Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: “For God so loved-ἠγάπησεν (egapesen)-to love, (i.e. have concern for, hold in esteem, love) the world, that he gave-ἔδωκεν (edoken)-to give) his only begotten-μονογενῆ (monogene)-only-born, chief) Son, that-ἵνα (hina)-in order that) whosoever-πᾶς ὁ (pas ho)-everyone that) believeth-πιστεύων (pisteuon)-to adhere to, trust, rely on) in-εἰς (eis)-into) him, should not-μὴ (me)-no, not) perish-ἀπόληται (apoletai)-to loose, loose away, destroy, (to destroy fully (reflexively: to perish, or lose)), but have-ἔχῃ (eche)-to have) everlasting-αἰώνιον (aionion)-age-lasting, (i.e. eternal, for ever)) life.”
believeth-πιστεύων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["one-BELIEVING"]
1. Jesus Christ
"All men were lost and undone, dead and ruined, slaves to sin, having no power to deliver themselves, and must have remained thus miserable for ever, if Christ had not died."- Matthew Henry
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root word, but not the same Parsing / Inflection.
Open Bracket [(abc)] : My commentary insert/input.
StudyLight.org: SL (click on to see commentary page)
BibleHub.com: BH (click on to see commentary page)
The Lord's Betrayal.
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
1 Πρὸ δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς τοῦ πάσχα, εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἐλήλυθεν αὐτοῦ ἡ ὥρα ἵνα μεταβῇ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, ἀγαπήσας τοὺς ἰδίους τοὺς ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, εἰς τέλος ἠγάπησεν αὐτούς.
1 "Now before the feast-ἑορτῆς (heortes)-feast, festival) of the Passover-πάσχα (pascha)-passover, (i.e. the paschal festival, the feast of Passover)), when Jesus-Ἰησοῦς (Iesous)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)) knew-εἰδὼς (eidos)-to see, have seen, known) that his hour-ὥρα (hora)-hour, time) was come-ἐλήλυθεν (elelethen)-to come), that *he should depart-μεταβῇ (metabe)-to go after, away or back) out of-ἐκ (ek)-out of, away from) this world-κόσμου (kosmou)-arrangement, beauty, adorning, (orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication: the world)) unto-πρὸς (pros)-toward) the Father-πατέρα (papera)-Father, (God is called the Father)), having loved-ἀγαπήσας (agapesas)-to love) his own which were in the world-κόσμῳ (kosmo)-arrangement, beauty, world, (i.e. decoration; by implication, the world (particularly the inhabitants of the earth, men, the human race)), he loved-ἠγάπησεν (egapesen)-to love) them unto the end-τέλος (telos)-end)."
*example of Greek word: μεταβῇ (metabe)-he should depart click: Matthew 8:34
knew-εἰδὼς: Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus ["being-aware"] that his hour
was come-ἐλήλυθεν: Verb, Second-Perfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["HAS-COME"], that
he should depart-μεταβῇ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-MAY-BE-after-STEPPING"//"he-may-be-proceeding"] out of this world unto the Father,
having loved-ἀγαπήσας: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["LOVing"] his own which were in the world,
he loved-ἠγάπησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-LOVES"] them unto the end.
***The Last Supper John 13:1 to John 17:26 gives us the story of the Last Supper between Jesus and His twelve apostles in which the Lord gives a lengthy discourse to prepare His disciples for His departure. During this discourse Jesus will explain how His Passion-[(i.e. cruxifition)] will be a fulfillment of two Old Testament prophecies. Otherwise, the theme of the contents of His teachings is about His departure and glorification in order to prepare His disciples for the things that are about to take place.-(Gary H. Everett's). SL
The word "world" (Gr. cosmos) is an important one in this section of the Gospel where it appears about 40 times (ch. 13-17). The world represents the mass of lost humanity out of which Jesus has called His disciples and from which He would depart shortly when He returned to heaven. Jesus loved His own who believed on Him who would remain in the world. He loved them to the end (Gr. eis telos) or utmost, the demonstration of which was His sacrificial death on the cross. "The end" can also refer to the end of Jesus’ earthly life, though this interpretation seems less fitting. Jesus’ realization that His hour had come (John 12:23) led Him to prepare His disciples for that hour and what it would mean for them. The double emphasis on love sets the tone for the whole Upper Room Discourse.-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
***Knowing that his hour was come ... Christ was fully aware, throughout his ministry, of the Father's ordering of all of his steps and was fully conscious that the moment of his offering upon the cross was at hand. He loved them unto the end ... might also be rendered, "unto the uttermost." See the marginal reading. The true meaning probably includes both thoughts. It was the great love of Jesus for his own that motivated his supreme act of giving himself up to die for the remission of sins.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
***When Jesus knew that his hour was come . . .—He knew during the course of His earthly work that His hour was not yet come, and again and again declared this. (Comp. Note on John 2:4; John 7:6; John 11:9.) Now He knows with equal certainty that the hour is at hand that He should depart unto the Father. Having loved his own which were in the world . . .—By “his own” are here meant those who by believing on Him had received power to become the sons of God; those who by walking according as they had light were becoming sons of light. They are the true members, of the family of God. (Ellicott's Commentary). SL
***unto the end] The end of His life is the common interpretation, which may be right Comp. Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13, where the same Greek expression is translated as it is here; and 1 Thessalonians 2:16, where it is translated ‘to the uttermost.’ In Luke 18:5 ‘continual coming’ is literally ‘coming to the end.’ In all these passages the meaning may either be ‘at the last, finally,’ or, ‘to the uttermost, utterly.’ To the uttermost is perhaps to be preferred here. -(Cambridge BSC). BH
***Jesus having loved his own he loved them to the end, by communing with them in the last supper, by washing their feet, and by unfolding the plenitude of glory and grace in his valedictory address. What could the Saviour do more. Money he had none to give; but he gave his life a ransom for their souls. What melting words are these, This is my body; this is my blood of the new testament. Oh Redeemer, was ever love like thine?-(Sutcliffe's Commentary). SL
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
2 Καὶ δείπνου γενομένου, (τοῦ διαβόλου ἤδη βεβληκότος εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Ἰούδας Σίμωνος, Ἰσκαριώτου, ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδῷ)
2 "And supper-δείπνου (deipnou)-supper, evening meal) being ended-γενομένου (genomenou)-to become) (the devil-διαβόλου (diabolou)-devil, slander, false accuser, a calumniator, (namely: Satan)) having now-ἤδη (ede)-already) put-βεβληκότος (beblekotos)-to cast, throw) into the heart-καρδίαν (kardian)- the heart, i.e. (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind)) of Judas-Ἰούδα (Iouda)-one of the Disciples of Jesus, who betrayed him) Iscariot Simon's son to *betray-παραδῷ (parado)-to give up over to another, deliver (over, up)) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him, (namely: Jesus).)"
*example of Greek word: παραδῷ (parado)-betray click: Luke 22:4 (he might betray)
being ended-γενομένου: Verb, Second-Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Neuter: And supper ["BECOMING"] (the devil
having now-ἤδη: ADVerb: ["ALREADY"]
put-βεβληκότος:Verb, Perfect, Active, Participle, Genitive, Singular, Masculine: ["HAVING-CAST"] into the heart of Judas Iscariot Simon's son to
betray-παραδῷ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-BESIDE-GIVING"//"he-may-be-giving-up"] him.)
