for God cannot change, and there is no reason why he should, if he could. In the work of reconciliation man lays aside his hostility to his Maker, and thus becomes his friend.

*** example of Greek word: ἀποκαταλλάσσω (apokatallassō) click: Ephesians 2:16

 

present-παρίστημι (paristēmi)-to set alongside, show, to place beside or near)

*** example of Greek word: παρίστημι (paristēmi) click: Acts 9:41

If-εἴγε (eige)-if yet, if so be that, inasmuch) ye continue-ἐπιμένω (epimenō)- to stay at or with, to tarry still, still to abide, to continue on, remain)

*** example of Greek word: ἐπιμένω (epimenō) click: Acts 13:43

grounded-θεμελιόω (themelioō)-to make stable, establish, settle, to lay the foundation) 

*** example of Greek word: θεμελιόω (themelioō) click: Ephesians 3:17

not moved-μετακινέω (metakineō)-to move from a place, to move away, or over)

Hebrews 2:16-18

16"For verily he took not on him the nature of Angels: but he took on him the seed of Abraham.17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high Priest, in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.18 For in that he himself hath suffered, being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.

behoved-ὀφείλω (opheilō)-ought, be (one's) duty, to owe, need so requireth) 

to be made like-ὁμοιόω (homoioō)-to liken, compare, in the likeness of, resemblence)

unto his brethren-ἀδελφός (adelphos)-having the same national ancestor, belonging to the same people, or countryman: a man having a true body and soul like them in every thing, which was necessary to make him a complete Redeemer; agreeable to them in all things necessary to their nature, qualities, conditions, and affections; like them in sorrows, griefs, pains, death.

high priest-ἀρχιερεύς (archiereus)-chief priest, high priest, He who above all others was honored with the title of priest, the chief of the priests)he could not be an high priest, offer sacrifice for sin, and make intercession, unless he was man; nor could he be a "merciful" and compassionate one, sympathize with his people in their sorrows, temptations, and sufferings. Mercy is a prime requisite in a priest, since his office is to help the wretched and raise the fallen: such mercy is most likely to be found in one who has a fellow-feeling with the afflicted, having been so once Himself.

reconciliation-ἱλάσκομαι (hilaskomai)-to render one's self, to appease, conciliate to one's self, propitiate)of God's covenant people, the people he has chosen for himself, and given to his Son; and whom Christ saves from their sins, by making satisfaction for them, to the law and justice of God, which is here meant by reconciliation: and in order to this, which could not be done without blood, without sufferings and death, it was proper he should be man, and like unto his brethren.

*** example of Greek word: ἱλάσκομαι (hilaskomai) click: Luke 18:13 (merciful)

succour-βοηθέω (boētheō)-to come to the help of, aid, assist, help)

*** example of Greek word: βοηθέω (boētheō) click: 2-Corinthians 6:2

 

 

Romans 5:9-11

9"Much more then being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.10  For if when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, by the death of his Son: much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.11 And not only so, but we also joy in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.

justified-δικαιόω (dikaioō)- to make or declare right, to render righteous)

*** example of Greek word: δικαιόω (dikaioō) click: Acts 13:39

saved-σῴζω (sōzō)-to make or keep sound or safe, (literally or figuratively):—heal, preserve, save (self), do well, be (make) whole)

*** example of Greek word: σῴζω (sōzō) click: Matthew 10:22

were enemies-ἐχθρός (echthros)- foe, opponent, enemy): we were enemies to God, to his being, perfections, purposes, and providences; to Christ, to his person, offices, grace, and righteousness; to the Spirit, to the things of the Spirit, and his divine operations and influences; to the people of God, and to the Gospel and ordinances of Christ; which enmity is deeply rooted in their minds, is causeless, and undeserved, and is implacable, and irreconcileable without the power and grace of God.

*** example of Greek word: ἐχθρός (echthros) click: Luke 6:27

reconciled-καταλλάσσω (katallassō)-to receive one into his favor, to change thoroughly, to change, exchange, return to favour with, be reconciled to one)We are brought to an agreement; to a state of friendship and union. We became his friends, laid aside our opposition, and embraced him as our friend and portion. To effect this is the great design of the plan of salvation; 2 Corinthians 5:1-20; Colossians 1:21; Ephesians 2:16. It means that there were obstacles existing on both sides to a reconciliation; and that these have been removed by the death of Christ; and that a union has thus been effected. This has been done in removing the obstacles on the part of God - by maintaining the honor of his Law; showing his hatred of sin; upholding his justice, and maintaining his truth, at the same time that he pardons; Note, Romans 3:26. And on the part of man, by removing his unwillingness to be reconciled; by subduing, changing, and sanctifying his heart; by overcoming his hatred of God, and of his Law; and bringing him into submission to the government of God. So that the Christian is in fact reconciled to God; he is his friend; he is pleased with his Law, his character, and his plan of salvation. And all this has been accomplished by the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus as an offering in our place.

saved-σῴζω (sōzō)-to make or keep sound or safe, (literally or figuratively):—heal, preserve, save (self), do well, be (make) whole) by his life-ζωή (zōē)- lifeTo be "saved from wrath through Him," denotes here the whole work of Christ towards believers, from the moment of justification, when the wrath of God is turned away from them, till the Judge on the great white throne shall discharge that wrath upon them that "obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ"; and that work may all be summed up in "keeping them from falling, and presenting them faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy".

