Death/Burial/Resurrection

Beloved of the Lord;

Remember: "And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on-ἐπικαλέσηται (epikalesetai)-to call upon) the Name of the Lord, shall be saved." (Acts 2:21)

  • shall call on-ἐπικαλέσηται: Verb, Aorist, Middle, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHOULD-BE-ON-CALLING"]

1. Jesus Christ

Friend,

"All men were lost and undone, dead and ruined, slaves to sin, having no power to deliver themselves, and must have remained thus miserable for ever, if Christ had not died."- Matthew Henry 

Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]

&

King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]

Concordance / Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.

Key:

  •  G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root Word, but not the same Inflection / Parsing.

  • Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.

The Betrayal

Summary of

The Lord's Betrayal.

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
1 Πρὸ δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς τοῦ πάσχα, εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἐλήλυθεν αὐτοῦ ἡ ὥρα ἵνα μεταβῇ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, ἀγαπήσας τοὺς ἰδίους τοὺς ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, εἰς τέλος ἠγάπησεν αὐτούς.

 

John 13:1

1 "Now before  the feast-ἑορτῆς (heortes)-feast, festival) of the Passover-πάσχα (pascha)-passover, (i.e. the paschal festival, the feast of Passover), when Jesus-Ἰησοῦς (Iesous)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) knew-εἰδὼς (eidos)-to see, have seen, known) that his hour-ὥρα (hora)-hour, time) was come-ἐλήλυθεν (elelethen)-to come), that *he should depart-μεταβῇ (metabe)-to go after, away or back) out of-ἐκ (ek)-out of, away from) this world-κόσμου (kosmou)-arrangement, beauty, adorning, (orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication: the world) unto-πρὸς (pros)-toward) the Father-πατέρα (papera)-Father, (God is called the Father), having loved-ἀγαπήσας (agapesas)-to love) his own which were in the world, he loved-ἠγάπησεν (egapesen)-to love) them unto the end-τέλος (telos)-end)."

 

  • *example of Greek word: μεταβῇ (metabe)-he should depart click: Matthew 8:34

  • knew-εἰδὼς: Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Now before  the feast of the Passover, when Jesus ["being-aware"] that his hour 

  • was come-ἐλήλυθεν: Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["HAS-COME"] ,that

  • he should depart-μεταβῇ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive,  3rd Person, Singular: ["He-MAY-BE-after-STEPPING"//"he-may-be-proceeding"] out of this world unto the Father,

  • having loved-ἀγαπήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["LOVing"] his own which were in the world,

  • he loved-ἠγάπησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-LOVES"] them unto the end.

the end: "the meaning may either be ‘at the last, finally,’[leading to his death at the cross] or, ‘to the uttermost, utterly [consummation of the world/age].’ To the uttermost is perhaps to be preferred here."-(Cambridge BSC).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
2 Καὶ δείπνου γενομένου, (τοῦ διαβόλου ἤδη βεβληκότος εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Ἰούδας Σίμωνος, Ἰσκαριώτου, ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδῷ)

 

John 13:2

2"And supper-δείπνου (deipnou)-supper, evening meal) being ended (the devil-διαβόλου (diabolou)-devil, slander, false accuser, a calumniator, (namely: Satan) having now-ἤδη (ede)-already) put-βεβληκότος (beblekotos)-to cast, throw) into the heart-καρδίαν (kardian)- the heart, i.e. (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind) of Judas-Ἰούδα (Iouda)-one of the Disciples of Jesus, who betrayed him) Iscariot Simon's son to *betray-παραδῷ (parado)-to give up over to another, deliver (over, up) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him, (namely: Jesus).)"

  • *example of Greek word: παραδῷ (parado)-betray click: Mark 14:11

  • having now-ἤδη: ADVerb: And supper being ended (the devil  ["ALREADY"]

  • put-βεβληκότος:Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Masculine: ["HAVING-CAST"] into the heart of Judas Iscariot Simon's son to

  • betray-παραδῷ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular["he-may-be-giving-up"] him.)

***"for the participle βεβληκοτος is of the perfect tense, and denotes an action done at some time past, and the particle ηδη, rendered now, often signifies already, or before:"-(Benson).

***"Satan could tempt no one unless there was some inclination of the mind, some natural or depraved propensity that he could make use of. He presents objects in alluring forms fitted to that propensity, and under the influence of a strong or a corrupt inclination the soul yields to sin. In the case of Judas it was the love of money; and it was necessary to present to him only the possibility of obtaining money, and it found him ready for any crime."-(Barnes)

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
10 Καὶ ὁ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης, εἷς τῶν δώδεκα ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς ἵνα παραδῷ αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς

 

Mark 14:10

10"And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went-ἀπῆλθεν (apelthen)-to go away, depart) unto-πρὸς (pros)-toward) the chief Priests-ἀρχιερεῖς (archiereis)-chief priest, high priest:—plural, (literally: of the Jews), to betray-παραδῷ (parado)-to give up over to another) him unto them."

  • went-ἀπῆλθεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, ["FROM-CAME"]  unto the chief Priests, to

  • betray-παραδῷ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-MAY-BE-BESIDE-GIVING"//"he-may-be-giving-up"]  him unto them.

 

***"that is, to make his proposals, and to bargain with them,..."-(Jamieson).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
15 εἶπε, Τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι, κἀγὼ ὑμῖν παραδώσω αὐτόν; οἱ δὲ ἔστησαν αὐτῷ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια.

 

Matthew 26:15

  15 "And said-εἶπε (eipe)-to speak, say, tell) unto them, What will ye-θέλετέ (thelete)-to will, have in mind, intend, (i.e. to be resolved or determined, to purpose) give-δοῦναι (dounai)-to give) me, and I will deliver-παραδώσω (paradoso)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) him unto you? And they covenanted-ἔστησαν (hestesan)-to set, establish, appoint, (i.e. weighed out) with him for thirty pieces of silver-ἀργύρια (arguria)-silver, money, (specifically: a silver coin, silver-piece)."

  • And said-εἶπε: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["said"] unto them, What

  • will ye-θέλετέ: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-ARE-WILLING"] 

  • give-δοῦναι: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-GIVE"] me, and I

  • will deliver-παραδώσω: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-BESIDE-GIVING"//"shall-be-giving-up] him unto you? And

  • they covenanted-ἔστησαν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative,  3rd Person, Plural: ["STAND"//"they-weigh"] with him for thirty pieces of silver.

***"The reward was relatively a small one, apparently about the market-price of a common slave (Zechariah 11:12); but the chief priests (Caiaphas and his fellows) saw through the sordid baseness of the man, and, as if scorning both his Master [Jesus] and himself [Judas], gauged their reward [thirty pieces of silver] accordingly."-(Ellicott)

***:They [the chief Priests] did not ask him [Judas] to do it [to deliver Jesus], he [Judas] first made the motion; a barbarous and shocking one! to deliver his Lord and Master,..."-(Gill).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
3 Ὁ οὖν Ἰούδας, λαβὼν τὴν σπεῖραν καὶ ἐκ τῶν Ἀρχιερέων καὶ Φαρισαίων ὑπηρέτας, ἔρχεται ἐκεῖ μετὰ φανῶν καὶ λαμπάδων καὶ ὅπλων.

 

John 18:3

"Judas then having received-λαβὼν (labon)-to take, receive) a band-σπεῖραν (speiran)-band, body of men at arms, (i.e. detachment, of soldiers) of men, and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) officers-ὑπηρέτας (huperetas)-an under rower, assistant, (properly: an under rower, subordinate rower:—servant, minister) from-ἐκ (ek)-out of) the chief Priests and Pharisees-Φαρισαίων (pharisaion)-from Heb. separate), cometh-ἔρχεται (erchetai)-to come, (i.e. to come from one place into another) thither with lanterns-φανῶν (phanon)-a light, flambeau, lantern, (i.e. a lightener) and *torches-λαμπάδων (lampadon)-a lamp, torch, shining light), and weapons-ὅπλων (hoplon)-arms, instruments, armour (i.e. arms used in warfare, weapons)."

  • *example of Greek word: λαμπάδων (lampadon)-torches click: Matthew 25:4 (lamps)

  • having received-λαβὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle,   Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Judas then ["GETTING"] a band of men, and officers from the chief Priests and Pharisees,

  • cometh-ἔρχεται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-COMING"] thither with lanterns and torches, and weapons.

Pharisees-Φαρισαίων: the largest of the three or four Jewish sects; noted for their self conceit and long prayers; paid unnecessary tithes, fasted often, held to traditions [of men], made broad their phylacteries.  

weapons-ὅπλων: Matthew and Mark mention "swords" and "staves,"

***Judas then having received a band of men,.... "From the captain of this band, who in John 18:12; is called a "Chiliarch", that is, a commander of a thousand men, one might conclude there were so many in this band; but it seems, that such an officer might have two bands under his command; and if this was, the case, there were at least five hundred men in this company; a large number indeed, to take an unarmed person; and yet, as if this was not sufficient, it is added, and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees; servants that belong to each of these, and who seem to be a considerable number also; for these are said to be "a great multitude"; Matthew 26:47; nay, not only so, but the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders of the people, were themselves among them, Luke 22:52; to see that the men did their work, and did not return without him; as these officers, when sent by them once before, did: cometh thither with lanterns, and torches, and weapons".-(Gill)

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
48 ὁ δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς σημεῖον, λέγων, Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω, αὐτός ἐστι κρατήσατε αὐτόν.