***The devil ... The great protagonist of evil on earth is a person, called here the devil, and identified as Satan throughout the Bible. He is a being of supernatural power but is himself a creature and does not share control of the universe with God. Satan has the power to suggest and motivate evil deeds, as here; but this power is effective only in those souls who have consented to evil domination. Judas had already consented to sin and readily became the instrument of Satan through an act of his own volition-[(determination)]. CONCERNING JUDAS ISCARIOT- Judas was named one of the Twelve by Jesus and, along with the others, was commissioned to "heal the sick and raise the dead" (Matthew 10:7); and it must therefore be inferred that at the time of his call Judas was not evil. However, by the time of the great defection recorded in John 6, Judas had fallen. -(Coffman Commentary). SL
***supper being ended ] There are two readings here, but neither of them means ‘being ended,’ moreover the supper is not ended ( verse. 26). The common reading would mean ‘supper having begun,’ and the better reading, ‘when supper was at hand,’ or, ‘when supper was beginning.’-(Cambridge Greek Testament). SL
***supper being ended—rather, "being prepared," "being served," or, "going on"; for that it was not "ended" is plain from Joh 13:26. the devil having now—or, "already." put into the heart of Judas … to betray him—referring to the agreement he had already made with the chief priests (Luke 22:3-6).-(Jamiesson Fausset Brown). BH
***the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas, &c., for the participle βεβληκοτος is of the perfect tense, and denotes an action done at some time past, and the particle ηδη, rendered now, often signifies already, or before:..."-(Benson Commentary). BH
***Having now put it into the heart - Literally, having cast it into the heart. Compare Ephesians 6:16; "The fiery darts of the wicked." See Acts 5:3; Luke 22:3. The meaning of this passage is that Satan inclined the mind of Judas to do this, or he tempted him to betray his Master. We know not precisely how this was done, but we know that it was by means of his avarice. Satan could tempt no one unless there was some inclination of the mind, some natural or depraved propensity-[(i.e. inclination/readiness)] that he could make use of. He presents objects in alluring forms fitted to that propensity, and under the influence of a strong or a corrupt inclination the soul yields to sin. In the case of Judas it was the love of money; and it was necessary to present to him only the possibility of obtaining money, and it found him ready for any crime."-(Barnes' Notes). BH
***The devil having now put it into the heart — Judas formed his plot six days before this, on occasion of what happened at the house of Simon the leper: see Matthew 26:14. Calmet.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
10 Καὶ ὁ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης, εἷς τῶν δώδεκα ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς ἵνα παραδῷ αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς
10 "And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went-ἀπῆλθεν (apelthen)-to go away, depart) unto-πρὸς (pros)-toward) the chief Priests-ἀρχιερεῖς (archiereis)-chief priest, high priest:—plural, (literally: of the Jews)), to-ἵνα (hina)-in order that) betray-παραδῷ (parado)-to give up over to another) him unto them."
*example of Greek word: παραδῷ (parado)-betray click: Mark 14:11
went-ἀπῆλθεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, ["FROM-CAME"] unto the chief Priests, to
betray-παραδῷ: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-MAY-BE-BESIDE-GIVING"//"he-may-be-giving-up"] him unto them.
***Then - Judas — After this supper at Bethany, Judas returned to Jerusalem, and made his contract with the chief priests.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them—that is, to make his proposals, and to bargain with them, as appears from Matthew's fuller statement (Matthew 26:14, 15) which says, he "went unto the chief priests, and said, What will ye give me, and I will deliver Him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver." The thirty pieces of silver were thirty shekels, the fine paid for man- or maid-servant accidentally killed (Exodus 21:32), and equal to between four and five pounds sterling—"a goodly price that I was prized at of them!" (Zechariah 11:13).-(Jamieson Fausset Brown). BH
***went unto the chief priests] Full of such thoughts, in the darkness of the night he repaired from Bethany to Jerusalem, and being admitted into the council of the chief priests asked what they would give him for betraying his Master into their hands.-(Cambridge BSC). BH
***One of the twelve, a man named Judas, was guilty of betraying Jesus. Thirty pieces of silver is the price he received to betray the Son of God. Judas "sought opportunity to betray Him." ( Mat_26:16 ) Mat_26:24 says, "The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! It had been good for that man if he had not been born." Many people today will do the same thing that Judas did. They will sell out their Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, for a short-lived piece of this world's goods.-(Charles Box's Commentary). SL
***The betrayal follows immediately after the anointing by Mary-[(Matthew 26:6-13)]. We may suppose that the other disciples who had murmured on account of this waste of the ointment, were brought to their senses by our Lord's rebuke, and felt its force. But with Judas the case was very different. The rebuke, which had a salutary effect on them, only served to harden him. He had lost one opportunity of gain; he would seek another. In his cupidity and wickedness he resolves to betray his Master, and sell him to the Jews. So while the chief priests were plotting how they might destroy him, they found an apt and unexpected instrument for their purpose in one of his own disciples. Judas came to them, and the vile and hateful bargain was concluded. It marks the tremendous iniquity of the transaction that it was "one of the twelve" who betrayed him—not one of the seventy, but one of those who were in the closest intimacy and nearness to him.-(The Pulpit Commentaries). SL
What a contrast between the woman-[(Mary)] and Judas! Judas was also at the anointing. He saw it and was disturbed by it. He has also heard how the Lord has spoken of both the anointing and their reproach. However, he does not care about anything. Money is the only thing he can think of. He considers the moment to have come to leave the circle of the Lord’s company. He who is one of the twelve, seeks another company, that of the Lord’s enemies. He is not looking for their company because he feels more at home there, but because there is money to be made. He offers to hand over Christ to the company and negotiates it with them. This is downright astonishing. A man who has been journeying with the Savior for so long, who has heard and seen so much of Him, wants to use Him as an object of trade to enrich himself.-(Kingcomments on the Whole Bible). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
15 εἶπε, Τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι, κἀγὼ ὑμῖν παραδώσω αὐτόν; οἱ δὲ ἔστησαν αὐτῷ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια.
15 "And said-εἶπε (eipe)-to speak, say, tell) unto them, What will ye-θέλετέ (thelete)-to will, have in mind, intend, (i.e. to be resolved or determined, to purpose) give-δοῦναι (dounai)-to give) me, and I will deliver-παραδώσω (paradoso)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) him unto you? And they covenanted-ἔστησαν (hestesan)-to set, establish, appoint, (i.e. weighed out) with him for thirty pieces of silver-ἀργύρια (arguria)-silver, money, (specifically: a silver coin, silver-piece)."
And said-εἶπε: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["said"] unto them, What
will ye-θέλετέ: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-ARE-WILLING"]
give-δοῦναι: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-GIVE"] me, and I
will deliver-παραδώσω: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["SHALL-BE-BESIDE-GIVING"//"shall-be-giving-up] him unto you? And
they covenanted-ἔστησαν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["STAND"//"they-weigh"] with him for thirty pieces of silver.