*** example of Greek word: ζωή (zōē) click: John 3:15

atonement-καταλλαγή (katallagē)-reconciliation, restoration to favor, adjustment of a difference,)

Ephesians 2:15-17

15"Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the Law of Commandments contained in ordinances, for to make in himself, of twain, one new man, so making peace.16 And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby,17 And came, and preached peace to you, which were afar off, and to them that were nigh."

abolished-καταργέω (katargeō)-to make thoroughly inactive, to render idle, unemployed, inoperative)/ Law-νόμος (nomos)-of the Mosaic law)/  Commandments-ἐντολή (entolē)-thing given in charge, an order, command, charge, precept, injunction)/ ordinances-δόγμα (dogma)-determination, dogma, doctrine, decree): which consisted of many precepts, and carnal ordinances; and is so called because it was an indication of God's hatred of sin, by requiring sacrifice for it; and because it was an occasion of stirring up the enmity of the natural man, it being a burden and a weariness to the flesh, by reason of its many and troublesome rites; and because it was the cause of enmity between Jew and Gentile. Commandments, contained in ordinances —Consisting in many institutions and appointments concerning the outward worship of God; such as those of circumcision, sacrifices, clean and unclean meats, washings, and holy days; which, being founded in the mere pleasure of God, might be abolished when he saw fit. These ordinances Jesus  abolished, "in his flesh", or by it; not by his incarnation, but by the sacrifice of his flesh, or human nature, that he might make in himself — That is, by uniting them to himself as their head; of twain — Of Jews and Gentiles, who were at such a distance before; one new man — One mystical body, one church, renewed by the Holy Ghost, and uniting in one new way of gospel worship: so making peace — Between the two kinds of people, and even laying a foundation for the most sincere mutual love and friendship.

*** example of Greek word: καταργέω (katargeō) click: 2-Timothy 1:10

*** example of Greek word: δόγμα (dogma) click: Colossians 2:14

enmity-ἔχθρα (echthra)-hatred, by implication; a reason for opposition)

*** example of Greek word: ἔχθρα (echthra) click: Luke23:12

reconcile-ἀποκαταλλάσσω (apokatallassō)-to reconcile completely, to change thoroughly from) both-ἀμφότεροι (amphoteroi)-both of two, both the one and the other): This is another end of the abrogation of the statutes and ordinances of the Law: Christ by fulfilling what no man could, nor can he. Jesus reconciled both, Jew and gentile into one, by removing the wall of partition. This reconciliation of them is made to God, who was the person offended; and who yet first set on foot a reconciliation, in which his glory is greatly concerned; and reconciliation with others depends upon reconciliation with him.

one-εἷς (heis)-one, in opposed to many) body-σῶμα (sōma)-literally or figuratively:—bodily, a body): the sense is, he reconciled them into "one body"; into one mystical body, the church, of which the Lord Jesus Christ is the head; and this he did "by the cross", that is, by his blood shed on the cross, or by his suffering the death of the cross; which shows that reconciliation is made in a way of satisfaction to the Law and justice of God, by Christ's bearing the penalty of the Law, and suffering the strokes of justice on the cross; and expresses the efficacy of his blood and sacrifice, and the greatness of his condescension and love.

*** example of Greek word: σῶμα (sōma) click: Colossians 1:18

cross-σταυρός (stauros)-a stake or post, a pole or cross (as an instrument of capital punishment); figuratively: exposure to death)

*** example of Greek word: σταυρός (stauros) click: Matthew 10:38

slain-ἀποκτείνω (apokteinō)-kill, slay, figuratively: to destroy), metaph: to extinguish, abolish) the enmity-ἔχθρα (echthra)-hatred, by implication; a reason for opposition)In this verse (in accordance with the context) “the enmity,” which by His death He “slew,” is the barrier between God and man, created by sin, but brought out by the Law, as hard and rigid law, “in ordinances” of which St. Paul does not hesitate to say that “sin took occasion by it,” and “by it slew” man (Romans 7:11). Not only the enmity between Jews and Gentiles, but the enmity between the sinner and God. He has by that death removed all the obstacles to reconciliation on the part of God and on the part of man. It is made efficacious in removing the enmity of the sinner against God, and producing peace.

*** example of Greek word: ἔχθρα (echthra) click: Romans 8:7

afar off-μακράν (makran)-far, distant, a great way, at a distance (literally or figuratively) 

*** example of Greek word: μακράν (makran) click: Acts 2:39

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"16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works." (2 Timothy 3:16-17)

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