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Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: "Regard not them that have familiar spirits, neither seek after wizards, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God." -(Leviticus 19:31)
1. Demons/Devils/Unclean Spirits
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
Westminster Leningrad Codex
H/G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek or Hebrew words that share the same Root word, but not the same inflection.
Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.
Westminster Leningrad Codex
כִּ֤י חַטַּאת־קֶ֙סֶם֙ מֶ֔רִי וְאָ֥וֶן וּתְרָפִ֖ים הַפְצַ֑ר יַ֗עַן מָאַ֙סְתָּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס
1 Samuel 15:23
"For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornnesse is as iniquitie and idolatrie: because thou hast rejected-מָאַס (ma'ac)-to loathe, despise, reject, refuse) the word-דְּבַ֣ר (də-ḇar)-a word, matter, thing) of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king."
For rebellion-מֶ֔רִי (meri)-rebellion, bitterness (i.e. contumacy) is as the sin-חַטַּאת (ḥaṭ-ṭaṯ-)-sin, sinful) of witchcraft-קֶסֶם (qesem)-divination, witchcraft):
The word rendered ‘witchcraft’ originally meant ‘the use of drugs’, then, in a bad sense, ‘poisoning’. Those who ‘used curious arts’ (Acts 19:19) combined demonology or witchcraft with the use of drugs as philtres.
Disobedience to God’s command; is as the sin of witchcraft — Or the using divinations, and consulting familiar spirits, is as plainly condemned, and as certainly damnable and destructive.-(Benson).
Opposition to the will of God is as bad as divination by the help of evil spirits, which is tantamount to apostasy from God: obstinate resistance to Him is no better than worshipping idols (vanity or emptiness) and images (teraphim: see note on 1 Samuel 19:13). Disobedience is in fact idolatry, because it elevates self-will into a god.-(Cambridge BSC).
*example of Hebrew word: מְרִי-For rebellion click: Deuteronomy 31:27
and stubbornness-הַפְצַ֑ר (hap̄-ṣar;)-to press in, be stubborn, (a primitive root; to peck at, (i.e. figuratively: stun or dull:—press, urge, stubbornness) is as iniquity-וְאָ֥וֶן (wə-’ā-wen)-iniquity, vanity, emptiness) and idolatrie-וּתְרָפִ֖ים (ū-ṯə-rā-p̄îm)-idolatry, idols, image(s), teraphim, family idol, healers, nourishers, (i.e. domestic gods):
Contumacy, persisting in sin, justifying it, and pleading for it; is as iniquity and idolatry — Or, rather, the iniquity of idolatry, the highest degree of wickedness. The meaning is, that as Saul had wilfully disobeyed the command of God, he was guilty of rebellion against him; and that wilful, peremptory disobedience to any command of God is, for the nature of it, a most heinous sin, though the matter in which it is manifested be ever so small.-(Benson).
for a man, when he has committed a sin, to persist in it obstinately, or to vindicate himself in it, and insist on his innocence, which was Saul's case, is as hateful to God as any iniquity whatever; yea, as bad as idolatry, or making use of the teraphim, as is the word here; of which see Hosea 3:4 than which nothing is more abominable to the Lord:-(Gill).
*example of H6484: (הַפְצַ֑ר-stubbornness) click: Genesis 19:9 (וַיִּפְצְר֨וּ-And they pressed)
*example of Hebrew word: וְאָ֥וֶן-iniquity click: Psalms 55:10 (thereof: mischief)
*example of Hebrew word: וּתְרָפִ֖ים-and idolatrie click: Judges 18:14 (and teraphim)
Westminster Leningrad Codex
וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י כְשָׁפִ֖ים מִיָּדֶ֑ךָ וּֽמְעֹונְנִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִֽהְיוּ־לָֽךְ׃
וְהִכְרַתִּ֧י פְסִילֶ֛יךָ וּמַצֵּבֹותֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה עֹ֖וד לְמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ׃
12 "And I will cut off-וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י (wə-hiḵ-rat-tî)-to (cause to) cut down, off) witchcrafts-כְשָׁפִ֖ים (ḵə-šā-p̄îm)-witchcrafts, sorceries, incantations) out of thine hand, and thou shalt have no more Soothsayers. 13 Thy graven images also will I cut off, and thy //standing images (Or, statues) out of the midst *of thee: and thou shalt no more worship-תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה (ṯiš-ta-ḥă-weh)-to bow self down) the work-לְמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה (lə-ma-‘ă-śêh)-deed, doing, act, work) of thine hands."
soothsayers-וּֽמְעוֹנְנִ֖ים (ū-mə-‘ō-wn-nîm)-to observe the clouds, (i.e. to observe times, practice soothsaying or spiritism or magic or augury or witchcraft, enchanter, sorceress):
or diviners, that cast a mist over people's eyes, and deceived them with false appearances of things; that pretended to know times and seasons, when it was or was not a good day to go abroad, or to make merchandise; that judged by the clouds, and by the position of the heavens, what would come to pass hereafter.
the very art shall be out of use, and none shall openly, as formerly, consult with them, or they make profession of foretelling events, or what a lucky day or hour to set upon an enterprise, or to curse, as Balaam would have done, an enemy to make way for victory; no more of these; the oracles ceased when Christ was born: much to this purpose Zechariah 13:2 Malachi 3:5. God will, in mercy to his people, take away these stumbling-blocks, these occasions of sin.-(Jamieson F.B).