“And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver” Comments - The significance of the value of thirty pieces of silver that the priests arrived at is that it matches the value that the Jews gave to slaves under the Law. Note: Exodus 21:32, -(Gary H. Everett's Study Notes). SL
***what will ye give me, and I will deliver him to you?:They [(the chief Priests)] did not ask him [(Judas)] to do it [(i.e. to deliver Jesus)], he [(Judas)] first made the motion; a barbarous and shocking one! to deliver his Lord and Master,..."-(Gill's Exposition). BH
***What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? There is no disguise in this vile question. Judas unblushingly reveals his base motive in offering such a bargain; and to enhance its value he, as it were, forces his personality into prominence; as if he had said, "I who am his trusted adherent, I who know all his haunts and habits, will do this thing."-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
***They covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.—The reward was relatively a small one, apparently about the market-price of a common slave (Zechariah 11:12); but the chief priests (Caiaphas and his fellows) saw through the sordid baseness of the man [(i.e. Judas)], and, as if scorning both his Master [(Jesus)] and himself [(Judas)], gauged [(estimated)] their reward
accordingly [(i.e. thirty pieces of silver)]."-(Ellicott's Commentary). BH
***They covenanted- Luke says “they were glad.” They could now apprehend Jesus in a private way, and without the “uproar” mentioned in verse fifth [(Matthew 26:5)]. Thirty pieces of silver- The ordinary price of a slave, being about fifteen dollars. Thus was verified the allusion of Zechariah 11:12: “So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver.” The sum appears trifling for the treason, if we estimate it by the immense consequences. But, after all, the whole service Judas did was to inform the foes of Jesus where he might be found and taken without tumult, and guide them to the place.-(Whedon's Commentaries). SL
***What will you give me? He knew they wanted to seize Jesus, and he offers to lead them to him for a price. Thirty silver coins. This makes Zechariah 11:12 come true. [Silver shekels, each worth about $26 in 1974 dollars.] Joseph was sold for twenty silver coins (Genesis 37:28).-(The Bible Study New Testament). SL
***Matthew indicates that Judas proposed the betrayal and that the priests named the amount they would pay. Luke's use of the word "covenanted" (Luke 22:5) indicates some haggling over the price, which was promptly paid in advance in cash on the spot, once agreement had been reached. It surely seems almost incredible that those priests who were supposed to know so much Scripture could have been so oblivious to the prophecy of Zechariah that they should have exactly fulfilled it, matching to the penny the Messiah's betrayal price as set forth by that prophet! Zechariah wrote: And I said unto them, If ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver. And the Lord said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the Lord (Zechariah 11:12,/13). This is far more than a prophecy; it is a whole constellation of prophecies. Note the following: 1. There will be haggling over the price (if not, forbear). 2. The sum agreed upon will be 30 pieces of silver. 3. It will be weighed out. 4. It will be cast unto the potter. 5. "Cast" indicates it will be thrown. 6. The potter will eventually receive it. 7. The recipient will do the casting. 8. The whole transaction will occur in the temple (the house of the Lord). Even a casual student of the New Testament knows that every detail of that remarkable group of prophecies was fulfilled exactly, not by any of Jesus' friends trying to impose evidence that he was the Messiah, but by his sworn enemies. In fact, most of the wonderful prophecies of Jesus were fulfilled, not by friends, but by his enemies. Who can doubt that a Power above and beyond those evil men shaped their deeds to God's pattern, using their sinful deeds to accomplish his own divine purpose? "Without our being aware of it, our fingers are so guided that a pattern is created when the thread gets caught in the web!" -(Coffman Commentaries). SL
***Of course the thirty pieces of silver was a price that was predicted in prophecy in the Old Testament in the book of Zechariah chapter eleven, verses twelve and thirteen. And then it was told also by Zechariah that the silver would be cast down in the house of the Lord, and used to buy a potter's field. Thirty pieces of silver was the price that you would have to pay to your neighbor if you had an ox who was always goring people, or going around butting people with his horns, and he happened to gore your neighbor's servant and killed him. You would have to pay your neighbor thirty pieces of silver for his gored slave, in order to compensate him for the lost of his servant.-(Chuck Smith). SL
***". . . tragically, Judas, in selling his services to the chief priests to betray Jesus, unwittingly acts in a manner that is the exact opposite of ’servanthood’: Jesus is the servant par excellence, for he delivers himself to death in order that others might gain life; by contrast, Judas delivers Jesus to death in order that he might gain advantage for himself . . ." [Note: Kingsbury, Matthew as . . ., p. 143.]-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
3 Ὁ οὖν Ἰούδας, λαβὼν τὴν σπεῖραν καὶ ἐκ τῶν Ἀρχιερέων καὶ Φαρισαίων ὑπηρέτας, ἔρχεται ἐκεῖ μετὰ φανῶν καὶ λαμπάδων καὶ ὅπλων.
3 "Judas then having received-λαβὼν (labon)-to take, receive) a band of men-σπεῖραν (speiran)-band, body of men at arms, (i.e. detachment, of soldiers)), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) officers-ὑπηρέτας (huperetas)-an under rower, assistant, (properly: an under rower, subordinate rower:—servant, minister)) from-ἐκ (ek)-out of) the chief Priests and Pharisees-Φαρισαίων (pharisaion)-from Heb. separate), cometh-ἔρχεται (erchetai)-to come, (i.e. to come from one place into another)) thither-ἐκεῖ (ekei)-there, thither) with lanterns-φανῶν (phanon)-a light, flambeau, lantern, (i.e. a lightener)) and *torches-λαμπάδων (lampadon)-a lamp, torch, shining light), and weapons-ὅπλων (hoplon)-arms, instruments, armour (i.e. arms used in warfare, weapons))."
*example of Greek word: λαμπάδων (lampadon)-torches click: Matthew 25:4 (lamps)
having received-λαβὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Judas then ["GETTING"] a band of men, and officers from the chief Priests and Pharisees,
cometh-ἔρχεται: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-COMING"] thither with lanterns and torches, and weapons.