 

Matthew 26:48

48 "Now he that betrayed-παραδιδοὺς (paradidous)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) him gave-ἔδωκεν (edoken)-to give) them a sign-σημεῖον (semeion)-a sign, mark, signal), saying-λέγων (legon)-to say, to speak, declare), Whomsoever *I shall kiss-φιλήσω (phileso)-to kiss, be friendly, (i.e. greet with a kiss), that same is-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') he: hold him fast-κρατήσατε (kratesate)-to lay or keep hold)."

  • *example of Greek word: φιλήσω (phileso)-I shall kiss click: Mark 14:44

  • he that betrayed-παραδιδοὺς: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Now ["one-BESIDES-GIVING"] him

  • gave-ἔδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["GIVES"] them a sign,

  • saying-λέγων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["sayING"], Whomsoever

  • I shall kiss-φιλήσω: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-should-be-kissing"], that same

  • is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["it-IS"]  he:

  • hold fast: κρατήσατε Verb, Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["hold-ye!"] him.

***A sign. As they approached, Judas gave them a sign which would point out the person whom they were to seize. Probably these did not know Jesus by sight; at any rate, amid the crowd he might easily escape detection; it was also night, and even the Paschal moon might not enable the guards to distinguish faces under the shade of the dark olive grove. Whomsoever I shall kiss. In the East such salutation was common among friends, masters, and pupils; and it would awaken no surprise to see Judas thus salute his Teacher. Perhaps he desired to save appearances in the eyes of his fellow disciples. We marvel at the audacity and obduracy of one who could employ this mark of affection and respect to signal an act of the blackest treachery. That same is he whom you have to arrest. Hold him fast. As if he feared an attempt at rescue, or that Jesus might, as before (Luke 4:30John 8:59), use his miraculous power to effect his escape. -(Pulpit).

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
45 Καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθέως προσελθὼν αὐτῷ, λέγει, Ῥαββὶ, ῥαββί· καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν.

 

Mark 14:45

45 "And as soon as he was come-ἐλθὼν (elthon)-to come), he goeth-προσελθὼν (proselthon)-to come to, approach, draw near) straightway to him, and saith-λέγει (legei)-to say, to speak), Master-Ῥαββί (Rabbi)-Rabbi, my teacher), master, and *kissed-κατεφίλησεν (katephilesen)-to kiss thoroughly, be very friendly, kiss tenderly) him."

  • *example of Greek word: κατεφίλησεν (katephilesen)-kissed click: Matthew 26:49

  • as soon as he was come-ἐλθὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: And ["COMING"],

  • he goeth-προσελθὼν: Verb, Second Aorist, Active, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["TOWARD-COMING"] straightway to him,

  • and saith-λέγει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-IS-sayING"], Master, master, and

  • kissed-κατεφίλησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-kisses-fondly"] him.

***"The customary kiss of a disciple to his teacher. The same word in the original with its intensifying preposition is used to express (i) the kissing of our Lord by the woman who was a sinner (Luke 7:38Luke 7:45); (ii) the kissing of the prodigal son by his father (Luke 15:20); and (iii) the kissing of St Paul by the Christians on the sea-shore of Miletus (Acts 20:37)."-(Cambridge BSC).

***(κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν); literally, kissed him much. The kiss was an ancient mode of salutation amongst the Jews, the Romans, and other nations. It is possible that this was the usual mode with which the disciples greeted Christ when they returned to him after any absence. But Judas abused this token of friendship, using it for a base and treacherous purpose.-(Pulpit).

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
48 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἰούδα φιλήματι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδως

 

Luke 22:48

48 "But Jesus said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say, tell, utter) unto him, Judas-Ἰούδα (Iouda)-one of the Disciples of Jesus, who betrayed him), betrayest thou-παραδίδως (paradidos)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) the Son of man *with a kiss-φιλήματι (philemati)-a kiss)?"

  • *example of Greek word: παραδίδως (paradidos)-with a kiss click: Romans 16:16

  • said-εἶπεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: But Jesus ["said"] unto him,

  • Judas-Ἰούδα: Noun, Vocative, Singular, Masculine: ["Judas!"//"JUDAS"],

  • betrayest thou-παραδίδως: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["you-are-giving-up"] the Son of man with a kiss? 

***By the "Son of man" was evidently meant "the Messiah." Judas had had the most satisfactory evidence of that, and did not doubt it. A kiss was the sign of affection. By that slight artifice Judas thought to conceal his base purpose [betrayal]. Jesus with severity reproaches him for it. Every word is emphatic. "Betrayest" thou - dost thou violate all thy obligations of fidelity, and deliver thy Master up to death? Betrayest "thou" - thou, so long with him, so much favored, so sure that this is the Messiah? Betrayest thou "the Son of man" - the Messiah, the hope of the nations, the desire of all people, the world's Redeemer? Betrayest thou the Son of man "with a kiss" - the sign of friendship and affection employed in a base and wicked purpose, intending to add deceit, disguise, and the prostitution of a mark of affection to the "crime of treason?" Every word of this must have gone to the very soul of Judas. Perhaps few reproofs of crime more resemble the awful searchings of the souls of the wicked in the day of judgment.-(Barnes).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
55 ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις, Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθετε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με; καθ’ ἡμέραν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με.

 

Matthew 26:55

55 "In that same hour said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say, tell, utter) Jesus to the multitudes-ὄχλοις (ochlois)-crowd), Are ye come out-ἐξήλθετε (exelthete)-to go or come forth of) as-Ὡς (Hos)-as, like, even as) against-ἐπὶ (epi)-upon) *a thief-λῃστὴν (lesten)-a robber, plunderer) with swords-μαχαιρῶν (machairon)-fighting weapon, sword) and staves-ξύλων (xulon)-wood, (by implication: a stick, club or tree or other wooden article or substance) for to take-συλλαβεῖν (sullamein)-to take together, to clasp, (i.e. seize (arrest, capture) me? I sat-ἐκαθεζόμην (ekathezomen)-to sit down, seat one's self, sit) daily with you teaching-διδάσκων (didaskon)-to teach) in-ἐν (en)-in) the *Temple-ἱερῷ (hiero)-sacred, priestly edifice, temple, (i.e. a sacred place, temple), and ye laid no-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) hold-ἐκρατήσατέ (ekratesate)-to lay or keep hold) on me."

  • *example of Greek word: λῃστὴν (lesten)-a thief click: Mark 14:48

  • *example of Greek word: ἱερῷ (hiero)-Temple click: Matthew 21:12

  • said-εἶπεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: In that same hour ["said"] Jesus to the multitudes,

  • Are ye come out-ἐξήλθετε: Verb, Second-Aoris,t Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-OUT-CAME"//"ye-came-out"] as against a thief with swords and staves

  • for to take-συλλαβεῖν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-TOGETHER-TAKING"//"to-be-apprehending"]me?

  • I sat-ἐκαθεζόμην: Verb, Imperfect, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-was-seatED"] daily with you 

  • teaching-διδάσκων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["TEACHING"] in the Temple, and no

  • ye laid hold-ἐκρατήσατέ: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-HOLD"] on me.

***are ye come out as against a thief, with swords and staves, for to take me? "as an highwayman, or notorious robber, that had done great mischief to the country; and being armed, and having associates, was not easy to be taken: the Syriac renders it, as a cut-throat: and the Persic, as a robber, and a cut-throat; a desperate villain, that would by no means yield, unless overpowered by numbers, by force of arms, by the dint of the sword, by knocks and blows: but how different from this, was the character of Jesus! who never did any injury to any man's person or property, but saved both; was meek, lowly, and humble in his deportment, throughout the whole of his life; never strove with men, or cried, and caused his voice, in any riotous manner, to be heard in the streets; and even when reviled, reviled not again, but took every insult patiently; and was now unarmed, and ready to submit at once; nay, before they could well come up to him, he asked them who they sought; and on mentioning his name, declared he was the person; and signified he was ready to surrender himself, only desired his disciples might have leave to go away"-(Gill).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
2 Καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγον, καὶ παρέδωκαν αὐτὸν Ποντίῳ Πιλάτῳ τῷ ἡγεμόνι.

 

Matthew 27:2

"And *when they had bound-δήσαντες (desantes)-to bind, fasten, tie) him, they led him away-ἀπήγαγον (apegagon)-to lead away, (esp. of those who are led off to trial, prison, or punishment), and *delivered-παρέδωκαν (paredokan)-to give over to or alongside of) him to Pontius-Ποντίῳ (Pontio)-"of the sea", (the sixth Roman procurator of Judah who crucified Christ) Pilate-Πιλάτῳ (Pilato)-"armed with a spear") the governor-ἡγεμόνι (hegemoni)-leader, guide, one going before)."

  • *example of Greek word: λῃστὴν (lesten)-when they had bound click: Mark 15:1  (and bound)

  • *example of Greek word: παρέδωκαν (paredokan)-delivered click: Luke 24:20

  • when they had bound-δήσαντες: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: And ["BINDing"] him,

  • they led him away-ἀπήγαγον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-FROM-LED"//"they-led-away-him"], and

  • delivered-παρέδωκαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-BESIDE-GIVE"] him to Pontius Pilate the governor.

***He was "bound" when they took him in the garden, John 18:12. Probably when he was tried before the Sanhedrin in the palace of Caiaphas, he had been loosed from his bonds, being there surrounded by multitudes, and supposed to be safe. As they were about to lead him to another part of the city now, they again bound him. The binding consisted, probably, in nothing more than tying his hands.-(Barnes).