*example of H6049: (וּֽמְעוֹנְנִ֖ים-soothsayers) click: Leviticus 19:26 (תְעוֹנֵֽנוּ׃-nor observe time)
graven images-פְסִילֶ֛יךָ (p̄ə-sî-le-ḵā)-graven, cut or hewn images, (i.e. carved images):
which were for the matter of them made of wood or stone, smoothed, and fashioned to the images, which the blind idolater thought did well represent his god.-(Matthew P.).
*example of H6456: (פְסִילֶ֛יךָ-graven images) click: Deuteronomy 7:5
(וּפְסִילֵיהֶ֖ם-their graven images)
standing images-וּמַצֵּבוֹתֶ֖יךָ (ū-maṣ-ṣê-ḇō-w-ṯe-ḵā)-anything set up, a statue, (i.e. the image of an idol):
statues erected in places chosen for the purpose, fixed that they move not, had this different name from their posture, the matter still the same.-(Matthew P.).
These are stone images or pillars dedicated to false gods (1 Kings 14:23).-(Pulpit).
*example of H4676: (וּמַצֵּבוֹתֶ֖יךָ-standing images click: Leviticus 26:1
(וּמַצֵּבָה֙-a standing image)
*of thee: and thou shalt no more worship-תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה (ṯiš-ta-ḥă-weh)-to bow self down)
*example of Hebrew word: תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה-of thee: and thou shalt no more worship
click: Exodus 34:14 (for thou shalt worship)
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
19 Φανερὰ δέ ἐστι τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός· ἅτινά ἐστι, μοιχεία πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια, 20 Εἰδωλολατρεία, φαρμακεία, ἔχθραι, ἔρεις, ζῆλοι, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις, 21 Φθόνοι, φόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ προεῖπον, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν Θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν.
19"Now the works of the flesh are manifest-φανερὰ (phanera)-manifest, apparent, evident, known), which *are-ἐστιν (estin)-are, is) these, adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, 20 Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, 21 envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which *I tell you before-προλέγω (prolego)-to lay out, say or speak before, (i.e. to say beforehand, foretell), as I have also told you in time past, that *they which do-πράσσοντες (prassontes)-to exercise, practise, to be busy with, carry on) such things *shall not-οὐ (ou)-no, not) inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν (kleronomesousin)-to obtain by lot, be heir) the kingdom-βασιλείαν (basileian)-kingdom, (i.e. God's heavenly kingdom) of God.
the-τὰ (ta)-the) works-ἔργα (erga)-work, deed, doing, business (i.e. an act, thing done) of the-τῆς (tes)-of the) flesh-σαρκός (sarkos)-flesh, (by implication: human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specially), a human being (as such):—carnal(-ly, + -ly minded), flesh(-ly):
the sinful and evil deeds committed against our neighbor, against God, and against ourselves. What the flesh, or what corrupt and unrenewed human nature produces.-(Barnes).
or, By "flesh" is meant corrupt nature, as before, and by the works of it, not only external acts of sin, but inward lusts; for such are here mentioned among its works, as "hatred", "wrath", "envyings", &c. and both external and internal acts are so called, because they spring from the flesh, or corrupt nature, and are what that urges and solicits to, and are wrought thereby, and are what denominate and show men to be carnal: these are said to be "manifest"; not that they are all, and always publicly done, and are open to the sight of men; for they are works of darkness, and often done in secret, though they are always manifest to God the searcher of hearts, and will be brought to light in the day of judgment;..."-(Gill).
*example of Greek word: ἔργον (ergon)-works click: John 3:19 (deeds)
*example of Greek word: σαρκός (sarkos)-flesh click: Romans 8:6
*are-ἐστιν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS"]
witchcraft-φαρμακεία (pharmakeia)-a charm, remedy, enchantment with drugs (i.e. sorcery):—(by extension) magic:
Or the employment of drugs in charms and incantations; and thence of the employment of black arts in general- magic, sorcery, witchcraft.
the product of compacts with the devil; by virtue of which, the persons so contracting are assisted by the power of evil spirits to produce effects beside the ordinary course and order of nature, and for the most part mischievous to others.-(Matthew P.).
any real or pretended league and association with the devil, seeking to converse with familiar spirits, to gain unlawful knowledge, or to do hurt to fellow creatures; which, as it is doing honour to Satan, detracts from the glory of God, and rightly follows idolatry; conjuration, soothsaying, necromancy, and all kind of magic are included and condemned hereby:-(Gill).