***Judas then having received a band of men,.... "From the captain of this band, who in John 18:12; is called a "Chiliarch", that is, a commander of a thousand men, one might conclude there were so many in this band; but it seems, that such an officer might have two bands under his command; and if this was, the case, there were at least five hundred men in this company; a large number indeed, to take an unarmed person; and yet, as if this was not sufficient, it is added, and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees; servants that belong to each of these, and who seem to be a considerable number also; for these are said to be "a great multitude"; Matthew 26:47; nay, not only so, but the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders of the people, were themselves among them, Luke 22:52; to see that the men did their work, and did not return without him; as these officers, when sent by them once before, did: cometh thither with lanterns, and torches, and weapons".-(Gill's Exposition). BH
***With lanterns and torches — With these they had intended to search the corners and caverns, provided Christ had hidden himself; for they could not have needed them for any other purpose, it being now the fourteenth day of the moon's age, in the month Nisan, and consequently she appeared full and bright. The weapons mentioned here were probably no other than clubs, staves, and instruments of that kind, as we may gather from Matthew 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 22:52. The swords mentioned by the other evangelists were probably those of the Roman soldiers; the clubs and staves belonged to the chief priest's officers.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***Band of soldiers ... The word means "cohort," indicating a contingent of several hundred men. The soldiers were a part of the garrison of the tower of Antonio, headquarters of the Roman military presence in the city. Officers from the chief priests and Pharisees ... The soldiers were accompanied by a detachment of the temple guard. This marshaling of a military expedition against Jesus for the purpose of arresting him was as ridiculous as it was unnecessary. Lanterns and torches ... Matthew and Mark mentioned the weapons but not the lanterns and torches. Despite the moon's being full (it was the Passover), the arresting party came prepared to search the dark recesses of the garden with its olive trees [(i.e. where Jesus and his Disciples were)].-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
***A band of men— This band consisted of Roman soldiers; for both its name, σπειρα, a cohort, and the title of its commander, χιλιαρχος, (John 18:12.) Chiliarch, answering to our colonel, are Roman military terms. The word rendered officers, υπηρετας, properly signifies servants. They carried lanterns and torches with them, because, though it was always full-moon at the passover, the sky might be darkened by the clouds, and the place where they were going was shaded with trees.-(Thomas Coke Commentary). SL
Judas also, who betrayed him, was familiar with this garden where Jesus often went. Having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, they came out with their torches and lanterns and weapons ( John 18:2-3 ). The band, that word in the Greek indicates a Roman contingent of either what was known as a cohort, six hundred and fifty men, or they also had an enlarged cohort, which was a thousand men comprised of two hundred and seventy cavalry men, plus the footmen, or at the least two hundred men. Now, it is interesting that they would bring such a large number of Roman soldiers along with the officers of the temple to arrest Jesus with His twelve. Why they thought they needed that many is interesting.-(Chuck Smith). SL
Only John mentioned the presence of Roman soldiers. A Roman cohort (Lat. cohors) normally consisted of 600 soldiers. However sometimes the Greek word speira, translated "cohort" or "detachment," referred to a smaller group of only 200 men. [Note: Carson, The Gospel . . ., p. 577.] John did not use a precise term to describe the number of soldiers that Judas brought, and it is possible that less than 200 soldiers were present. The Romans stationed troops in the Fortress of Antonia during the Jewish feasts. It stood just north of the temple. Normally these troops resided in Caesarea on the Mediterranean coast, the Roman provincial capital. The officers of the Jewish temple police accompanied the Roman soldiers. Thus John presented both Gentiles and Jews as playing a part in Jesus’ arrest. They carried lanterns and torches to find Jesus. Apparently they thought He might try to hide. Passover always took place when the moon was full. They also had weapons to restrain anyone who might oppose their plan to arrest Jesus. Judas served as their guide. He had no authority over them.- (Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
48 ὁ δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς σημεῖον, λέγων, Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω, αὐτός ἐστι κρατήσατε αὐτόν.
48 "Now he that betrayed-παραδιδοὺς (paradidous)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up)) him, gave-ἔδωκεν (edoken)-to give) them a sign-σημεῖον (semeion)-a sign, mark, signal), saying-λέγων (legon)-to say, to speak, declare), Whomsoever *I shall kiss-φιλήσω (phileso)-to kiss, be friendly, (i.e. greet with a kiss)), that same is-ἐστι (esti)-'to be') he, hold him fast-κρατήσατε (kratesate)-to lay or keep hold)."
*example of Greek word: φιλήσω (phileso)-I shall kiss click: Mark 14:44
he that betrayed-παραδιδοὺς: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: Now ["one-BESIDES-GIVING"] him,
gave-ἔδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["GIVES"] them a sign,
saying-λέγων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["sayING"], Whomsoever
I shall kiss-φιλήσω: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-SHOULD-BE-beING_FOND"//"I-should-be-kissing"], that same
is-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["it-IS"] he,
hold fast: κρατήσατε Verb, Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["hold-ye!"] him.
***Gave them a sign - That is, told them of a way by which they might know whom to apprehend - to wit, by his kissing him. It was night. Jesus was, besides, probably personally unknown to the "Romans" - perhaps to the others also. Judas, therefore, being well acquainted with him, to prevent the possibility of mistake, agreed to designate him by one of the tokens of friendship. John tells us that Jesus, knowing all things that should come upon him, when they approached him, asked them whom they sought, and that they replied, Jesus of Nazareth. He then informed them that he was the person they sought. They, when they heard it, overawed by his presence and smitten with the consciousness of guilt, went backward and fell to the ground. He again asked them whom they sought. They made the same declaration - Jesus of Nazareth.-(Barnes' Notes on the Bible). BH
***A sign. As they approached, Judas gave them a sign which would point out the person whom they were to seize. Probably these did not know Jesus by sight; at any rate, amid the crowd he might easily escape detection; it was also night, and even the Paschal moon might not enable the guards to distinguish faces under the shade of the dark olive grove. Whomsoever I shall kiss. In the East such salutation was common among friends, masters, and pupils; and it would awaken no surprise to see Judas thus salute his Teacher. Perhaps he desired to save appearances in the eyes of his fellow disciples. We marvel at the audacity and obduracy of one who could employ this mark of affection and respect to signal an act of the blackest treachery. That same is he whom you have to arrest. Hold him fast. As if he feared an attempt at rescue, or that Jesus might, as before (Luke 4:30; John 8:59), use his miraculous power to effect his escape. -(Pulpit Commentary). BH
***The impudent audacity of Judas has been a marvel ever since. How could he dare to pollute the face of Christ with such a kiss? Face to face with the Saviour, he did not relent nor feel the sting of conscience, as Peter did when Jesus looked upon him-[(Luke 22:61)]. Caffin said of the kiss: The Greek word seems to imply that he did it with an affectation of earnestness, with much warmth of manner; perhaps he thought, in his madness and folly, that he might be able to conceal his sin, thus deceiving Christ and his fellow-apostles into thinking that he was coming simply to rejoin them, and that he had no connection with the arresting band that followed.-(Coffman Commentaries). SL
***Gave them a sign. A kiss; a common method of salutation among intimate friends. A sign was needful to point Jesus out to the soldiers. Such a traitorous kiss was the depth of depravity--enmity under the guise of friendship.-(People's New Testament). SL
***He that betrayed him, gave them a sign— The soldiers having perhaps never seen Jesus before, and it being now night, and there being twelve persons together, probably dressed much alike, Judas found it necessary to point him out to them by some such sign as this. It was a Jewish custom, after a long absence, or at departing from each other, to make use of the ceremony of a kiss. They used it likewise as a sign of affection to their equals, and as a mark of homage and reverence to their superiors. See Psalms 2:12.Luke 7:45. It is very probable that our Lord, in great condescension, had used, agreeably to this custom, to permit his disciples thus to salute him, when they returned to him after having been any time absent. One would be apt to believe, from the precaution which Judas gives at the end of the verse, hold him fast, that he might suspect Christ would on this occasion renew-[(i.e. do again)] the miracles that he had formerly wrought for his own deliverance; (compare Luke 4:30. John 8:59; John 10:39.) though he had so expressly declared the contrary, Matthew 26:24.-(Thomas Coke Commentary). BH
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
45 Καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθέως προσελθὼν αὐτῷ, λέγει, Ῥαββὶ, ῥαββί· καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν.
45 "And as soon as he was come-ἐλθὼν (elthon)-to come), he goeth-προσελθὼν (proselthon)-to come to, approach, draw near) straightway-εὐθὲως (eutheos)-straightway, immediately, forthwith) to him, and saith-λέγει (legei)-to say, to speak), Master-Ῥαββί (Rabbi)-Rabbi, my teacher), Master, and *kissed-κατεφίλησεν (katephilesen)-to kiss thoroughly, be very friendly, kiss tenderly) him."
*example of Greek word: κατεφίλησεν (katephilesen)-kissed click: Matthew 26:49
as soon as he was come-ἐλθὼν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: And ["COMING"],
he goeth-προσελθὼν: Verb, Second Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["TOWARD-COMING"] straightway to him,
and saith-λέγει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-IS-sayING"], Master, Master, and
kissed-κατεφίλησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-kisses-fondly"] him.