***Pontius Pilate, the governor - The governor appointed by the Romans over Judea. The governor commonly resided at Caesarea; but he came up to Jerusalem usually at the great feasts, when great numbers of the Jews were assembled, to administer justice, and to suppress tumults if any should arise. The "title" which Pilate received was that of "governor or procurator." The duties of the office were, chiefly, to collect the revenues due to the Roman emperor, and in certain cases to administer justice. Pilate was appointed governor of Judea by Tiberius, then Emperor of Rome.-(Barnes).

Death

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
17 συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν Βαραββᾶν ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν

 

Matthew 27:17

17"Therefore when they-αὐτῶν (auton)-them) were gathered together-συνηγμένων (sunegmenon)-to lead together, (i.e. come together, gather, meet), Pilate said unto them, Whom-Τίνα (tis)-who, which) will ye-θέλετε (thelete)-to wish, will, mean) *that I release-ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free) unto you-ὑμῖν (humin)-you:—ye)? Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master"), or-(e)-either, or) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) which is called-λεγόμενον (legomenon)-to lay out, say (i.e. he that is surnamed) Christ?"

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-that I release click: John 18:39

  • were gathered together-συνηγμένων: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Masculine: Therefore when they ["of-having-been-gathered"], Pilate said unto them, Whom

  • will ye-θέλετε: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural:  ["YE-ARE-WILLING"]

  • that I release-ἀπολύσω: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-should-be-releasing"] unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which

  • is called-λεγόμενον: Verb, Present, Passive, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["one-being-said"] Christ?

when they-αὐτῶν (auton)-them) were gathered together-συνηγμένων (sunegmenon)-to lead together, (i.e. come together, gather, meet)

    Meaning not the chief priests and elders; for these were together before, but [rather,] the common people; and so the Persic version renders the words, when the people increased into a multitude: for it was to them the release of a prisoner was to be made, and so the proposal of one; and it was at their option, who should be the person [either, Jesus or Barabbas]; for it was "whom they [the crowd] would", as in Matthew 27:15, and where the Ethiopic version adds, "and should choose".-(Gill).

    In accordance with the custom referred to, and as it so happened that at that moment there lay under sentence of death (Matthew 27:15-16) a noted criminal called Jesus Barabbas, Pilate got the multitude that was collected outside gathered together, and then asked them to choose between Jesus Barabbas and Jesus who was called the Messiah.-(Meyer).

Whom-Τίνα (tis)-who, which) will ye-θέλετε (thelete)-to wish, will, mean) that I release-ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free) unto you-ὑμῖν (humin)-you:—ye): 

  He [Pilate] had great hope that their answer would favour Jesus. When it came to choosing between a vile robber and murderer [Barabbas] and a beneficent, moral teacher [Jesus], common sense would guide the choice aright.-(Pulpit). 

  This, we must remember, was all but the last attempt of Pilate to shift off from himself the dreaded burden of responsibility.-(Ellicott).

Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master"), or-(e)-either, or) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind): 

    That is, Jesus, who claims to be the Messiah. Pilate probably did not believe it, or care much for it. He used the name which Jesus had acquired among the people. Perhaps, also, he thought that they would be more likely to ask him to be released if he was presented to them as the Messiah. Mark 15:9 adds that he asked them whether they would that he should release "the King of the Jews?"-(Barnes).

    "How vain for Pilate to expect to free himself from the guilt of the innocent blood of a righteous person, whom he was by his office bound to protect!"..."(Matthew Henry).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
20 οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεισαν τοὺς ὄχλους ἵνα αἰτήσωνται τὸν Βαραββᾶν τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν ἀπολέσωσιν.

 

Matthew 27:20

 20 "But the chief Priests-ἀρχιερεῖς (archiereis)-chief priest, high priest) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) Elders-πρεσβύτεροι (presbuteroi)-elder, aged person, (members of the great council or Sanhedrin) *persuaded-ἔπεισαν (epeisan)-to persuade, (i.e. to induce one by words to believe) the multitude-ὄχλους (ochlous)-crowd) that they should ask-αἰτήσωνται (aitesontai)-to ask, crave, call for, desire, request) Barabbas, and-δὲ (de)-but, moreover) *destroy-ἀπολέσωσιν (apolesosin)-to loose off or away, destroy, (to destroy fully (reflexively, to perish, or lose), literally or figuratively:—destroy, die, lose, mar, perish) Jesus."

  • *example of G3982(ἔπεισαν-persuaded) click: Romans 8:38 (πέπεισμαι-I am persuaded)

  • *example of Greek word: ἀπολέσωσιν (apolesosin)-destroy click: Mark 3:6

  • persuaded-ἔπεισαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: But the chief Priests and Elders ["PERSUADE"] the multitude that 

  • they should ask-αἰτήσωνται: Verb, Aorist, Middle, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-SHOULD-BE-REQUESTING"] Barabbas, and

  • destroy-ἀπολέσωσιν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-SHOULD-BE-destroyING"] Jesus.

***But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude,.... Among whom the choice lay who should be released [either, Jesus or Barabbas]. This they did not by haranguing [giving a speech to] them, or making a public oration to them; but by sending their servants, or proper persons among them, telling them that Jesus had been examined before the sanhedrim that morning, and was found to be a blasphemer; and that the whole court had unanimously condemned him to death, and therefore it became them to act according to their decree: and besides, should this man [Jesus] be set free, they might suggest to them, since he has given out that he is the king Messiah, the Romans hearing of it, will be jealous of such a person, and come and take away both our place and nation, or deprive us of the privileges we have remaining: with such sort of arguments as these, it may be supposed they worked upon the common people [crowd/multitude]. The Persic version reads, "commanded", instead of "persuaded"-(Gill).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598 & Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
21 Ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἡγεμὼν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τίνα θέλετε ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν; Οἱ δὲ εἶπον, Βαραββᾶν. 22 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τί οὖν ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; λέγουσιν αὐτῷ πάντες, Σταυρωθήτω.

 

Matthew 27:21-22

21"The governor answered-Ἀποκριθεὶς (Apokritheis)-to answer, (i.e. by implication: to respond), and said unto them, Whether of the twain-δύο (duo)-two) will ye-θέλετε (thelete)-to will, have in mind, desire) that I release-ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free) unto you? They said, Barabbas.  22  Pilate saith-λέγει (legei)-to say, speak, declare, lay out) unto them, What-Τί (ti)-what) shall I do-ποιήσω (poieso)-to do, (i.e. do with) then-οὐν (oun)-therefore, now, then) with Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind), which is called-λεγόμενον (legomenon)-to lay out, say (i.e. he that is surnamed) Christ-Χριστόν (Christon)-"anointed", (Christ was [and is] the Messiah, the Son of God)? They all say-λέγουσιν (legousin)-to say, speak, declare, lay out) unto him, Let him be crucified-Σταυρωθήτω (Staurotheto)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes)."

  • answered-ἀποκριθεὶς: Verb, Aorist, Passive-Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: The governor ["answerING"], and said unto them, Whether of the twain

  • will ye-θέλετε: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-ARE-WILLING"]

  • that I release-ἀπολύσω: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-SHOULD-BE-FROM-LOOSING"//"I-should-be-releasing"]  unto you? They said, Barabbas. Pilate

  • saith-λέγει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-sayING"] unto them, What

  • shall I do-ποιήσω: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-SHALL-BE-DOING"] then with Jesus, which is called Christ? They all say unto him,

  • Let him be crucified-Σταυρωθήτω: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Imperative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["let-him-be-being-crucified!"].

What-Τί (ti)-what) shall I do-ποιήσω (poieso)-to do, (i.e. do with) then-οὐν (oun)-therefore, now, then) with Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind): 

     There is no further question even of a show of legality or justice: the traditional clemency is quite forgotten; the fanatical crowd, pressing round the doors of the Prætorium, which they cannot enter, join with excited gesticulation in one loud and furious cry for the blood of Jesus.-(Cambridge BSC).

     Surely you would not have me put him to death, and that for no other reason but this, because he is called either by himself or others,  Christ, or the Messiah, or the king of the Jews!-(Gill).

     Pilate did not suppose that the Jews would demand any very severe punishment to be inflicted. He ought not to have asked. It would have been safer to have simply dismissed the prisoner [Jesus]; cf [compare with]Acts 18:14-16.-(Bengel).

Let him be crucified-Σταυρωθήτω (Staurotheto)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes): 

   they all say unto him, let him be crucified; which was a Roman punishment, inflicted on the meanest and worst of men; as wicked servants, thieves, robbers, and cut-throats (o); and so was not only a torturing and painful death, but a very shameful and ignominious one; yea, an accursed one: in this they all agreed, being instigated to it by the chief priests and elders.-(Gill).

   They have their dreadful answer ready. He is a political offender; he is a mover of sedition against the Roman supremacy; let him meet the punishment to which Rome dooms her lowest criminals and runagates. This was the death which Christ had foretold for himself (Matthew 20:19), the most painful, barbarous, and ignominious punishment which the cruelty of man ever invented.-(Pulpit).

   Barabbas had deserved the cross: hence they demand that Jesus should be crucified.-(Bengel).

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
13 οἱ δὲ πάλιν ἔκραξαν, Σταύρωσον αὐτόν. 14 ὁ δὲ Πιλάτος ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, Τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν; οἱ δὲ περισσοτέρως ἔκραξαν, Σταύρωσον αὐτόν.