witchcraft-φαρμακεία: Noun, Nominative, Singular, Feminine: ["DRUGing"//"enchantment"]
*example of Greek word: φαρμακεία (pharmakeia)-witchcraft click: Revelation 18:23 (sorceries)
*I tell before-προλέγω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-BEFORE-sayING"//"I-am-predicting"]
*they which do-πράσσοντες:Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Plural, Masculine: ["PRACTISING"]
*shall inherit-κληρονομήσουσιν: Verb, Future, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: not ["SHALL-BE-tenantING"//"shall-be-enjoying-the-allotment-of"]
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
9 Ἀνὴρ δέ τις ὀνόματι Σίμων προϋπῆρχεν ἐν τῇ πόλει μαγεύων καὶ ἐξιστῶν τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρείας, λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτὸν μέγαν 10 Ὧ προσεῖχον πάντες ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου, λέγοντες, Οὗτός ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡ μεγάλη.
9 But there was a certain man called Simon, which before time in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out-λέγων (legon)-to lay out, say, (i.e. to asseverate, affirm, aver) that himself was some great one-μέγαν (megan)-a certain great one).10 To whom they all gave heed-προσεῖχον (proseichon)- give heed to, (i.e. pay attention to, adhere to), from the least-μικροῦ (mikrou)-little, small, (figuratively: dignity):—least, less, little, small) to the greatest, saying, This man is the great-μεγάλη (megan)-great) power-δύναμις (dunamis)-ability, power, strenght) of God."
used sorcery-μαγεύων (mageuon)-to use magic, to be a magician, to practise magical arts):
By his magic arts he showed many signs and lying wonders, which seemed to be miracles, but really were not so; like those of the magicians of Egypt, and those of the man of sin, mentioned 2 Thessalonians 2:9.-(Benson).
who before [the Apostle] Philip came thither [to evangelize Samaria], [Simon] practised magic arts; wherefore he is commonly called "Simon Magus", for he was a magician, who had learned diabolical arts, and used enchantments and divinations, as Balaam and the magicians of Egypt did:.-(Gill).
used sorcery-μαγεύων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["MAGIC-ING"//"using-magic"]
bewitched-ἐξιστῶν (existon)-to throw out of position, displace, (i.e. to amaze, to astonish, throw into wonderment):
or rather astonished them, with the strange feats he performed; which were so unheard of and unaccountable, that they were thrown into an ecstasy and rapture; and were as it were out of themselves, through wonder and admiration, at the amazing things that were done by him.-(Gill).
Giving out ... - "Saying"; that is, boasting. It was in this way, partly, that he so confounded them. Jugglers generally impose on people just in proportion to the "extravagance" and folly of their pretensions. The same remark may be made of "quack doctors," and of all persons who attempt to delude and impose on people.-(Barnes).
bewitched-ἐξιστῶν: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["OUT-STANDING"//"amazing"]
*example of G1839: ἐξιστῶν (existon)-bewitched click: Mark 5:42 (they were astonished)
***As far as the gospel prevails, evil spirits are dislodged, particularly unclean spirits. All inclinations to the lusts of the flesh which war against the soul are such. Distempers are here named, the most difficult to be cured by the course of nature, and most expressive of the disease of sin. Pride, ambition, and desire after grandeur have always caused abundance of mischief, both to the world and to the church.***
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Westminster Leningrad Codex
וַיָּבֹ֨א מֹשֶׁ֤ה וְאַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּ֣עַשׂוּ כֵ֔ן כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהוָ֑ה וַיַּשְׁלֵ֨ךְ אַהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־מַטֵּ֗הוּ לִפְנֵ֥י פַרְעֹ֛ה וְלִפְנֵ֥י עֲבָדָ֖יו וַיְהִ֥י לְתַנִּֽין׃
וַיִּקְרָא֙ גַּם־פַּרְעֹ֔ה לַֽחֲכָמִ֖ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִ֑ים וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֨וּ גַם־הֵ֜ם חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י מִצְרַ֛יִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן׃
וַיַּשְׁלִ֙יכוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מַטֵּ֔הוּ וַיִּהְי֖וּ לְתַנִּינִ֑ם וַיִּבְלַ֥ע מַטֵּֽה־אַהֲרֹ֖ן אֶת־מַטֹּתָֽם׃
10"And Moses-מֹשֶׁ֤ה (mō-šeh)-"drawn", the prophet and lawgiver, leader of the exodus) and Aaron-וְאַהֲרֹן֙ (wə-’a-hă-rōn)-"enlightened/illuminated" brother of Moses, a Levite and the first high priest) went in unto Pharaoh-פַּרְעֹ֔ה (par-‘ōh,)-"great house", (i.e. a fifth king of Egypt, who was reigning when Moses returned. B.C. 1491), and they did so as the Lord had commanded-צִוָּ֣ה (ṣiw-wāh)-to set up (a precept or command): and Aaron cast down his rod-מַטֵּ֗הוּ (maṭ-ṭê-hū,)-a rod, staff) before Pharaoh, and before his servants-עֲבָדָ֖יו (‘ă-ḇā-ḏāw)-a servant, doer, tiller, slave), and it became a serpent. 11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers; now the Magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. 12 For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod *swallowed up-וַיִּבְלַ֥ע (way-yiḇ-la‘)-to swallow, swallow up, engulf) their rods."