***and kissed him] Rather, kissed Him tenderly or fervently. The customary kiss of a disciple to his teacher. The same word in the original with its intensifying preposition is used to express (i) the kissing of our Lord by the woman who was a sinner (Luke 7:38; Luke 7:45); (ii) the kissing of the prodigal son by his father (Luke 15:20); and (iii) the kissing of St Paul by the Christians on the sea-shore of Miletus (Acts 20:37)."-(Cambridge BSC). BH
***kissed him] (κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν); literally, kissed him much. The kiss was an ancient mode of salutation amongst the Jews, the Romans, and other nations. It is possible that this was the usual mode with which the disciples greeted Christ when they returned to him after any absence. But Judas abused this token of friendship, using it for a base and treacherous purpose.-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
***And as soon as he was come,.... To the place where Jesus was: he goeth straightway to him; alone; as if he had nothing to do with the company behind, and as if he was his friend, and concerned for his safety: and saith, Master, Master; expressing great affection for him, and respect to him, by repeating this word.-(Gill's Exposition). BH
***The infamous behavior of Judas in betraying Jesus to the leaders of Israel fills us with indignation. We are angry when we realize that one so favored could behave so abominably, but his behavior was simply the exemplification of what is in all our hearts if unrestrained by divine grace. Jesus endured the betrayal with quiet dignity and with no evidence of anger or ill-will toward the one who was treating Him so wickedly.-(Ironside's Notes). SL
Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
48 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἰούδα φιλήματι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδως
48 "But Jesus said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say, tell, utter) unto him, Judas-Ἰούδα (Iouda)-one of the Disciples of Jesus, who betrayed him), betrayest thou-παραδίδως (paradidos)-to give over to or alongside of, (i.e. hand over, give (over), deliver, give up) the Son of man *with a kiss-φιλήματι (philemati)-a kiss)?"
*example of Greek word: παραδίδως (paradidos)-with a kiss click: Romans 16:16
said-εἶπεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: But Jesus ["saiD"] unto him,
Judas-Ἰούδα: Noun, Vocative, Singular, Masculine: ["Judas!"//"JUDAS"],
betrayest thou-παραδίδως: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["you-are-giving-up"] the Son of man with a kiss?
***Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? - By the "Son of man" was evidently meant "the Messiah." Judas had had the most satisfactory evidence of that, and did not doubt it. A kiss was the sign of affection. By that slight artifice Judas thought to conceal his base purpose [(to betray Jesus)]. Jesus with severity reproaches him for it. Every word is emphatic. "Betrayest" thou - dost thou violate all thy obligations of fidelity, and deliver thy Master up to death? Betrayest "thou" - thou, so long with him, so much favored, so sure that this is the Messiah? Betrayest thou "the Son of man" - the Messiah, the hope of the nations, the desire of all people, the world's Redeemer? Betrayest thou the Son of man "with a kiss" - the sign of friendship and affection employed in a base and wicked purpose, intending to add deceit, disguise, and the prostitution of a mark of affection to the "crime of treason?" Every word of this must have gone to the very soul of Judas. Perhaps few reproofs of crime more resemble the awful searchings of the souls of the wicked in the day of judgment.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
***Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? — Dost thou attempt to kiss me as a friend, while thou art delivering me up into the hands of my enemies? We need not wonder at all this, as Satan himself had entered into the heart of this traitor, see Luke 22:3; consequently we can expect nothing from him but what is fell, deceitful, and cruel.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***with a kiss) The traitor abuses the highest token of love with the highest degree of daring presumption. Comp. the note on Luke 7:45. [None of His most intimate disciples and friends had ever kissed the Lord. The traitor alone dared to profane with impure lips the face of the Lord. This unprecedented act matched well with his unprecedented treachery.]-(Bengel's Gnomen). BH
***While Jesus was in the garden Judas led a multitude to take Him. He identified Jesus with a kiss. In an effort to cause Judas to see his sins Jesus asked him, "Are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?". Jesus is the Son of God. He died for your sins. To become a Christian you must hear the gospel ( Rom_10:17 ), believe in Jesus as the Christ ( Mar_16:16 ), repent of all sins ( Act_17:30 ), confess Christ as Lord ( Rom_10:9-10 ) and be baptized for remission of sins. ( Act_2:38 ) After baptism remain faithful to God. ( Rev_2:10 ) Jesus, the Son of man, now sits "on the right hand of the power of God." Honor Him with your daily life.-(Charles Box's Commentaries). SL
***Judas approaches the Lord Jesus to kiss Him. His hypocrisy and betrayal reach their climax here. His horrible kiss of betrayal is proverbial for falsity hidden in an expression of love. It has touched the Lord deeply that Judas betrays Him, the Son of Man, with a kiss. He could have prevented it, but allows it. The Son of Man undergoes every conceivable humiliation. The first humiliation was to be kissed by one of His twelve disciples, a kiss intended to put Him in the hands of His enemies. This expression of love is abhorrently abused to identify Him, Who is love, as a criminal.-(Kingscommensts). SL
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
55 ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις, Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθετε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με; καθ’ ἡμέραν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με.
55 "In that same hour said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say, tell, utter) Jesus to the multitudes-ὄχλοις (ochlois)-crowd), Are ye come out-ἐξήλθετε (exelthete)-to go or come forth of) as-Ὡς (Hos)-as, like, even as) against-ἐπὶ (epi)-upon) *a thief-λῃστὴν (lesten)-a robber, plunderer) with swords-μαχαιρῶν (machairon)-fighting weapon, sword) and staves-ξύλων (xulon)-wood, (by implication: a stick, club or tree or other wooden article or substance)) for to take-συλλαβεῖν (sullamein)-to take together, to clasp, (i.e. seize (arrest, capture)) me? I sat-ἐκαθεζόμην (ekathezomen)-to sit down, seat one's self, sit) daily with you teaching-διδάσκων (didaskon)-to teach) in-ἐν (en)-in) the *Temple-ἱερῷ (hiero)-sacred, priestly edifice, temple, (i.e. a sacred place, temple)), and ye laid no-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) hold-ἐκρατήσατέ (ekratesate)-to lay or keep hold) on me."
*example of Greek word: ἱερῷ (hiero)-Temple click: Matthew 21:12
said-εἶπεν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: In that same hour ["saiD"] Jesus to the multitudes,
Are ye come out-ἐξήλθετε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-OUT-CAME"//"ye-came-out"] as against a thief with swords and staves
for to take-συλλαβεῖν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-TOGETHER-TAKING"//"to-be-apprehending"] me?
I sat-ἐκαθεζόμην: Verb, Imperfect, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-was-seatED"] daily with you
teaching-διδάσκων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["TEACHING"] in the Temple, and no
ye laid hold-ἐκρατήσατέ: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-HOLD"] on me.