 

Mark 15:13-14

13 "And *they cried out-ἔκραξαν (ekraxan)-to cry (i.e. cry out aloud, speak with a loud voice) again-πάλιν (palin)-anew, afresh, again), Crucify-Σταύρωσον (Stauroson)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes) him. 14 Then Pilate said unto them, Why-γὰρ (gar)-for), what *evil-κακόν (kakon)-evil, (objectively) injurious:—bad, evil, harm, ill, noisome, wicked) hath he done? And they cried out-ἔκραξαν (ekraxan)-to cry (i.e. cry out aloud, speak with a loud voice) the more exceedingly-περισσοτέρως (perissoteros)-more abundantly, much more), Crucify-Σταύρωσον (Stauroson)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes) him."

  • *example of Greek word: ἔκραξαν (ekraxan)-they cried out click: Matthew 8:29

  • *example of Greek word: κακόν (kakon)-evil click: Luke 23:22

  • they cried out-ἔκραξαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: And ["THEY-CRY"] again,

  • Crucify-Σταύρωσον: Verb, Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["crucify-you!"] him. Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And

  • they cried out-ἔκραξαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-CRY"] the more exceedingly,

  • Crucify-Σταύρωσον: Verb, Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["crucify-you!"] him.

  ***why, what evil hath he done? worthy of death. They had charged him [Jesus] with many things, but proved nothing against him. Pilate could find no fault in him, and judged him an innocent person, and therefore was loth [unwilling] to condemn him:-(Gill).

  ***But they cried out the more “Why and wherefore?” There were no questions with them. They were resolved to have His [Jesus] life. Nothing else would satisfy. The cry was kept up unbroken, Away with this man, Crucify Him! Crucify Him! In vain Pilate expostulated. In vain he washed his hands openly before them all (Matthew 27:24) in token of his conviction of the perfect innocence of the Accused. His wavering in the early stage of the trial was bringing on its terrible consequences.-(Cambridge BSC).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
15 Ὁ δὲ Πιλάτος βουλόμενος τῷ ὄχλῳ τὸ ἱκανὸν ποιῆσαι, ἀπέλυσεν αὐτοῖς τὸν Βαραββᾶν, καὶ παρέδωκε τὸν Ἰησοῦν φραγελλώσας, ἵνα σταυρωθῇ.

 

Mark 15:15

15 "And so Pilate, *willing-βουλόμενος (boulomenos)-to wish, will, (reflexively) be willing:—be disposed, minded, intend, (be, of own) will (-ing) to-τὸ (to)-the) content-ἱκανὸν ποιῆσαι (hikanon poiesai)-to make sufficient, to satisfy) the-τῷ (to)-the) people-ὄχλῳ (ochlo)-crowd, multitude), released-ἀπέλυσεν (apelusen)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free) Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master", (the captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ) unto them, and delivered-παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-to give over to or along side of, (i.e. to hand over) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind), when he had scourged him-φραγελλώσας (phragellosas)-to flagellate, (from a presumed equivalent of the Latin flagellum; to whip, i.e. lash as a public punishment:—scourge), to be crucified-σταυρωθῇ (staurothe)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes)."

  • *example of Greek word: βουλόμενος (boulomenos)-willing click: 2 Peter 3:9

  • willing-βουλόμενος: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: And so Pilate,  ["intendING"] to content the people,

  • released-ἀπέλυσεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["FROM-LOOSES"//"releases"] Barabbas unto them, and 

  • delivered-παρέδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["BESIDE-GIVES"//"gives-up"] Jesus,

  • when he had scourged him-φραγελλώσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["WHIPPing"], to 

  • be crucified-σταυρωθῇ: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-may-be-being-crucified"].

willing-βουλόμενος (boulomenos)-to wish, will, (reflexively) be willing:—be disposed, minded, intend, (be, of own) will (-ing) to-τὸ (to)-the) content-ἱκανὸν ποιῆσαι (hikanon poiesai)-to make sufficient, to satisfy) the-τῷ (to)-the) people-ὄχλῳ (ochlo)-crowd, multitude)

   To satisfy and make them easy, who were become very noisy and tumultuous, and fearing the consequences of their resentment, should he not comply, of which he had formerly had experience; therefore to humour them, and keep in their favour, after he had washed his hands, to testify his innocence in the matter, he released Barabbas unto them; the seditious person, robber, and murderer, as they desired.-(Gill).

     Pilate was now quite sure what the people wished, and so, as an opportunist, he let them have their way.-(Expositor).

delivered-παρέδωκεν (paredoken)-to give over to or along side of, (i.e. to hand over) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind), when he had scourged him-φραγελλώσας (phragellosas)-to flagellate, (from a presumed equivalent of the Latin flagellum; to whip, i.e. lash as a public punishment:—scourge):

     St. Luke and St. John are more full in details here. From their narratives it appears that when Pilate found that his attempt to rescue our Lord, by putting Barabbas in contrast with him, had failed, he next hoped to move the multitude to pity by the terrible punishment of scourging, after which he trusted that they would relent. Scourging was a vile punishment, inflicted on slaves. But it was also inflicted upon those who were condemned to death, even though freemen This scourging, which was a part of the punishment of crucifixion, was of frightful severity. Horace ('Sat.' 1:3, 119) speaks of it as "horrible flagellum." But it appears from St. John (John 21:1) that the scourging of Jesus took place before his formal condemnation to be crucified; we may therefore suppose that it was not a part of the ordinary punishment of crucifixion. At all events, there is nothing, upon a careful comparison of the narratives, to lead us to the conclusion that our blessed Lord was scourged twice. In fact, Pilate anticipated the time of the scourging, in the vain hope that he might by this means save our Lord from the capital punishment.-(Pulpit). 

be crucified-σταυρωθῇ (staurothe)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes)

     to be crucified, as they desired; in which he [Pilate] acted contrary to law and justice, to the violation of his own conscience, and merely to gratify the humour of the people.-(Gill).

     But the compromise did not content the excited multitude. The spectacle of so much suffering so meekly borne did not suffice. “If thou let this man go,” they cried, “thou art not Cæsar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Cæsar” (John 19:12). This crafty well-chosen cry roused all Pilate’s fears. He [Pilate] could only too well divine the consequences if they accused him of sparing a prisoner [Jesus] who had been accused of treason before the gloomy suspicious Tiberius [Roman Emperor] (“atrocissimè exercebat leges majestatis,” Suet. Vit. Tib. c. 58; Tac. Ann. iii. 38). His fears for his own personal safety turned the scale. After one more effort therefore (John 19:13-15), he gave the word, the irrevocable word, “Let Him be crucified” (John 19:16), and the long struggle was over. St John, it is to be observed, mentions the scourging as one of Pilate’s final attempts to release Jesus. St Mark, like St Matthew, looks upon it as the first act in the awful tragedy of the Crucifixion. Both views are equally true. The scourging should have moved the people; it only led them to greater obduracy; it proved, as St Mark brings out, the opening scene in the Crucifixion.-(Cambridge BSC).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
20 Καὶ ὅτε ἐνέπαιξαν αὐτῷ, ἐξέδυσαν αὐτὸν τὴν πορφύραν, καὶ ἐνέδυσαν αὐτὸν τὰ ἱμάτια τὰ ἴδια· καὶ ἐξάγουσιν αὐτὸν ἵνα σταυρώσουσιν αὐτόν.

 

Mark 15:20

 20"And when *they had mocked-ἐνέπαιξαν (enepaixan)-to treat as a child, mock, (to jeer at, i.e. deride:—mock) him, they took off-ἐξέδυσαν (exedusan)-to take off, strip, unclothe) the *purple-πορφύραν (porphuran)-purple garment, (by implication: the red-blue color itself, and finally a garment dyed with it:—purple) from him, and put his own clothes-ἱμάτια (himatia)-raiment, garment) on-ἐνέδυσαν (enedusan)-to clothe, go into clothing) him, and led him out-ἐξάγουσιν (exagousin)-to lead out, (i.e. to lead forth) to crucify-σταυρώσωσιν (staurososin)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes) him."

  • *example of G1702: (ἐνέπαιξαν-they had mocked) click: Matthew 27:29  (ἐνέπαιζον-and mocked)

  • *example of Greek word: πορφύραν (porphuran)-purple click: Luke 16:19

  • they had mocked-ἐνέπαιξαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, PluralAnd when ["they-scoff-at"] him,

  • they took off-ἐξέδυσαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-OUT-SLIP"//"they-strip"] the purple from him, and

  • put on-ἐνέδυσαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-IN-SLIP"//"put-on"] his own clothes him, and

  • led out-ἐξάγουσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-ARE-OUT-LEADING"//"they-are-leading-out"] him to

  • crucify-σταυρώσωσιν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural: ["they-should-be-crucifying"] him.

***And when they had mocked him,.... To their satisfaction, and had had enough of this sort of diversion: they took off the purple from him; and so, in their way, unkinged him; and put his own clothes on him: both that he might be known to be the same person; and that the four soldiers, who had the charge of him, might have the perquisites of his clothes at his execution: and led him out to crucify him: they led him out of the "praetorium", or judgment hall, and through the city, without the gates of it, to the usual place of crucifixion; he bearing his own cross, when first led out.-(Gill).

 

 

 

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
33 Καὶ ὅτε ἀπῆλθον ἐπὶ τὸν τόπον τὸν καλούμενον Κρανίον, ἐκεῖ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτὸν, καὶ τοὺς κακούργους· ὃν μὲν ἐκ δεξιῶν, ὃν δὲ ἐξ ἀριστερῶν.