serpent-תַּנִּין (tanniyn)- a marine or sea monster, (i.e. a serpent):
This was proper, not only to affect Pharaoh with wonder, but to strike a terror upon him. This first miracle, though it was not a plague, yet amounted to the threatening of a plague; if it made not Pharaoh feel, it made him fear; and this is God’s method of dealing with sinners; he comes upon them gradually.-(Benson).
the wise men-לַֽחֲכָמִ֖ים (la-ḥă-ḵā-mîm)-wise, skilful, (i.e. subtle, skillful or artful) and the sorcerers-וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִ֑ים (wə-lam-ḵaš-šə-p̄îm;)-to use witchcraft or sorcery, (a primitive root; properly: to whisper a spell, i.e. to inchant or practise magic:—sorcerer, (use) witch(-craft)):
The cunning men and wizards, a sort of jugglers and deceivers, who pretended to great knowledge of things, to discover secrets, tell fortunes, and predict things to come, and by legerdemain tricks, and casting a mist before people's eyes, pretended to do very wonderful and amazing things; and therefore Pharaoh sent for these, to exercise their art and cunning, and see if they could not vie [compete] with Moses and Aaron.-(Gill).
Many commentators believe them [the wise men and sorcerers] to have been in actual communication With the unseen world, and to have worked their wonders by the assistance of evil spirits. Others, who reject this explanation, believe that they themselves were in possession of certain supernatural gifts. But the commonest view at the present day regards them as simply persons who had a knowledge of many secrets of nature which were generally unknown, and who used this knowledge to impress men with a belief in their supernatural power. The words used to express "magicians" and "enchantments" support this view.-(Pulpit).
*example of Hebrew word: לַֽחֲכָמִ֖ים-the wise men click: Esther 1:13
*example of Hebrew word: וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִ֑ים-and the sorcerers click: Daniel 2:2
the Magicians-חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י (ḥar-ṭum-mê)-scribes, magicians, (i.e. engraver, writer (only in derivative sense of one possessed of occult knowledge) of Egypt-מִצְרַ֛יִם (miṣ-ra-yim)-"land of the Copts", a country at the northeastern section of Africa, adjacent to Palestine, and through which the Nile flows):
they [the Magicians] also did in like manner with their enchantments; or by their secret wiles and juggles, making things seem to appear to the sight when they did not really, but by dazzling the eyes of men by their wicked and diabolical art, they fancied they saw things which they did not; for the word has the signification of flames of fire, or of a flaming sword, or lance, which being brandished to and fro dazzles the sight.-(Gill).
The "magicians" are the "bearers of sacred words," scribes and interpreters of hieroglyphic writings. Books containing magic formulae belonged exclusively to the king; no one was permitted to consult them but the priests and wise men, who formed a council or college, and were called in by the Pharaoh on all occasions of difficulty.-(Barnes).
*example of Hebrew word: חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י-the Magicians click: Exodus 7:22
in like manner-כֵּֽן׃ (kên)-so) with their enchantments-בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶ֖ם (bə-la-hă-ṭê-hem)-flashings):
in show and appearance, which was not difficult for the devil to do, either by altering the air and the spectators’ sight, and by causing their rods both to look and move like serpents; or by a sudden and secret conveyance of real serpents thither, and removing the rods. Nor is it strange that God permitted those delusions, partly because it was a just punishment upon the Egyptians for their horrid and manifold idolatry, and barbarous cruelty towards the Israelites, and their other wickedness; and partly because there was a sufficient difference made between their impostures, and the real miracles wrought by Moses and Aaron, as appears from the next verse, and from Exodus 8:18, and from other passages.-(Matthew P.).
The original expression implies a deceptive appearance, an illusion, a juggler's trick, not an actual putting forth of magic power.-(Barnes).
and they became-וַיִּהְי֖וּ (way-yih-yū)-to be, become, come to pass) serpents-לְתַנִּינִ֑ם (lə-ṯan-nî-nim;)-a marine or sea monster, (i.e. a serpent):
Their rods became serpents, probably by the power of evil angels, artfully substituting serpents in the room of the rods, God permitting the delusion to be wrought for wise and holy ends. But the serpent which Aaron’s rod was turned into, swallowed up the others: which was sufficient to have convinced Pharaoh on which side the right lay.
Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods; by which it was evident, either that Aaron’s rod was turned into a real serpent, because it had the real properties and effects of a serpent, viz. to devour; or, at least, that the God of Israel was infinitely more powerful than the Egyptian idols or devils.-(Matthew P.).
Three names for the magicians of Egypt are given in this verse. The "wise men" are men who know occult arts. The "sorcerers" are they who "mutter magic formulae," especially when driving away crocodiles, snakes, asps, etc. It was natural that Pharaoh should have sent for such persons. The "magicians" are the "bearers of sacred words," scribes and interpreters of hieroglyphic writings. Books containing magic formulae belonged exclusively to the king; no one was permitted to consult them but the priests and wise men, who formed a council or college, and were called in by the Pharaoh on all occasions of difficulty. The names of the two principal magicians, Jannes and Jambres, who "withstood Moses," are preserved by Paul, 2 Timothy 3:8. Both names are Egyptian.-(Barnes).