***are ye come out as against a thief, with swords and staves, for to take me? "as an highwayman, or notorious robber, that had done great mischief to the country; and being armed, and having associates, was not easy to be taken: the Syriac renders it, as a cut-throat: and the Persic, as a robber, and a cut-throat; a desperate villain, that would by no means yield, unless overpowered by numbers, by force of arms, by the dint of the sword, by knocks and blows: but how different from this, was the character of Jesus! who never did any injury to any man's person or property, but saved both; was meek, lowly, and humble in his deportment, throughout the whole of his life; never strove with men, or cried, and caused his voice, in any riotous manner, to be heard in the streets; and even when reviled, reviled not again, but took every insult patiently; and was now unarmed, and ready to submit at once; nay, before they could well come up to him, he asked them who they sought; and on mentioning his name, declared he was the person; and signified he was ready to surrender himself, only desired his disciples might have leave to go away:"-(Gill's Exposition). BH
***Against a thief - Rather a "robber." This was the manner in which they would have sought to take a highwayman of desperate character, and armed to defend his life. It adds not a little to the depth of his humiliation that he consented to be "hunted down" thus by wicked people, and to be treated as if he had been the worst of mankind.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
***I sat daily with you (πρὸς ὑμᾶς, probably an interpolation from Mark). All the past week, at any rate, Christ had taught quietly and openly in the temple. He had none of the habits of the robber; he had not courted secrecy; he had no company of armed men to defend him; why did they not arrest him then? According to St. Luke, Christ adds, "But this is your hour, and the power of darkness."-[(Luke 22:53)]-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
***Jesus' emphasis was ever upon the fulfillment of God's word. It is not merely the death of Christ, but the death of Christ "according to the scriptures-[(i.e. of the Old Testament prophesies concerning Jesus)]," that constitutes the true gospel (1 Corinthians 15:3ff).-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***In that same hour, Jesus said to the multitude- And particularly unto the chief priests and elders, &c, Luke 22:52, Are ye come out as against a thief, &c. Or robber, that would make a desperate resistance, armed in this way with swords and staves, as if you came to seize me at the hazard of your lives? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple When you had opportunities in abundance to have secured me, if there had been any crime with which you could have charged me: yet then you laid no hold on me Ye took me not; so Mark.-(Joseph Benson's Commentary). SL
***Judas came with a kiss and betrayed His friend. ( Mat_26:49-50 ) During Jesus' arrest, Peter cut off a man's ear with a sword. This fulfilled prophetic words. Jesus had power to call twelve legions of angels to help-[(Matthew 26:53)], but to fulfill prophecy He refrained from doing so. ( Mat_26:54 ) Even when the disciples "forsook Him and fled", the prophecies were being fulfilled. ( Mat_26:56 )-(Charles Box's Commentaries). SL
Jesus rebuked the mob for coming out against him armed as if he were a thief. He reminded them of former opportunities of taking him and they did not do so nor even try to. All this showed their evil motive in the present movement.-(E.M. Zerr's Commentary). SL
The mob did not need to arrest Jesus secretly and violently at night. They could have found Him easily any day during the Passover season teaching in the temple courtyard. Their nighttime arrest made Jesus look like a dangerous criminal. Jesus pointed out that their time and manner of arresting Him said more about them than about Him. They were the stealthy ones, not He. . . . Matthew again pointed out that all these events fulfilled Scripture, a point of particular interest to his Jewish readers (Matthew 26:56). It was imperative that Messiah fulfill prophecy. The writers of the Old Testament Scriptures were prophets, God’s authoritative representatives. By fleeing, the disciples fulfilled one of these prophecies, as Jesus had predicted (cf. Matthew 26:31; Zechariah 13:7).-(Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas). SL
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
2 Καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγον, καὶ παρέδωκαν αὐτὸν Ποντίῳ Πιλάτῳ τῷ ἡγεμόνι.
1 "When the morning was come, all the chief Priests and Elders of the people, took counsel against Jesus to put him to death. 2And *when they had bound-δήσαντες (desantes)-to bind, fasten, tie) him, they led him away-ἀπήγαγον (apegagon)-to lead away, (esp. of those who are led off to trial, prison, or punishment), and *delivered-παρέδωκαν (paredokan)-to give over to or alongside of) him to Pontius-Ποντίῳ (Pontio)-"of the sea", (the sixth Roman procurator of Judah who crucified Christ) Pilate-Πιλάτῳ (Pilato)-"armed with a spear", The surname of the fifth Roman procurator of Judea, A.D. 26-36) the governor-ἡγεμόνι (hegemoni)-leader, guide, one going before)."
*example of Greek word: λῃστὴν (lesten)-when they had bound click: Mark 15:1 (and bound)
*example of Greek word: παρέδωκαν (paredokan)-delivered click: Luke 24:20
when they had bound-δήσαντες: Verb, Aorist, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: And ["BINDing"] him,
they led him away-ἀπήγαγον: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-FROM-LED"//"they-led-away-him"], and
delivered-παρέδωκαν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-BESIDE-GIVE"] him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
***Now the reason for the pretrial of Jesus was that they might be able to frame some charges against Him to bring to the Roman governor. What they accused Jesus of was blasphemy because He said that He was the Son of God. The high priest said, "I adjure you by the living God, tell us, are you the Messiah, the Son of God?" And Jesus said, "you've said it." And this guy ripped his clothes, and he said, "what need we of any further witnesses, you've heard Him with His own mouth, it's blasphemy"( Matthew 26:63-65 ). However, the Roman government had taken away from the Jews the right of capital punishment, just a few years earlier. And so the Jews did not have the authority to order a person put to death. And they were desiring that Jesus should be put to death. So they could not bring the charges of blasphemy before Pilate because Pilate would say, that's your own religious matter, you guys settle it on your own. So they had to bring charges against Jesus that would hold in the Roman court, and so they made actually charges of insurrection against the Roman government. The charge that Jesus was saying that they shouldn't pay taxes to Rome, and the charge that Jesus declared Himself the king, and thus was setting Himself up against the Roman government, because He said that He was king. Now these three charges are actually false charges that were made against Christ, scurrilous charges of which they could not offer any real proof.-(Chuck Smith Bible Commentary). SL
***And when they had bound him - He was "bound" when they took him in the garden, John 18:12. Probably when he was tried before the Sanhedrin in the palace of Caiaphas, he had been loosed from his bonds, being there surrounded by multitudes, and supposed to be safe. As they were about to lead him to another part of the city now, they again bound him. The binding consisted, probably, in nothing more than tying his hands.-(Barnes' Notes). Pontius Pilate, the governor - The governor appointed by the Romans over Judea. The governor commonly resided at Caesarea; but he came up to Jerusalem usually at the great feasts, when great numbers of the Jews were assembled, to administer justice, and to suppress tumults if any should arise. The "title" which Pilate received was that of "governor or procurator." The duties of the office were, chiefly, to collect the revenues due to the Roman emperor, and in certain cases to administer justice. Pilate was appointed governor of Judea by Tiberius, then Emperor of Rome.