Luke 23:33

33"And when they were come-ἀπῆλθον (apelthon)-to go away (from a place), to depart, go away/off) to the place, which is called-καλούμενον (kaloumenon)-to be called) //Calvary-Κρανίον (Kranion)-a skull ("cranium"):—Calvary, skull) (Or, the place of a skull), there they crucified-ἐσταύρωσαν (estaurosan)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes) him, and the *malefactors-κακούργους (kakourgous)-evil worker, (a wrong-doer, i.e. criminal:—evil-doer, malefactor), one on the right hand, and the other on the left."

  • *example of G2557: (κακούργους-malefactors) click: 2 Timothy 2:9 (κακοῦργος-an evil doer)

  • they were come-ἀπῆλθον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: And when ["THEY-FROM-CAME"] to the place, which

  • is called-καλούμενον: Verb, Present, Passive, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["beING-CALLED"] Calvary, there

  • they crucified-ἐσταύρωσαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-impale"//"they-crucify"] him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. 

Calvary-Κρανίον (Kranion)-a skull ("cranium"):—Calvary, skull)

     literally, unto the place which is called the skull. The familiar name "Calvary" has its origin in the Vulgate translation, Calvarium, a skull. The name "Place of a skull," Golgotha (properly Gulgoltha, an Aramaic word נלגלתא, corresponding to the Hebrew Gulgoleth, גלגלת, which in Judges 9:53 and 2 Kings 9:35 is translated "skull"), does not come from the fact that the skulls of condemned persons remained lying there, but it is so called from being a bare rounded mound [heap] like a skull in form.-(Pulpit).

malefactors-κακούργους (kakourgous)-evil worker, (a wrong-doer, i.e. criminal:—evil-doer, malefactor)

     St. John adds, "and Jesus in the midst," as holding the position of preeminence in that scene of uttermost shame. Even in suffering Christ appears as a King. Westcott thus comments on the next detail recorded by St. John (John 19:19), where the accurate rendering is, "And Pilate wrote a title also." This title (see further, Luke 23:38) was drawn up by Pilate, who caused it to be placed on the cross. The words, "wrote a title also," perhaps imply that the placing of the Lord in the midst was done by Pilate's direction.-(Pulpit).

     ‘They crucified Him,’-there is no need to say who ‘they’ were. Others than the soldiers, who did the work, did the deed. Contempt gave Him two malefactors for companions and hung the King of the Jews in the place of honour in the midst. Did John remember what his brother and he had asked? Matter-of-fact indifference as to a piece of military duty, and shameless greed, impelled the legionaries to cast lots for the clothes stripped from a living man. What did the crucifying of another Jew or two matter to them? Gaping curiosity, and the strange love of the horrible, so strong in the vulgar mind, led the people, who had been shouting Hosanna! less than a week ago, to stand gazing on the sight without pity but in a few hearts. The bitter hatred of the rulers, and their inhuman glee at getting rid of a heretic, gave them bad preeminence in sin. Their scoff acknowledged that He had ‘saved others,’ and their hate had so blinded their eyes that they could not see how manifestly His refusal to use His power to save Himself proved Him the Son of God. He could not save Himself, just because [for the reason that] He would save these scoffing Rabbis and all the world. The rough soldiers knew little about Him, but they followed suit, and thought it an excellent jest to bring the ‘vinegar,’ provided in kindness, to Jesus with a mockery of reverence as to a king.-(MacLaren).

     At that moment the dying thief had clearer faith in Christ’s coming in His kingdom than any of the disciples had. Their hopes were crumbling as they watched Him hanging unresisting and gradually dying. But this man looked beyond the death so near for both Jesus and himself, and believed that, after it, He [Jesus] would come [back] to reign. We may call him [the malefactor] the only disciple that Christ then had. How pathetic is that petition, ‘Remember me’! It builds the hope of sharing in Christ’s royalty on the fact of having shared in His Cross. ‘Thou wilt not forget Thy companion in that black hour, which will then lie behind us.’ Such trust and clinging, joined with such penitence and submission, could not go unrewarded. From His Cross Jesus speaks in royal style, as monarch of that dim world. His promise is sealed with His own sign-manual, ‘Verily, I say.’ It claims to have not only the clear vision of, but the authority to determine, the future. It declares the unbroken continuance of personal existence, and the reality of a state of conscious blessedness, in which men are aware of their union with Him, the Lord of the realm and the Life of its inhabitants. It [he] graciously accepts the penitent’s petition, and assures him that the companionship, begun on the Cross, will be continued there [-after]. ‘With Me’ makes ‘Paradise’ wherever a soul is.-(MacLaren).

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
34 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγε, Πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς· οὐ γὰρ οἴδασι τί ποιοῦσι. διαμεριζόμενοι δὲ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ, ἔβαλον κλῆρον.

 

Luke 23:34

34 "Then said-ἔλεγε (elege)-to say, to speak) Jesus, Father-Πάτερ (Pater)-father, (God is called the Father; the Father of Jesus Christ), forgive-ἄφες (aphes)-to send or let off or away, (i.e. to forgive one) them; for they know-οἴδασι (oidasi)-to see, have seen, known) not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) what they do-ποιοῦσι (poiousi)-to do). And they parted-διαμεριζόμενοι (diamerizomenoi)-to divide throughout, (to partition thoroughly (literally in distribution, figuratively in dissension):—cloven, divide, part) his raiment, and cast-ἔβαλον (ebalon)-to cast, throw) *lots-κλῆρον (kleron)-a lot)."

  • *example of Greek word: κλῆρον (kleron)-lots click: John 19:24

  • said-ἔλεγε: Verb, Imperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Then ["said"] Jesus,

  • Father-Πάτερ Noun, Vocative, Singular, Masculine: ["FATHER!"]

  • forgive-ἄφες: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["forgive-you!"] them; for

  • they know-οἴδασι: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-HAVE-PERCEIVED"//"they-are-aware"] not what

  • they do-ποιοῦσι Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural["THEY-ARE-DOING"]. And

  • they parted-διαμεριζόμενοι: Verb, Present, Middle, Participle,  Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["dividing"] his raiment,

  • and cast-ἔβαλον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-CAST"] lots.

 

***lots an object used in casting or drawing lots, which was either a pebble, or a potsherd, or a bit of wood.

***It was done through ignorance, Acts 3:17. Paul says that, "had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory," 1 Corinthians 2:8. Ignorance does not excuse altogether a crime if the ignorance be willful, but it diminishes its guilt. They "had" evidence; they "might" have learned his character; they "might" have known what they were doing, and they "might" be held answerable for all this. But Jesus here shows the compassion of his heart, and as they were "really" ignorant, whatever might have been the cause of their ignorance, he implores God to pardon them. He even urges it as a "reason" why they should be pardoned, that they were ignorant of what they were doing; and though people are often guilty for their ignorance, yet God often in compassion overlooks it, averts his anger, and grants them the blessings of pardon and life. So he forgave Paul, for he "did it in ignorance, in unbelief," 1 Timothy 1:13. So God "winked" at the ignorance of the Gentiles, Acts 17:30. Yet this is no excuse, and no evidence of safety, for those who in our day contemptuously put away from them and their children the means of instruction.-(Barnes).

***The garments of the crucified became the property of the soldiers who carried out the sentence. Every cross was guarded by a guard of four soldiers. The coat, for which they cast lots, was, St. John tells us, without seam. "Chrysostom," who may have written from personal knowledge, thinks that the detail is added to show "the poorness of the Lord's garments, and that in dress, as in all other things, he followed a simple fashion."-(Pulpit)

 

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
46 καὶ φωνήσας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Ἰησοῦς εἶπε, Πάτερ, εἰς χεῖράς σου παραθήσομαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου· καὶ ταῦτα εἰπὼν ἐξέπνευσεν.

 

Luke 23:46

46 "And when Jesus-Ἰησοῦς (Iesous)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)) had cried-φωνήσας (phonesas)-to cry, cry out, cry aloud, speak with a loud voice) with a loud-μεγάλῃ (megale)-great) voice-φωνῇ (phone)-a voice, (i.e. the sound of uttered words)), he said, Father-Πάτερ (Pater)-father, (i.e. God is called the Father), into thy hands I commend-παραθήσομαι (parathesomai)-to put along or over to, (by implication: to deposit (as a trust or for protection):—commend, commit (the keeping of), put forth, set before) my-μου (mou)-my, of me) spirit-πνεῦμά (pneuma)-spirit): and having said-εἰπὼν (eipon)-to speak, say, tell) thus, he gave up the ghost-ἐξέπνευσεν (exepneusen)-to breathe out, breathe out one's life, breathe one's last, expire)."

  • had cried-φωνήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular Masculine And when Jesus ["SOUNDing"//"shouting"] with a loud voice, he said,

  • Father-Πάτερ: Noun, Vocative, Singular, Masculine: ["FATHER!"], into thy hands

  • I commend-παραθήσομαι: Verb, Future, Middle-Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-SHALL-BE-PLACING"] my spirit: and

  • having said-εἰπὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["sayING"] thus,

  • he gave up the ghost-ἐξέπνευσεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-expirES"].

with a loud-μεγάλῃ (megale)-great) voice-φωνῇ (phone)-a voice, (i.e. the sound of uttered words)

     According to John 19:30, when Jesus had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished, meaning that the predictions of the prophets, respecting his sufferings and ministry on earth, were all fulfilled, and that the redemption of the world was on the point of being accomplished; and probably these were the words which he uttered with a loud voice, showing thereby, that his strength was not exhausted, but that he was about to give up his life of his own accord. And when he had thus cried, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.-(Benson).