*swallowed up-וַיִּבְלַ֥ע (way-yiḇ-la‘)-to swallow, swallow up, engulf)
*example of H1104: (וַיִּבְלַ֥ע-swallowed up) click: Exodus 15:12 (תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ-swallowed)
***The magicians were cheats, trying to copy the real miracles of Moses by secret sleights or jugglings, which to a small extent they succeeded in doing, so as to deceive the bystanders, but they were at length obliged to confess they could not any longer imitate the effects of Divine power. None assist more in the destruction of sinners, than such as resist the truth by amusing men with a counterfeit resemblance of it. Satan is most to be dreaded when transformed into an angel of light.***
19 "Then the Magicians said unto Pharaoh; This is the finger of God. and Pharaohs heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them, as the LORD had said."
Westminster Leningrad Codex
וּבִשְׁנַ֣ת שְׁתַּ֗יִם לְמַלְכוּת֙ נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר חָלַ֥ם נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֖ר חֲלֹמֹ֑ות וַתִּתְפָּ֣עֶם רוּחֹ֔ו וּשְׁנָתֹ֖ו נִהְיְתָ֥ה עָלָֽיו׃
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹ֨א לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים וְלָֽאַשָּׁפִ֗ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וְלַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים לְהַגִּ֥יד לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲלֹמֹתָ֑יו וַיָּבֹ֕אוּ וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חֲלֹ֣ום חָלָ֑מְתִּי וַתִּפָּ֣עֶם רוּחִ֔י לָדַ֖עַת אֶֽת־הַחֲלֹֽום׃
1"And in the second year of the reign-לְמַלְכוּת֙ (lə-mal-ḵūṯ)-kingdom, realm, reign, royal dominion) of Nebuchad-nezzar-נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּ֔ר (nə-ḇu-ḵaḏ-neṣ-ṣar,)- "may Nebo protect the crown", the king of Babylon), Nebuchad-nezzar dreamed-חָלַ֥ם (ḥā-lam)-to dream) dreams-חֲלֹמ֑וֹת (ḥă-lō-mō-wṯ;)-a dream), wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake-נִהְיְתָ֥ה (nih-yə-ṯāh)-to be, happen, to occur, come to pass) from him. 2 Then the king commanded to call-לִקְרֹ֨א (liq-rō)-to call, name) the Magicians, and the Astrologers, and the Sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew-לְהַגִּ֥יד (lə-hag-gîḏ)-to put or place before) the King his dreams: So they came and stood before the king. 3 And the King said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled to know-לָדַ֖עַת (lā-ḏa-‘aṯ)-to know) the dream.
the Magicians-לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים (la-ḥar-ṭum-mîm)-scriber, magicians, (i.e. engraver, writer (only in derivative sense of one possessed of occult knowledge):—sacred scribe):
All that is certainly meant is, that they were persons who laid claim to the power of diving into future events; of explaining mysteries; of interpreting dreams; of working by enchantments, etc.
Though Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar made use of these as their great counsellors, yet God baffled them by Moses and Daniel; and forbade his people the use or toleration of them, because they are an abomination to him. God will have his people ask counsel of him and his words, and not of the devil’s oracles.-(Matthew P.).
Magicians.—Heb. chartummim, so called, most probably, from the pencil or stylus with which they wrote. The word is elsewhere used of the Egyptian magicians.-(Ellicott).
*example of H2748: (לַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֜ים-Magicians) click: Exodus 8:7 (הַֽחֲרְטֻמִּ֖ים-And the Magicians)
and the Astrologers-וְלָֽאַשָּׁפִ֗ים (wə-lā-’aš-šā-p̄îm)-enchanters, magicians):
a name derived from the whisperings or mutterings made by them while employed in their incantations...-(Ellicott).
they cast nativities, and pretended by the position and influence of the stars to know what would befall men. Also, "enchanters," from a root, "to conceal," pactisers of the occult arts.
these words signify astrologers, or those that cast nativities, that pretended great skill in natural and supernatural things; and the sorcerers, or necromancers, were those who used diabolical arts.-(Matthew P.).
and the Sorcerers-כָּשַׁף (kashaph)-to use witchcraft or sorcery, a primitive root; properly, to whisper a spell, i.e. to inchant or practise magic:—sorcerer, (use) witch(-craft)):
The Hebrew word is derived from כשׁף kâshaph- meaning, in Piel, to practice magic; to use magic formulas, or incantations; to mutter; and it refers to the various arts by which those who were addicted to magic practiced their deceptions. The particular idea in this word would seem to be, that on such occasions some forms of prayers were used; for the word in Syriac means to offer prayers, or to worship. Probably the aid of idol gods was invoked by such persons when they practiced incantations.-(Barnes).