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
***Pontius Pilate the governor Pilate was at this time procurator of Judea, an office rather of a pecuniary nature, yet, in the irregularities of the times, extended over every department of government. He was the sixth governor of Palestine after the cessation of the royalty. He was noted for his severity, cruelty, and despotic will. On one occasion, contrary to the practice of the Roman governors, who respected as far as possible the religious peculiarities of subject provinces, he introduced the Roman standards into the city with the images of the emperor upon them, esteemed idolatrous by the Jews. When the Jews remonstrated he threatened to massacre them. Upon this they threw themselves unanimously on the ground, protesting that they would rather die than consent to the profanation; upon which the Roman governor relented. On another occasion, when the Jews seditiously opposed his expending the sacred money upon the city water-works, he sent a body of soldiers with concealed arms to fall upon them unawares, who committed a much greater massacre than he intended. Saint Luke refers to a massacre by him, committed at a passover, when he mingled the blood of certain Galileans with the sacrifices they were performing. A similar cruelty in the massacre of certain Samaritans, after they had submitted, proved the ruin of Pilate. The Samaritan senate sent a complaint of his cruelty to Vitellius, president of Syria, by whom Pilate was ordered to Rome, to answer to the charge before the emperor Tiberius. Before he arrived Tiberius died; but Pilate was banished by his successor Caligula to Vienne in Gaul, where, in mortification for his disgrace, he committed suicide.-(Whedon's Commentary). SL
***They - delivered him to Pontius Pilate — The Sanhedrin had the power of life and death in their own hands in every thing that concerned religion; but as they had not evidence to put Christ to death because of false doctrine, they wished to give countenance to their conduct by bringing in the civil power, and therefore they delivered him up to Pilate as one who aspired to regal dignities, and whom he must put to death, if he professed to be Caesar's friend. Pontius Pilate governed Judea ten years under the Emperor Tiberius; but, having exercised great cruelties against the Samaritans, they complained of him to the emperor, in consequence of which he was deposed, and sent in exile to Vienna, in Dauphiny, where he killed himself two years after.-(Adam Clarke Commentary). SL
***Delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. The first mention of the Roman procurator by that name. He was both military and civil commander, usually dwelt at Cæsarea, but came up to Jerusalem at the passover feasts to preserve order. The Sanhedrim-[(the place where Jesus was tried before been taken to Pilot)] could not put Jesus to death, as the Roman rulers demanded that all cases of capital punishment be referred to them.-(People's New Testament). SL
They bound him which was unnecessary as far as security of the prisoner was concerned, for Jesus had not given any indication of even wishing to escape. But it was customary to put some kind of shackle on a man who was a prisoner, and the feeling of this mob was such that it would certainly not make any exception of Jesus. Pilate the governor was an officer appointed by the Romans to represent the empire in parts of Palestine. His presence in Jerusalem at this time, and also some other useful information will be explained by a quotation from Smith's Bible Dictionary. "He was appointed A. D. 25-6, in the twelfth year of Tiberius. His arbitrary administration nearly drove the Jews to insurrection on two or three occasions. One of the first acts was to remove the headquarters of the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem.... It was the custom for the procurator [governor or agent] to reside at Jerusalem during the great feasts, to preserve order, and accordingly, at the time of our Lord's last Passover, Pilate was occupying his official residence in Herod's palace. Caesarea was the official headquarters for the Roman government in Palestine, which accounts for the mention of Pilate's temporary presence in Jerusalem at this time.-(E.M. Zerr's Commentary). SL
(a brief summary of his death)
Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
15 Κατὰ δὲ ἑορτὴν εἰώθει ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἀπολύειν ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ δέσμιον ὃν ἤθελον 16 εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιον ἐπίσημον λεγόμενον Βαραββᾶν 17 συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν Βαραββᾶν ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν
15 "Now-δὲ (de)-yet, now, moreover) at-Κατὰ (Kata)-during) that feast-ἑορτὴν (heorten)-feast, festival) the-ὁ (ho)-the) Governor-ἡγεμὼν (hegemon)-leader, guide, one going before, (i.e. chief person)) *was wont-εἰώθει (eiothei)-to be customary, (to be accustomed)) to release-ἀπολύειν (apoluein)-to loose away, or off, (to free fully, i.e. (literally) relieve, release, dismiss)) unto the-τῷ (to)-to the) people-ὄχλῳ (ochlo)-crowd, multitude) a-ἕνα (hena)-one) prisoner-δέσμιον (desmion)-one bound, (a captive (as bound):—in bonds, prisoner)), whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) they would-ἤθελον (ethelon)-to will, have in mind, intend, to desire, to wish). 16 And they had then a notable-ἐπίσημον (episemon)-noted, notable, (in a negative sense; notorious, infamous, having a bad reputation)) prisoner-δέσμιον (desmion)-one bound, (a captive (as bound):—in bonds, prisoner)), called Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master", (a murderer)). 17 Therefore-οὖν (oun)-therefore, then, now) when they-αὐτῶν (auton)-them) were gathered together-συνηγμένων (sunegmenon)-to lead together, (i.e. come together, gather, meet)), Pilate-Πιλᾶτος (Pilatos)-"armed with a spear", The surname of the fifth Roman procurator of Judea, A.D. 26-36) said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say) unto them-αὐτοῖς (autois)-to them), Whom-Τίνα (tis)-who, which) will ye-θέλετε (thelete)-to wish, will, mean) *that I release-ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free)) unto you-ὑμῖν (humin)-you:—ye)? Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master", (a murderer)), or-ἢ (e)-either, or) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)), which-τὸν (ton)-which, who) is called-λεγόμενον (legomenon)-to lay out, say (i.e. he that is surnamed)) Christ-Χριστόν (Christon)-"anointed" i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)?"
*example of Greek word: εἰώθει (eiothei)-was wont click: Mark 10:1 (he was wont)
*example of Greek word: ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-that I release click: John 18:39
was wont-εἰώθει: Verb, Pluperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: Now at that feast the Governor ["HAD-CUSTOMED"//"had-been-accustomed"]
to release-ἀπολύειν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BE-FROM-LOOSING"//"to-be-releasing"] unto the people a prisoner, whom
they would-ἤθελον: Verb, Imperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-WILLED"//"they-would"]. And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas.
were gathered together-συνηγμένων: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Genitive, Plural, Masculine: Therefore when they ["of-having-been-gathered"], Pilate said unto them, Whom
will ye-θέλετε: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 2nd Person, Plural: ["YE-ARE-WILLING"]
that I release-ἀπολύσω: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-SHOULD-BE-FROM-LOOSING"//"I-should-be-releasing"] unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus, which
is called-λεγόμενον: Verb, Present, Passive, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["one-being-said"//"beING-said] Christ?