     He cried, "It is finished," John 19:30. It was in the height of his agony, probably attended with deep groaning, and uttered amid sorrows which were never else experienced in our world. It finished the work of atonement, made the way of salvation possible, rolled away the curse from guilty people, and opened the kingdom of heaven to all true believers.-(Barnes).

     with a loud voice; which showed the vehemency of his affection, his strong confidence in God, and his being fearless of death; as also he thus spoke, that he might be heard, and his words attended to, since they contained things of the greatest importance and consequence: moreover, being able to express himself in such a manner, this declared him to be more than a mere man; for after such agonies in the garden, and so much fatigue in being hurried from place to place, and such loss of blood by being buffeted, scourged, crowned with thorns, and nailed to the accursed tree, where, being stretched, he had hung for some hours; to speak with so loud a voice was more than human, and was a conviction to the centurion, that he was a divine person: for when he saw that he so cried out, and "gave up the ghost", he said, "truly this man was the Son of God"-(Gill).

I commend-παραθήσομαι (parathesomai)-to put along or over to, (by implication: to deposit (as a trust or for protection):—commend, commit (the keeping of), put forth, set before) my-μου (mou)-my, of me) spirit-πνεῦμά (pneuma)-spirit):

     As a Son of man, Jesus felt still subject to the Divine Father of all; and as he came to do and bear his will, and had done and had borne it perfectly in every hour and act of life, so now in this last volition he yielded himself to God. Thus with a soul tranquil to its profoundest depths, realizing the unseen and eternal world, resigning his spirit to the Divine Father, he bowed his head in death.

     OUR OWN DEPARTURE. Having found in the death of Jesus Christ that which is the ground of our pardon, our peace, our life before God; having lived in the love and in the service of a once crucified and now ever-living Savior; - there is no reason to doubt that we shall die as he died, breathing the spirit he breathed, if we do not use the very language that was upon his lips. Our departure will be tranquil. We shall not be terrified, alarmed, agitated; our spirit will look calmly forward to the moment of departure from this world and of entrance into another. We shall face the very near future with a smile. We shall feel that we are only going into the nearer presence of our own Father - of him before whom we have been living and in whom we have been rejoicing; only passing from one room to another in our Father's house.-(Homiletics).

he gave up the ghost-ἐξέπνευσεν (exepneusen)-to breathe out, breathe out one's life, breathe one's last, expire)

     The three synoptists [Gospels] all mention this cry, which appears to have been something different from the words which he uttered at or about the time of his death. It was evidently something supernatural, and was so regarded by the centurion who stood by; and who had no doubt been accustomed to scenes like these. Usually the voice fails the dying, more especially when the natural forces have been weakened by long agony, as in the case of our Lord. It seems, therefore, the right conclusion that he cried out, just before he expired, by that supernatural power which his Godhead [the Father] supplied to him; and thus he showed that, although he had gone through all the pains which were sufficient in ordinary cases to produce death, yet that at length he did not die of necessity, but voluntarily, in accordance with what he had himself said, "No one taketh my life from me... I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again" (John 10:18).-(Pulpit).

Burial

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
50 Καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ ὀνόματι Ἰωσήφ, βουλευτὴς ὑπάρχων, ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς καὶ δίκαιος

52 Οὗτος προσελθὼν τῷ Πιλάτῳ ᾐτήσατο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ 53 Καὶ καθελὼν αὐτὸ ἐνετύλιξεν αὐτὸ σινδόνι, καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὸ ἐν μνήματι λαξευτῷ, οὗ οὐκ ἦν οὐδέπω οὐδεὶς κείμενος

 

Luke 23:50Luke 23:52-53

50"And, behold-ἰδού (idou)-see!, lo!), there was a man named Joseph-Ἰωσὴφ (Ioseph)-"let him add", (a member of the Sanhedrin, A Jew of Arimathea, a disciple of Jesus), a counsellor-βουλευτὴς (bouleutes)-counsellor, (an adviser, i.e. (specially) a councilor or member of the Jewish Sanhedrin:—counsellor), and he was a *good-ἀγαθὸς (agathos)-good, (i.e. upright, honorable) man, and *a just-δίκαιος (dikaios)-just, right(-eous), meet).

52 "This man went-προσελθὼν (proselthon)-to come to, approach, come unto) unto Pilate, *and begged-ᾐτήσατο (etesato)-to ask, (i.e. to ask for oneself, request for oneself) the-τὸ (to)-the) body-σῶμα (soma)-body, (i.e. a body) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)). 53 And he took it down-καθελὼν (kathelon)-to take down, bring down), *and wrapped-ἐνετύλιξεν (enetulixen)-to roll or wrap up or in) it-αὐτὸ (auto)-it) in linen-σινδόνι (sindoni)-Muslin, fine linen, (linen cloth, esp. that which was fine and costly, in which the bodies of the dead were wrapped), and laid-ἔθηκεν (etheken)-to set, put, place, lay) it in a Sepulchre-μνήματι (mnemati)-a memorial, i.e. sepulchral monument (burial-place):—grave, sepulchre, tomb) that was hewn in stone-λαξευτῷ (laxeuto)-hewn out of a rock, (rock-quarried:—hewn in stone), wherein never-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) man-οὐδέπω (oudepo)-not yet, not as yet) before-οὐδεὶς (oudeis)-no one, none) was laid-κείμενος (keimenos)-to be laid, to lie)."

  • *example of Greek word: ἀγαθὸς (agathos)-good click: Ephesians 4:29

  • *example of Greek word: δίκαιος (dikaios)-a just click: 2 Timothy 4:8 (the righteous)

  • *example of Greek word: ᾐτήσατο (etesato)-and begged click: Mark 15:43 (craved)

  • *example of Greek word: ἐνετύλιξεν (enetulixen)-and wrapped click: Matthew 27:59 (he wrapped)

  • went-προσελθὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: This man ["TOWARD-COMING"//"approaching"]   unto Pilate,

  • and begged-ᾐτήσατο: Verb, Aorist, Middle, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["REQUESTS"] the body of Jesus. And

  • he took down-καθελὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["DOWN-LIFTING"//"taking-down"] it

  • and wrapped-ἐνετύλιξεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-IN-FOLDS"//"he-folds-up"] it in linen, and

  • laid-ἔθηκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular:  ["PLACES"] it in a Sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was

  • laid-κείμενος: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Participle,  Nominative, Singular, Masculine ["LYING"] . 

Joseph-Ἰωσὴφ (Ioseph)-"let him add", (a member of the Sanhedrin, A Jew of Arimathea, a disciple of Jesus): 

    He is further said to have been "an honourable counsellor," i.e. a member of the Sanhedrin, "a good man and a just, who also waited for the kingdom of God, and had not consented to the counsel and deed" of the rest of the rulers. "It was divinely appointed," says the Ven. Bede, "that Joseph should be rich, in order to have access to Pilate, for no mean man could have access to the governor; and that he should be a just man, in order to receive the body of our Lord." This man's native place was Arimathaea, a town with much probability identified with Ramathaim-Zophim of 1 Samuel 1:1, which lay in Mount Ephraim, and was the birthplace of the Prophet Samuel. That he was "a rich man" naturally gave him some influence with Pilate, and joined with his position as a Sanhedrist, made his request more likely to be granted.-(Pulpit).

    This man sustained a high character. He was an "honorable counsellor, who also waited for the kingdom of God" Mark 15:43; he was "a good man and a just" Luke 23:50; he had nobly set himself against the wicked purposes of the Sanhedrin Luke 23:51; he was a disciple of Jesus, though he was not openly his follower, because he feared the Jews, John 19:38.-(Barnes).

and begged-ᾐτήσατο (etesato)-to ask, (i.e. to ask for oneself, request for oneself) the-τὸ (to)-the) body-σῶμα (soma)-body, (i.e. a body) of-τοῦ (tou)-of the) Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)

    knowing he [Jesus] was dead; that he [Joseph] might bury it, as the Ethiopic version adds, and prevent its being inferred with the two malefactors, or abused by the mob.-(Gill).

    This was a bold, and might even have proved to be a perilous request [by Joseph]... Pilate seems to have granted the boon without a bribe because the Jewish care for burial was well known (Matthew 14:12Acts 8:2; Jos. B. J. iv. 5, § 2), and was indeed a part of their Law (Deuteronomy 21:23). For the surprise of Pilate at the rapid death of Jesus, and his enquiry about it from the centurion, and other details, see Mark 15:44.-(Cambridge BSC).

and wrapped-ἐνετύλιξεν (enetulixen)-to roll or wrap up or in) it-αὐτὸ (auto)-it) in linen-σινδόνι (sindoni)-Muslin, fine linen, (linen cloth, esp. that which was fine and costly, in which the bodies of the dead were wrapped): 

    That Joseph bought this sindon, apparently on this day (Mark 15:46).-(Cambridge BSC). 