***Men are more eager to ask as to future events, than to learn the way of salvation or the path of duty; yet foreknowledge of future events increases anxiety and trouble.***
"27 Daniel answered in the presence of the King, and said, The secret-רָזָה֙ (rā-zāh)-a secret, (i.e. (figuratively) hide; a mystery:—secret) which the King hath demanded, cannot-לָ֧איָכְלִ֖ין (lā yā-ḵə-lîn)-to be able not, cannot) the wise men-חַכִּימִ֣ין (ḥak-kî-mîn)-wise, skilful), the astrologers-אָֽשְׁפִ֗ין (’ā-šə-p̄în)-enchanters, magicians), the magicians-חַרְטֻמִּין֙ (ḥar-ṭum-mîn)-scribe, magician, magician-astrologer), the soothsayers-גָּזְרִ֔ין (gā-zə-rîn)-to cut, to cut away, to decree, to decide, (i.e. the deciders, the determiners) shew unto the king: 28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth-גָּלֵ֣א (gā-lê)-to reveal, to uncover, remove) secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchad-nezzar, what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions-וְחֶזְוֵ֥י (wə-ḥez-wê)-vision, appearance, aspect (i.e. something seen) of thy head upon thy bed, are these."
Daniel takes away the king's opinion of his magicians and soothsayers. The insufficiency of creatures should drive us to the all-sufficiency of the Creator. There is One who can do that for us, and make known that to us, which none on earth can, particularly the work of redemption, and the secret designs of God's love to us therein.-(Matthew H.).
The highest talent which the realm [man's ability] could furnish had been applied to, and had failed. It was clear, therefore, that there was no hope that the difficulty would be removed by human skill. Besides this, Daniel would seem also to intimate that the thing, from the necessity of the case, was beyond the compass of the human powers. Alike in reference to the question whether a forgotten dream could be recalled, and to the actual "signification" of a dream so remarkable as this, the whole matter was beyond the ability of man.-(Barnes).
He reckons up here all sorts of divination, to show that divine things, and the secrets of God, cannot be comprehended by man without special revelation; and that those who presume to do it arrogate too much to themselves, and that it is too tyrannical to require it of any, and that upon pain of death; for, saith Daniel, they cannot do it.-(Matthew P.).
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
16 Ἐγένετο δὲ πορευομένων ἡμῶν εἰς προσευχὴν, παιδίσκην τινὰ ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα Πύθωνος, ἀπαντῆσαι ἡμῖν, ἥτις ἐργασίαν πολλὴν παρεῖχε τοῖς κυρίοις αὐτῆς, μαντευομένη. 17 Αὕτη κατακολουθήσασα τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ ἡμῖν, ἔκραζε, λέγουσα, Οὗτοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι, δοῦλοι τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου εἰσίν, οἵτινες καταγγέλλουσιν ἡμῖν ὁδὸν σωτηρίας.
16“And it came to pass, as we went to prayer-προσευχὴν (proseuchen)-a prayer, a pouring out), a certain Damsel possessed with a spirit of //divination (Or, of python), met us: which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying. 17 The same followed-κατακολουθήσασα (katakolouthesasa)-to follow down or thoroughly) Paul and us, and cried-ἔκραζε (ekraze)-to cry out (i.e. call out aloud, speak with a loud voice), saying, These men are the servants of the most high God, which *shew-καταγγέλλουσιν (kataggellousin)-to tell thoroughly) unto us the way-ὁδὸν (hodon)-properly: a way, road, (by (implication): a progress; (figuratively): a mode or means) *of salvation-σωτηρίας (soterias)-deliverance, preservation, safety, salvation, soundness).
a certain-τινὰ (tina)-any one, (i.e. a certain, a certain one) Damsel-παιδίσκην (paidisken)-a young girl, damsel, maid, (i.e. a maid-servant) possessed-ἔχουσαν (echousan)-to have, (i.e. to hold) with a spirit of divination-Πύθωνος (puthonos)-python, (the name of the region where Delphi, the seat of the famous oracle, was located); a Python, i.e. (by analogy: with the supposed diviner there) inspiration (soothsaying):—divination):
According to Plutarch (De def. Orac. 9) those persons who practised ventriloquism, called also ἐγγαστρίμυθοι, were named Pythons. But the damsel in this history clearly laid claim to some prophetic power, and was used as a means of foreknowing the future. So that word Python is here better referred to the name of Apollo, the heathen god of prophecy, and the A.V. “spirit of divination” gives the correct idea.-(Cambridge BSC).