Now-δὲ (de)-yet, now, moreover) at-Κατὰ (Kata)-during) that feast-ἑορτὴν (heorten)-feast, festival) the-ὁ (ho)-the) Governor-ἡγεμὼν (hegemon)-leader, guide, one going before, (i.e. chief person)) was wont-εἰώθει (eiothei)-to be customary, (to be accustomed)) to release-ἀπολύειν (apoluein)-to loose away, or off, (to free fully, i.e. (literally) relieve, release, dismiss)) unto the-τῷ (to)-to the) people-ὄχλῳ (ochlo)-crowd, multitude) a-ἕνα (hena)-one) prisoner-δέσμιον (desmion)-one bound, (a captive (as bound):—in bonds, prisoner)), whom-ὃν (hon)-whom) they would-ἤθελον (ethelon)-to will, have in mind, intend, to desire, to wish).:
The Fourth Effort of Pilate to Release Jesus-No doubt Pilate thought they would choose Christ; but he had reckoned without consideration of the fanatical hatred of the leaders against Christ. Barabbas was a notorious seditionist and robber (Mark 15:7), the leader of a group who had made an insurrection against Rome (presumably). His crimes were murder, robbery, and sedition; and Pilate's strategy at that point was directed to forcing a choice between such a man and Christ. Under the circumstances, the choice of Barabbas would have strong overtones of disloyalty to Caesar which the Pharisees had so lately professed-[(John 19:12)]; but if Pilate counted on such a deterrent to the choice of Barabbas, he was mistaken. Did Barabbas know of that proposal? If so, he must have felt that he had practically no chance of being chosen over one whose reputation as a prophet, healer, and holy person was so widespread. Since the condemnation of other robbers resulted in their crucifixion, it is safe to assume that the same fate awaited Barabbas, except for Pilate's proposal to pair him with Christ for the honor of being released for Passover.-(Coffman Commenatries). SL
Now at that feast, &c. — It had become a custom with the Roman governors, at the feast of the passover, to gratify the people with the pardon and release of any one prisoner they pleased. There was no law to oblige them to do this, nor is it certain when or how this custom arose. But as acts of grace are generally popular things, it is probable it originated with the Romans themselves, and that they introduced and continued it to please their tributaries. It was, however, a bad custom, being an encouragement to wickedness, and an obstruction to justice.-(Benson Commentary). BH
the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner] The origin of this custom is quite unknown; St Mark says, “as he had ever done unto them,”[(Mark 15:8)] as if the custom originated with Pilate; St Luke has, “of necessity he must release;”[(Luke 23:17)] St John, “Ye have a custom.”[(John 18:39)].-(Cambridge BSC). BH
Verse 15. - Pilate now tries another expedient for delivering himself from the responsibility of condemning Jesus. At that feast (κατὰ ἑορτήν, at a feast, at feast time). Doubtless the Passover is meant, which was the feast especially of the Jews, and it is very improbable that the practice mentioned in the clause was allowed at any other of the feasts. The governor was wont to release unto the people (τῷ ὄχλῳ, the multitude), etc. St. Luke says, "Of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast." The custom is not elsewhere mentioned. It was, however, most probably an institution established of old time in memory of the Exodus (John 18:39), and continued by the Romans when they became masters of the country. A similar custom obtained at Rome and in Greece on certain great festivals. Whom they would. The governor usually left the priests and people unfettered in their choice; on the present occasion he desired Jesus to be selected.-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
Now at that feast,....It was but once a year that this was done; at every returning passover; and so the Persic version renders it, "every year on the day of the feast"; that is, of the passover, and which was frequently called by way of emphasis, "the feast": the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. It was not a law, but a custom; it was not enjoined by the law of Moses; for they that sinned against that; died without mercy: nor is it agreeable to strict justice, that there should be such a release of criminals; nor was it a Jewish custom, as an emblem of their deliverance out of Egyptian bondage. I have not met with the least trace of any such custom of theirs at the time of the pass over in any of their writings; but it seems to be a Roman one: and from all the accounts of the evangelist, it appears to be peculiar to the Roman governor, who, either by the order of Caesar, or of himself, introduced such a custom to get the favour of the people; for it was to them the release was made, and the person, whom they pleased; and this being repeated annually for some time, was expected by them, and at last became necessary.-(Gill's Commentary). BH
Therefore-οὖν (oun)-therefore, then, now) when they-αὐτῶν (auton)-them) were gathered together-συνηγμένων (sunegmenon)-to lead together, (i.e. come together, gather, meet),:
So when the crowd gathered. When Pilate found Jesus was a Galilean, he sent him to Herod, ruler of that region, who was in Jerusalem at this time. After trying to get Jesus to do a miracle, Herod and his soldiers made fun of Jesus, then sent him back to Pilate (Luke 23:6-12). It is after Jesus is sent back to Pilate, that this crowd gathers. Which one? Both Pilate and Herod have pronounced Jesus innocent of guilt (Luke 23:15). Pilate wanted to set Jesus free (John 19:12), so he gives them a choice between Jesus Barabbas (who was guilty of revolt and murder) and Jesus the Christ (who was innocent of any crime).-(The Bible Study New Testament). SL
Therefore when they were gathered together,....Meaning not the chief priests and elders; for these were together before, but the common people; and so the Persic version renders the words, when the people increased into a multitude: for it was to them the release of a prisoner was to be made, and so the proposal of one; and it was at their option, who should be the person [(either, Jesus or Barabbas)]; for it was "whom they-[(the crowd)] would", as in Matthew 27:15, and where the Ethiopic version adds, "and should choose". -(Gill's Exposition). BH
Therefore Οὖν] In accordance with the custom referred to, and as it so happened that at that moment there lay under sentence of death (Matthew 27:15-16) a noted criminal called Jesus Barabbas, Pilate got the multitude that was collected outside gathered together, and then asked them to choose between Jesus Barabbas and Jesus who was called the Messiah.-(Meyer's NT Commentary). BH
Therefore when they were gathered together] In accordance, probably, with the custom named, Matthew 27:15, an appeal was made to the people, not to the Sanhedrin. Pilate was sitting on the tribunal to ascertain the popular decision; at this point he-[(Pilot)] was interrupted by his wife’s messengers, and while he was engaged with them, the chief priests employed themselves in persuading the people to demand Barabbas rather than Christ."-(Cambridge BSC). BH
Pilate-Πιλᾶτος (Pilatos)-"armed with a spear", The surname of the fifth Roman procurator of Judea, A.D. 26-36) said-εἶπεν (eipen)-to speak, say) unto them-αὐτοῖς (autois)-to them), Whom-Τίνα (tis)-who, which) will ye-θέλετε (thelete)-to wish, will, mean) that I release-ἀπολύσω (apoluso)-to loose away, or off, (i.e. to set free)) unto you-ὑμῖν (humin)-you:—ye)?:
Whom will ye that I release unto you? He-[(Pilate)] had great hope that their answer would favour Jesus. When it came to choosing between a vile robber and murderer-[(Barabbas)] and a beneficent, moral teacher-[(Jesus)], common sense would guide the choice aright.-(Pulpit Commentary). BH
Whom will ye that I release unto you?— This, we must remember, was all but the last attempt of Pilate to shift off from himself the dreaded burden of responsibility.-(Ellicott's Commentary). BH
Whom will ye that I release ... - Pilate was satisfied of the innocence of Jesus, Luke 23:13-16 He was therefore desirous of releasing him. He expected to release one to the people. He knew that Jesus, though condemned by the chief priests, was yet popular among the people He therefore attempted in this manner to rescue him from the hands of the priests, and expected that the people would prefer Him to an odious and infamous robber and murderer. Had the people been left to themselves it would probably have been done.-(Barnes' Notes). BH
In order to dress his proposal up with authority, he sits on the judgment seat. What an exhibition! The puppet of the people and the servant of Rome represents the official authority and must do justice. He is convinced of the innocence of Christ, but he refuses to express it clearly. He even receives a warning from his wife. She sends him the message that God has given her in a dream. She calls Him “that righteous Man”. She also says that in her dream she suffered a lot because of Him. This can only be done by the Spirit of God. She listens to the message of God and wants to keep her husband from the greatest iniquity ever. With this she shows herself to be a real help, as a wife is meant to be for her husband. But Pilate is just as unattainable to his wife as his attempts to release the Lord are to no avail. He will bow to the boundless wickedness and murderousness of the chief priests and elders. They manipulate the crowds to choose Barabbas, while at the same time inciting them to demand the death of the Lord Jesus.-(Kingcomments on the Whole Bible). SL
Barabbas-Βαραββᾶν (Barabban)-"son of a father or master"), or-ἢ (e)-either, or) Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind)), which-τὸν (ton)-which, who) is called-λεγόμενον (legomenon)-to lay out, say (i.e. he that is surnamed)) Christ-Χριστόν (Christon)-"anointed" i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus:—Christ)?:
Jesus, which is called Christ - That is, Jesus, who claims to be the Messiah