    The word for “linen cloth,” Sindôn, points, according to different derivations, to a Sidonian or an Indian fabric. It was probably of the nature of muslin rather than linen, and seems to have been specially used by the Egyptians for folding round their mummies, but sometimes also for the sheet in which a man slept (Herod. ii. 82, 95). In the New Testament it appears only in the account of our Lord’s burial and in the strange narrative of Mark 14:51.-(Ellicott)

    John adds that this was done "with spices" John 19:40. The Jews were accustomed to use myrrh, aloes, and other aromatics in large quantities when they buried their dead. When they were not regularly embalmed, which was a long and tedious process, they enclosed the spices in the folds of the linen, or wrapped the body in it. Spices were sometimes used in such quantities as to form a "heap or bed," on which the dead body was laid. Thus it is said of Asa 2 Chronicles 16:14, "they laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odors and spices," etc. There not being time properly to embalm the body of Jesus, he was buried in this manner. The women who attended him, either not being aware of this, or desirous of showing a further regard for him, returned from the sepulchre and prepared other spices with which to embalm him on the first day of the week, Luke 23:56; Luke 24:1.-(Barnes).

a Sepulchre-μνήματι (mnemati)-a memorial, i.e. sepulchral monument (burial-place):—grave, sepulchre, tomb) that was hewn in stone-λαξευτῷ (laxeuto)-hewn out of a rock, (rock-quarried:—hewn in stone):

   It [the body] was placed on one of the shelves or recesses formed in the sides of the sepulchre. Thus did the Saviour make "his grave with the wicked" (dying between two thieves), "and with the rich in his death" (Isaiah 53:9). It was fitting that he whose body saw no corruption should be buried in a grave which had never been tainted by a human corpse. Thus also it was ensured that no other body could rise thence except his who alone was buried therein...The tomb was a chamber artificially excavated in the face of the rock, with one entrance only. The wealthy Jews were especially fond of appropriating vaults for the burial of themselves and their families. The neighbourhood of Jerusalem (as other parts of Palestine) abounds with tombs cut in the solid limestone.-(Pulpit).

   This was a common way of constructing tombs in Judea...The sepulchre, thus secure, was rendered more so by rolling a great stone at its entrance; all possible precautions thus being used, in the providence of God, against imposition and deceit.-(Barnes)

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
62 Τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον, ἥτις ἐστὶ μετὰ τὴν παρασκευήν, συνήχθησαν οἱ Ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι πρὸς Πιλάτον, 63 Λέγοντες, Κύριε, ἐμνήσθημεν ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ὁ πλάνος εἶπεν ἔτι ζῶν, Μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἐγείρομαι 64 Κέλευσον οὖν ἀσφαλισθῆναι τὸν τάφον ἕως τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας· μήποτε ἐλθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς κλέψωσιν αὐτὸν, καὶ εἴπωσι τῷ λαῷ, Ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν· καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἐσχάτη πλάνη χείρων τῆς πρώτης

 

Matthew 27:62-64

62"Now the next day that followed the day of the preparation, the-οἱ (oi)-the) chief Priests-ἀρχιερεῖς (archiereis)-chief priest, high priest) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) Pharisees-Φαρισαῖοι (Pharisaioi)-a separatist, i.e. exclusively religious; a Pharisean, i.e. Jewish sectary:—Pharisee) came together-συνήχθησαν (sunechthesan)-to gather together, to gather, (i.e. come together) unto Pilate, 63 Saying, Sir-Κύριε (Kurie)-Sir, (as an title of honour), we remember-ἐμνήσθημεν (emnesthemen)-to remember, call to mind, recollect) that that *deceiver-πλάνος (planos)-leader astray, deceiver, (by implication: an impostor or misleader; -deceiver, seducing) said, while he was yet alive-ζῶν (zon)-to live, breathe, lively), After-Μετὰ (Meta)-after) three-τρεῖς (treis)-trice; a primary (plural) number; "three":—three) days-ἡμέρας (hemeras)-days) I will rise again-ἐγείρομαι (egeiromai)-to lift or rise up)64 Command-κέλευσον (keleuson)-to call to, urge on, command, bid (i.e. to command, to order) therefore that the sepulchre be made sure-ἀσφαλισθῆναι (asphalisthenai)-to make safe, secure, (to render secure:—make fast (sure), until the third day, lest his disciples-μαθηταὶ (mathetai)-a learner, pupil, disciple) come by night, *and steal him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) away-κλέψωσιν (klepsosin)-to steal, to filch (i.e. take away by stealth), and say-εἴπωσιν (eiposin)-to speak, say, tell) unto the people, He is risen-Ἠγέρθη (Egerthe)-to lift or rise up) from-ἀπὸ (apo)-from, away from) the-τῶν (ton)-the) dead-νεκρῶν (nekron)-dead, (i.e. deceased): so the-(he)-the) last-ἐσχάτη (eschate)-last, (i.e. the latter) error-πλάνη (plane)-wandering, delusion, deceit) shall be-ἔσται (estai)-to be, (i.e. will be) *worse than-χείρων (cheiron)-worse, sorer) the-τῆς (tes)-of the) first-πρώτης (prothes)-former, before, first)."

  • *example of Greek word: πλάνος (planos)-deceiver click: 2 John 1:7

  • * example of G2813: (κλέψωσιν-and steal away) click: Matthew 6:19 (κλέπτουσιν-steal)

  • * example of Greek word: χείρων (cheiron)-worse than click: 1 Timothy 5:8

 

  • came together-συνήχθησαν: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, PluralNow the next day that followed the day of the preparation, the chief Priests and Pharisees ["WERE-TOGETHER-LED"//"were-gathered"]  unto Pilate, Saying,

  • Sir-Κύριε: Noun, Vocative, Singular, Masculine: ["sir!"],

  • we remember-ἐμνήσθημεν: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural["WE-ARE-REMINDED"] that that deceiver said, while he was yet

  • alive-ζῶν: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["LIVING"], After three days

  • I will rise again-ἐγείρομαι: Verb, Present, Passive, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular["I-SHALL-BE-beING-ROUSED"].

  • Command-κέλευσον: Verb, Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular["ORDER"//"order-you!"] therefore that the sepulchre

  • be made sure-ἀσφαλισθῆναι: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Infinitive["to-be-secured"], until the third day, lest his disciples come by night,

  • and steal away-κλέψωσιν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural["SHOULD-BE-stealING"] him, and 

  • say-εἴπωσιν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural["THEY-MAY-BE-sayING"] unto the people,

  • He is risen-Ἠγέρθη: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular["He-WAS-ROUSED"] from the dead: so the last error

  • shall be-ἔσται: Verb, Future, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE"] worse than the first.

the-οἱ (oi)-the) chief Priests-ἀρχιερεῖς (archiereis)-chief priest, high priest) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) Pharisees-Φαρισαῖοι (Pharisaioi)-a separatist, i.e. exclusively religious; a Pharisean, i.e. Jewish sectary:—Pharisee):

    The chief priests and Pharisees, remembering that Jesus had predicted his own resurrection more than once, came to the governor and informed him of it begging that a guard might be ordered to the sepulchre, lest the disciples should carry his body away and affirm that he was risen from the dead. But they took this measure [action] not on the morrow [the following day], in our sense of the word, but in the evening [that same evening], after sunsetting, when the Jewish sabbath was begun, and when they understood the body was buried.-(Benson).

    these were the inveterate and implacable enemies of Christ; they took counsel how to put him to death; they employed Judas to betray him, and sent a band of soldiers with him to take him; they suborned false witnesses against him; they moved the people to prefer Barabbas to him; they got him condemned to death, and followed him to the cross, where they mocked him; and still, like the troubled sea, they were restless and uneasy; for though he was dead, they feared his resurrection; and though they could not prevent the thing, they consult to hinder the credit of it.-(Gill).

   ***Pharisees-Φαρισαίων: the largest of the three or four Jewish sects; noted for their self conceit and long prayers; paid unnecessary tithes, fasted often, held to traditions [of men], made broad their phylacteries.  

deceiver-πλάνος (planos)-leader astray, deceiver, (by implication: an impostor or misleader; -deceiver, seducing)

    Meaning Jesus; for no better name could they give him alive or dead, and they chose to continue it; and the rather to use it before Pilate, who had a good opinion of his innocence; and to let him see, that they still retained the same sentiments of him: "a deceiver".-(Gill).

    They had used the cognate verb of Him before (John 7:12), and this was, perhaps, their usual way of speaking of Him.-(Ellicott).

    That impostor, who has become so famous, and whom you know all about. They imply that without further definition, Pilate understands whom they mean; and their calumnies and reviling cease not even with their Victim's death.-(Pulpit).

After-Μετὰ (Meta)-after) three-τρεῖς (treis)-trice; a primary (plural) number; "three":—three) days-ἡμέρας (hemeras)-days) I will rise again-ἐγείρομαι (egeiromai)-to lift or rise up): 

    This they probably took from his [Jesus] saying, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will build it up [John 2:19]... Neither the devil nor his servants ever speak truth, but when they expect to accomplish some bad purpose by it.-(Clarke).

    They [the Scribes and Pharisees] remembered suddenly the words of the Lord, showing how they had watched His utterances. The disciples to whom He [Jesus] had said so often that He would rise on the third day, had forgotten all about it. It did not enter into their minds...Their imaginations could not produce, as infidelity has claimed, a supposed appearing of the One who had died. But the enemy remembered. Yet could they [the Scribes and Pharisees] really fear that His [Jesus's] disciples would steal His body? The disciples had been scattered like sheep. Poor Peter, where was he? They had fled. Would the feeble women roll the stone away and steal His body? Could they think that fraud and deception might be practiced? It was the bad conscience which made them [the Scribes and Pharisees] fear. Pilate made no objections; he let them have their desire. The stone is sealed, the guard is placed there to make fraud and illusion an impossibility.-(Gaebelein).

and steal him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) away-κλέψωσιν (klepsosin)-to steal, to filch (i.e. take away by stealth)

    lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away: "but of this there was no danger; they [the disciples] were too fearful and timorous [shrinking] to do such an action, had they been ever so much inclined to it; they all forsook him and fled immediately upon his apprehension; nor durst any of them appear at the time of his crucifixion, but John; and were now shut up [hiding] for fear of the Jews; and besides, they had forgot what Christ said to them [the disciples] about his resurrection, though these men [the Scribes and Pharisees] remembered it, and even [the disciples] disbelieved it when it was told them [by Jesus]..."-(Gill).

