Beloved of the Lord;
Remember: "Thou believest that there is one God, thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble-φρίσσουσιν (phrissousin)-to shutter, have the hair on end, (to "bristle" or chill, i.e. shudder (fear):—tremble)."
tremble-φρίσσουσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Plural: ["ARE-SHUDDERING"]
1. Devils/Unclean spirits
Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation / Italics]
King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]
Concordance / Lexicon:
Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.
The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
Thayer's Greek Lexicon.
Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon
Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon
Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.
Westminster Leningrad Codex
G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing Greek words that share the same Root word, but not the same inflection.
Open Bracket [abc] : My commentary insert/input.
Devils / Unclean Spirits
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
ΚΑῚ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς δώδεκα μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων, ὥστε ἐκβάλλειν αὐτά, καὶ θεραπεύειν πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν.
1 "And when he had called unto him his twelve-δώδεκα (dodeka)-two and ten, i.e. a dozen:—twelve) disciples-μαθητὰς (mathetas)-a learner, pupil, disciple), he gave-ἔδωκεν (edoken)-to give) them power-ἐξουσίαν (exousian)-power, authority, privilege) //against (Or, over) unclean-ἀκαθάρτων (akatharton)-impure, foul) spirits-πνευμάτων (pneumaton)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men), to cast them out-ἐκβάλλειν (ballein)-to cast out, drive out, to send out), and *to heal-θεραπεύειν (therapeuein)-to attend to, heal, to heal, cure, restore to health) all manner of sickness-νόσον (noson)-unsoundness, sickness, (of uncertain affinity; a malady (rarely figuratively, of moral disability):—disease, infirmity, sickness.), and all manner of disease-μαλακίαν (malakian)-softness, (i.e. in the NT infirmity, debility, bodily weakness, sickness)."
*example of Greek word: θεραπεύειν (therapeuein)-to heal click: Matthew 4:23
when he had called-προσκαλεσάμενος: Verb, Aorist, Middle-Deponent, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["calling-to-him"]
he gave-ἔδωκεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-GIVES"]
cast out-ἐκβάλλειν: Verb, Present, Active, Infinitive: ["to-be-casting-out"]
twelve-δώδεκα (dodeka)-two and ten, i.e. a dozen:—twelve) disciples-μαθητὰς (mathetas)-a learner, pupil, disciple),:
It was important that the Saviour should choose them early in his ministry, in order that they might be fully acquainted with him; might treasure up his instructions, and observe his manner of life and his person, so that, by having been long acquainted with him, they might be able to testify to his identity and be competent witnesses of his resurrection.
power-ἐξουσίαν (exousian)-power, authority, privilege) against unclean-ἀκαθάρτων (akatharton)-impure, foul) spirits-πνευμάτων (pneumaton)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men),:
Jesus gave the disciples "authority". Evil spirits are called unclean, because they are wicked, and delight in wickedness; which is the only pollution of a spiritual being.
to heal-θεραπεύειν (therapeuein)-to attend to, heal, to heal, cure, restore to health):
They were empowered to heal the diseases of their bodies. By this power of working miracles the apostles, though men of low degree and illiterate, were enabled to draw the attention of their countrymen, and to gain credit to the before unheard-of doctrine which they were to preach.
Updating & re-formatting
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Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
23 καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξε, 24 λέγων, Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ. 25 καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, λέγων, Φιμώθητι, καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ. 26 καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ κράξαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ, ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
23 "And there was in their Synagogue a man with an unclean-ἀκαθάρτῳ (akatharto)-impure, foul) spirit-πνεύματι: (pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men), and *he cried out, 24 Saying, Let us alone-Ἔα (ea)-interjection expressive of indignation, or of wonder mixed with fear, ha! ah!), what have we to do with thee, thou thou Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) of Nazareth-Ναζαρηνέ (Nazarene)-a city in Zebulun, in lower Galilee, seventy miles N. of Jerusalem, six miles W. of Mount Tabor, and twenty-four S.E. of Accho or Acre.)? art thou come to destroy-ἀπολέσαι (apolesai)-to loose off or away, destroy, (i.e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, ruin) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us, we)? I know-οἶδά (oida)-to see, have seen, known, (i.e. to know) thee who thou art-εἶ (ei)-thou art:—art, be), the holy One of God. 25 And Jesus rebuked-ἐπετίμησεν (epetimesen)-to set a weight upon, chide, (i.e. to admonish or charge sharply) him, saying, Hold thy peace-Φιμώθητι (phimotheti)-to close the mouth with a muzzle, to muzzle (metaph. to stop the mouth, make speechless, reduce to silence), and come-ἔξελθε (exelthe)-to go or come forth of, (i.e. depart, come out) out of him. 26 And when the unclean-ἀκάθαρτον (akatharton)-unclean, impure, (specially: (demonic):—foul, unclean) spirit-πνεῦμα (pneuma)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men) had torn-σπαράξαν (sparaxan)-to convulse, tear) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him), and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him."