Literally, as in the margin, a spirit of Python, or, as some MSS. give it, a Python spirit. The Python was the serpent worshipped at Delphi, as the symbol of wisdom, from whom the Pythian priestesses took their name, and from whom Apollo, as succeeding to the oracular power of the serpent, took the same adjective.-(Ellicott).
or, of Python, the name of Apollo, from the place where he was worshipped, (which was afterwards called Delphi), and from whom all evil spirits, that pretended to divination, were called Pythons; as that the woman made use of to delude Saul by, 1 Samuel 28:7. (Matthew P.).
possessed-ἔχουσαν: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Feminine: ["HAVING"]
*example of Greek word: ἔχουσαν (echousan)-possessed click: Acts 8:7
which-ἥτις (hetis)-whosoever, who) brought-παρεῖχεν (pareichen)-to reach forth, offer, (i.e. bring about) her-αὐτῆς (autes)-she, (i.e. of her) masters-κυρίοις (kuriois)-master, lord, sir) much-πολλὴν (pollen)-much, many) gain-ἐργασίαν (ergasian)-work, (by implication: gain got by work, profit) by soothsaying-μαντευομένη (manteuomene)-to act as a seer, deliver an oracle, prophesy, divine):
That is, by pretending, with the assistance of a familiar spirit, to discover stolen goods, and to point out the concealed authors of mischiefs, and to disclose the general good or ill-fortune of the persons who applied to her, and their success in particular affairs, with other secrets, for which many ignorant persons, in all countries, are willing to give money. See notes on Deuteronomy 18:10-11; 1 Samuel 28:7.-(Benson).
which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying: divining or prophesying; it seems she had many masters, who had a propriety in her, and shared the gain she brought; unless by them are meant her master and mistress: vast treasures were brought to the temple at Delphos, by persons that applied to the Pythian oracle there; and great quantities were got by particular persons, who pretended to such a spirit, by which they told fortunes, and what should befall people hereafter, or where their lost or stolen goods were, and such like things; and of such sort were the magical boys and servants Pignorius (i) makes mention of, out of Apuleius, Porphyry, and others, who either for gain or pleasure, performed many strange things.-(Gill).
*example of Greek word: ἐργασίαν (ergasian)-gain click: Acts 19:24
These-Οὗτοι (outoi)-these) men-ἄνθρωποι (anthropoi)-a man, a human being:—plural) are-εἰσίν (eisin)-are, be) the servants-δοῦλοι (douloi)-a servant, slave, bondman, (i.e. one who gives himself up wholly to another's will) of the most high-ὑψίστου (hupsistou)-highest, most high, (i.e. (masculine singular) the Supreme (God) God-Θεοῦ (Theou)-God the Father):
A great truth: but they did not need, nor would accept of, such testimony from an evil spirit.-(Benson).
Whatever the nature of the mental and spiritual malady under which this damsel suffered, it produced on her the like effect which is recorded of evil spirits in the history of Jesus (Mark 1:25; Luke 4:41), and forced her to confess to the true character of the Christian teachers. The devils believe and tremble (James 2:19).-(Cambridge BSC).
Satan, though the father of lies, will declare the most important truths, when he can thereby serve his purposes. But much mischief is done to the real servants of Christ, by unholy and false preachers of the gospel, who are confounded with them by careless observers. Those who do good by drawing [pulling] men [away] from sin, may expect to be reviled as troublers of the city [by them who despise God]. While they teach men to fear God, to believe in Christ, to forsake sin, and to live godly lives, they will be accused of teaching bad customs.-(Matthew H.).
and cried, saying, these men are the servants of the most high God; not of Python, or Apollo, as she and her masters were; or of any of the deities of the Gentiles; nor of sin, nor of Satan, nor of men, but of the one only true and living God, one of whose titles is "Elion", the "Most High", Genesis 14:22 and these men were his servants, not merely by right of creation, as all men are, or should be; nor only through the power of divine grace upon their souls, bringing them into a willing obedience to him, as all the saints are; but by office, being ministers of the word
are-εἰσίν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE"]
*shew-καταγγέλλουσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-DOWN-MESSAGING"//"are-announcing"] unto us the way of salvation
*of salvation-σωτηρίας (soterias)-deliverance, preservation, safety, salvation, soundness)
*example of Greek word: σωτηρίας (soterias)-of salvation click: Philippians 1:28
"And this did she many dayes: but Paul being grieved, turned and said to the spirit-πνεῦμα (pneuma)-spirit, (application: unclean spirit), I command-Παραγγέλλω (Paraggello)-to command, order, charge) thee in the Name-ὀνόματι (onomati)-name: univ. of proper names, (i.e.the power of his name being invoked for assistance) of Jesus Christ, to come out of her. And he came out the same houre-ὥρᾳ (hora)-an "hour" (literally or figuratively): i.e. instant)."