    They sealed the stone, and set a guard, and were satisfied that all needful care was taken. But to guard the sepulchre against the poor weak disciples was folly, because needless; while to think to guard it against the power of God, was folly, because fruitless, and to no purpose; yet they thought they dealt wisely. But the Lord took the wise in their own craftiness.-(Matthew H.).

the-(he)-the) last-ἐσχάτη (eschate)-last, (i.e. the latter) error-πλάνη (plane)-wandering, delusion, deceit) shall be-ἔσται (estai)-to be, (i.e. will be) worse than-χείρων (cheiron)-worse, sorer) the-τῆς (tes)-of the) first-πρώτης (prothes)-former, before, first):

   That is, the last "deception," or the taking [stealing] him [the body of Jesus] from the tomb, pretending that he rose, will have a wider influence among the people than the first, or [that is,] his pretending to be the Messiah.-(Barnes)

   The last error, namely, the false impression that he has risen from the dead, will be worse than the first error - the impression made by his impostures that he was the Messiah.-(Vincent).

    so the last error shall be worse than the first—the imposture of His pretended resurrection worse than that of His pretended Messiahship.-(Jamieson F.B.).

    The last error...the first. "Error" is πλάνη, as they had called Christ πλάνος (ver. 63 - ["deceiver"]), so the word here may be taken actively, as meaning "imposture." The deception arising from his death and supposed resurrection would be of graver consequence than that concerned with his previous life [i.e. him being called the Son of God; the anointed saviour of the world].

Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
65 ἔφη δὲ αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος Ἔχετε κουστωδίαν· ὑπάγετε ἀσφαλίσασθε ὡς οἴδατε

 

Matthew 27:65

 65 "Pilate said unto them, Ye have-Ἔχετε (Echete)-to have) a watch-κουστωδίαν (koustodian)-a guard of soldiers (Lat. custodia), (i.e. a Roman sentry:—watch), go your way-ὑπάγετε (hupagete)-to withdraw one's self, to go away, depart), make it as sure-ἀσφαλίσασθε (asphalisasthe)-to make safe, secure, (to render secure:—make fast (sure) as-ὡς (hos)-as, like, (i.e. in the manner that/of) ye can-οἴδατε (oidate)-know or understand how)."

  • Ye have-Ἔχετε: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, PluralPilate said unto them, ["YE-ARE-HAVING"] a watch,

  • go your way-ὑπάγετε: Verb, Present, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["be-ye-going-away!"],

  • make it as sure-ἀσφαλίσασθε: Verb, Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["secure-ye!"] as

  • ye can-οἴδατε: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-HAVE-PERCEIVED"].

***The guards had already acted under orders of the Sanhedrim, with Pilate's consent; but probably they were not clear about employing them as a night watch without Pilate's express authority. go your way, make it as sure as ye can—as ye know how, or in the way ye deem securest.-(Jamieson FB).

Beza Greek New Testament 1598
1 ΚΑῚ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου, Μαρία Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα, ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν 2 Καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον, ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου

 

Mark 16:1-2

1"And when the-τοῦ (tou)-the) Sabbath-σαββάτου (sabbatou)-sabbath, (i.e. Shabbath), or day of weekly repose from secular avocations) was past-διαγενομένου  (diagenomenou)-to come through or past, (i.e. elapsed, be spent), Mary Magdalene-Μαρία Μαγδαληνὴ (Maria Magdalene)-"a tower", (a female Magdalene, i.e. inhabitant of Magdala:—Magdalene), and Mary-Μαρία (Maria)-the mother of James the less and Joses, the wife of Clopas (or Alphaeus) and sister of the mother of Jesus) the mother of James-Ἰακώβου (Iakobou)-"supplanter", (James the little (A.V. the less), the son of Mary), and Salome-Σαλώμη (Salome)-"peaceful", (the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of the apostles James the elder and John), had bought-ἠγόρασαν (egorasan)-to use the market place, (properly: to go to market, i.e. (by implication) to purchase) sweet spices-ἀρώματα (aromata)-aroma, very fragrant), that they might come-ἐλθοῦσαι (elethousai)-to come) *and anoint-ἀλείψωσιν (aleipsosain)-to anoint, (to oil (with perfume):—anoint) him-αὐτόν (auton)-him). 2 And very early in the morning, the the-τῆς (tes)-of the) first day-μιᾶς (mias)-first) of the week-σαββάτων (sabbaton)-a week, (from sabbath to sabbath), (i.e. the first day after the sabbath) they came-ἔρχονται (erchontai)-to come) unto the sepulchre-μνημεῖον (mnemeion)-monument, sepulchre, tomb, grave) at the rising-ἀνατείλαντος (anateilantos)-to rise or spring up) of the sun:"

  • *example of G218: (ἀλείψωσιν-and anoint) click: James 5:14 (ἀλείψαντες-anointing)

  • when was past-διαγενομένου: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Neuter: And ["of-elapsing"] the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome,

  • had bought-ἠγόρασαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["BUY"] sweet spices, that

  • they might come-ἐλθοῦσαι: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle,  Nominative, Plural, Feminine: ["COMING"]

  • and anoint-ἀλείψωσιν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle,  Nominative, Plural, Feminine: ["THEY-SHOULD-BE-RUBBING"]  him. And very early in the morning, the the first of the week 

  • they came-ἔρχονται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-ARE-COMING"] unto the sepulchre

  • at the rising-ἀνατείλαντος: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Masculine: ["OF-UP-rising"] of the sun:

when the-τοῦ (tou)-the) Sabbath-σαββάτου (sabbatou)-sabbath, (i.e. Shabbath), or day of weekly repose from secular avocations) was past-διαγενομένου  (diagenomenou)-to come through or past, (i.e. elapsed, be spent):

   or "In the end of it", not "when it was the sabbath",  for it was not lawful to buy spices, and anoint with on the sabbath day.-(Gill).

   This would be early Sunday morning.

and anoint-ἀλείψωσιν (aleipsosain)-to anoint, (to oil (with perfume):—anoint) him-αὐτόν (auton)-him): 

    anoint him; with those sweet spices, as was the manner of the Jews: hence we read (e) of, , "the spices of the dead"; which were used to expel an ungrateful savour: this they [these women] did, out of affection to Christ, but seemed to have no faith in his resurrection, though he [Jesus] had [fore]told them of it [his resurrection], which they had forgot. The Vulgate Latin reads, "that they might anoint Jesus"; the Ethiopic version, "anoint his body": but the Arabic thus, "anoint the sepulchre"-(Gill).

    These Galilean women, who had waited on Jesus in his last moments, and attended his body to the sepulchre, observing that his funeral rites were performed in haste, (the body being rolled in nothing but a mixture of myrrh and aloes, brought by Nicodemus, John 19:39,) agreed among themselves to come, when the sabbath was passed, and embalm their dead Lord, by anointing and swathing him in a proper manner.-(Benson).

    Anoint him - Embalm him, or apply these spices to his body to keep it from putrefaction. This is proof that they did not suppose he would rise again; and the fact that they did not "expect" he would rise, gives more strength to the evidence for his resurrection.-(Barnes).

the-τῆς (tes)-of the) first day-μιᾶς (mias)-first) of the week-σαββάτων (sabbaton)-a week, (from sabbath to sabbath), (i.e. the first day after the sabbath):

    they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun—not quite literally, but "at earliest dawn"; according to a way of speaking not uncommon, and occurring sometimes in the Old Testament. Thus our Lord rose on the third day; having lain in the grave part of Friday, the whole of Saturday, and part of the following First day.-(Jamieson).

The Resurrection

Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
 2  καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας. ἄγγελος γὰρ Κυρίου καταβὰς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, προσελθὼν ἀπεκύλισε τὸν λίθον ἀπὸ τῆς θύρας, καὶ ἐκάθητο ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ

5 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπε ταῖς γυναιξί, Μὴ φοβεῖσθε ὑμεῖς· οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον ζητεῖτε 6 οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε· ἠγέρθη γὰρ, καθὼς εἶπε· δεῦτε, ἴδετε τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἔκειτο ὁ Κύριος

 

Matthew 28:2 & Matthew 28:5-6

2 "And, behold-ἰδού (idou)-lo!; --behold, lo, see), there //was (Or, had bin) *a great-μέγας (megas)-great, (equivalent to: mighty, strong) earthquake-σεισμὸς (seismos)-a shaking), for the Angel-ἄγγελος (aggelos)-a messenger, (envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger) of the Lord-Κυρίου (Kuriou)-Lord, (supreme in authority, i.e. (as noun) controller; by implication: Master) *descended-καταβὰς (katabas)-to go down, come down, descend) from heaven, and came-προσελθὼν (proselthon)-to come to, approach) and rolled back-ἀπεκύλισε (apekulise)-to roll off or away) the stone-λίθον (lithon)-a stone) from the door, and sat upon it."

5 "And the angel answered, and said unto the women, Fear-φοβεῖσθε (phobeisthe)-to cause fear, terrify) not-Μὴ (Me)-no, not least) ye: for I know-οἶδα (oida)-to see, have seen, known) that ye seek-ζητεῖτε (zeteite)-to seek, desire, require, (i.e. to seek in order to find) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind), which was crucified-ἐσταυρωμένον (estauromenon)-to crucify, (i.e. to impale on the cross, to stake, drive down stakes).