10 "There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his sonne, or his daughter to pass thorow the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an inchanter, or a witch, 11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits-אוֹב ('owb)-nekromancer), or a wyzard, or a necromancer. 12 For all that do these things are an abomination-תּוֹעֵבָה (tow`ebah)-abomination, a disgusting thing, abominable, (in ethical sense (of wickedness etc) unto the LORD: and because of these abominations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee."
pass through the fire: either by a superstitious lustration or purgation, or by a cruel sacrificing of them.
divination-קֶסֶם (qecem)-divination, witchcraft): i.e. foretelleth things secret or to come, by unlawful arts and practices.
observer of times-עָנַן (`anan)- to observe the clouds, (i.e. to observe times, practice soothsaying or spiritism or magic or augury or witchcraft, soothsayer, enchanter, sorceress, diviner, fortuneteller,): Superstitiously pronouncing some days good and lucky, and others unlucky, for such or such actions. Also, the appearance or passage of meteors, by thunder, lightning, by the stars, the flying or chattering of birds, and the like. And such things the Egyptians were very inquisitive about, what month or day belonged to the gods, what day any one was born on, what shall befall him, how he will die, and what he shall be
*** example of Hebrew word: עָנַן (`anan) click: 2-Kings 21:6
inchanter-נָחַשׁ (nachash)-to whisper, use enchantment): That discovers hidden things by a superstitious use of words or ceremonies, by observation of water or smoke, or any contingencies, as the meeting of a hare. According to Jarchi, one that remarks things as ominous; as when a morsel falls out of a man's mouth, a roe stops him in the way, or his staff falls out of his hands: the word has the signification of a serpent in it, and so may signify one that enchants them; see Psalm 58:4 or makes observations by them, as portending this and that, and the other
witch-כָּשַׁף (kashaph)-to use witchcraft or sorcery, a primitive root; properly, to whisper a spell, i.e. to inchant or practise magic:—sorcerer, (use) witch(-craft).): One supposed to be in covenant with the devil, and by his help to delude people’s senses, or hurt their persons, their cattle, or other property, through the use of evil arts.
*** example of Hebrew word: כָּשַׁף (kashaph) click: 2 Chronicles 33:6
charmer-חָבַר (chabar)-to join a joining, fascinate, (i.e. to unite, join, bind together, be joined, be coupled, be in league, heap up, have fellowship with, be compact, be a charmer): A dealer in spells, one who by means of spells or charms pretends to achieve some desired result. i.e., one who fascinates and subdues noxious animals or men, such as the famous serpent-charmers of the East.
or a consulter-שָׁאַל (sha'al)-to ask, to inquire, (i.e request): This spirit was supposed to be in the person of the conjurer, and to be able to reveal to him what was secret or hidden in the future. Whom they call upon by certain words or rites to engage them in evil designs.
or a wizard-יִדְעֹנִי (yiddeoni)-a knowing one, a wizard, (i.e. a knower, one who has a familiar spirit): it meant merely "the wise one," or "the knowing one;" and thus is an exact equivalent for the Hebrew word here used (יְדעֹנִי, knowing, wise, from יָדַע, to know). "A knowing or cunning man", who by any superstitious or forbidden ways undertakes the revelation of secret things.
*** example of Hebrew word: יִדְעֹנִי (yiddeoni) click: Leviticus 19:31
necromancer-דָּרַשׁ (darash)-to enquire at the dead,): Literally, "one who interrogates the dead." one who professed to call up the dead, and from them to learn the secrets of futurity, or seeks instruction from them. Their manner of doing this is stated to have been by visiting their graves in the night, and there lying down and muttering certain words with a low voice, by which means they pretended to have communion with them by dreams, or by the dead appearing to them.
It was usual with the Jews to call a demon or devil , "an unclean spirit"; especially such as frequented burying places: so in one place (l), an unclean spirit is interpreted by the gloss, , "the spirit of the demons", or devils; and in another (m) place, , "the demon of the graves"; where necromancers sought to be, that these spirits might be their familiars, and assist them in their enchantments:
18"And many that beleeved-πεπιστευκότων (pepisteukoton)-to adhere to, trust, rely on, to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in) came, and confessed-ἐξομολογούμενοι (exomologoumenoi)-to speak out the same things, (i.e. to profess that one will do something, to promise, agree, engage), and shewed their deeds. 19 Many also of them which used curious arts-περίεργα (perierga)-working round about, impertinent and superfluous, of magic (i.e. officious (meddlesome, neuter plural magic):—busybody, curious arts.), brought their bookes-βίβλους (biblous)-a written book, a roll, a scroll) together, and burned them-κατέκαιον (katekaion)-to burn up, consume by fire) before all men: and they counted the price-τιμὰς (timas)-honour, preciousness, price) of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver-ἀργυρίου (arguriou)-silver, a silver-piece (i.e. money). 20 So mightily-κατὰ (kata)-according to or in strenght) grew the word of God, and prevailed-ἴσχυεν (ischuen)-to be strong, prevail, (i.e. to have a power evinced in extraordinary deeds, i.e. to exert, wield, power).
***This was recorded to show that Christianity had power to induce people to forsake arts that were most lucrative, and to destroy the means of extending and perpetuating those arts, however valuable in a pecuniary point of view
they might be.***
(2 Timothy 3:16-17)
16 "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God-θεόπνευστος (theopneustos)-God-breathed), and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 That the man of God may be perfect-ἄρτιος (artios)-fitted, perfected, fully ready, (by implication) complete:—perfect)), thoroughly furnished-ἐξηρτισμένος (exertismenos)-to fit out, (i.e. to furnish perfectly, equip completely)) unto all good works-ἔργον (ergon)-work, deed, doing, labour, (by implication: an act))."
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