*example of Greek word: ἀνέκραξεν (anekrexen)-he cried out click: Luke 4:33
*example of Greek word: ἀπολέσαι (apolesai) click: Matthew 2:13
*example of Greek word: ἐπετίμησεν (epetimesen) click: Matthew 17:18
*example of Greek word: Φιμώθητι (phimotheti)-Hold thy peace click: Luke 4:35
*example of Greek word: σπαράξαν (sparaxan)-torn click: Mark 9:26 (rent)
I know-οἶδά: Verb, Perfect, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-am-aware-of"]
thou art-εἶ: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["ARE"//"you-are"]
rebuked-ἐπετίμησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular:["rebukES"]
Hold thy peace-Φιμώθητι: Verb, Aorist, Passive, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["BE-BEING-MUZZLED"//"be-you-still!"]
come-ἔξελθε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["be-you-coming-out!"]
an unclean-ἀκαθάρτῳ (akatharto)-impure, foul) spirit-πνεύματι: (pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men),:
Not with an unclean heart, for there were doubtless many such there, but that he had a devil; so called, because he is impure in himself, and the cause of uncleanness in men, in which he delights: and such spirits sometimes are where religious persons meet, but with no good design; either to disturb the preacher, or to divert the hearer, that the word may be unfruitful and unprofitable.
he cried out-ἀνέκραξεν (anekrexen)-to raise a cry from the depth of the throat, to cry out),:
he cried out through dread of the majesty of Christ, whose presence he could not bear; and through grief and envy at the success of his ministration, and the influence it had upon the minds of men.
Let us alone-Ἔα (ea)-interjection expressive of indignation, or of wonder mixed with fear, ha! ah!),:
Though only one impure spirit is mentioned as possessing this man, yet that spirit speaks also in the name of others.
thou Jesus-Ἰησοῦ (Iesou)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) of Nazareth-Ναζαρηνέ (Nazarene)-a city in Zebulun, in lower Galilee, seventy miles N. of Jerusalem, six miles W. of Mount Tabor, and twenty-four S.E. of Accho or Acre.)?:
Jesus came to destroy the works of the devil, and Jesus had a right, therefore, to liberate the captive, and to punish him who had possessed him. So Satan still considers it an infringement of his rights when God frees a "sinner" from bondage and destroys his influence over the soul.
to destroy-ἀπολέσαι (apolesai)-to loose off or away, destroy, (i.e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, ruin) us-ἡμᾶς (hemas)-us, we)?:
either to turn them out of the bodies of men, which to them was a sort of a destruction of them, and was really a destroying that power, which they had for some time exercised over men; or to shut them up in the prison of hell, and inflict that full punishment on them, which is in reserve for them.
Hold thy peace-Φιμώθητι (phimotheti)-to close the mouth with a muzzle, to muzzle (metaph. to stop the mouth, make speechless, reduce to silence),:
"Be muzzled." "Restrain thyself." "Cease from complaints, and come out of the man." A glorious word of command.
when the unclean-ἀκάθαρτον (akatharton)-unclean, impure, (specially: (demonic):—foul, unclean) spirit-πνεῦμα (pneuma)-spirit, (i.e. used of evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men) had torn-σπαράξαν (sparaxan)-to convulse, tear) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him),:
"he cast him", or "threw him to the ground": he threw him into convulsions, and laid him prostrate on the floor.
The Greek word σπαράσσω may be rendered in the passive to be convulsed. It is so used by medical writers, as Galen. It could hardly here mean physically "laceration," for St. Luke (Luke 4:35) is careful to say that "when the devil had thrown him down in the midst, he came out of him, having done him no hurt." At all events, the expression indicates the close union of the evil spirit with the possessed man's consciousness and with his physical frame. And the manner in which he departed showed his malignity, as though, being compelled by the supreme authority of Christ to leave the man, he would injure him as far as he was able to do so. But the power of Christ prevented him from doing any real injury. -(Pulpit)
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
9 Καὶ εἶπε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα πλοιάριον προσκαρτερῇ αὐτῷ, διὰ τὸν ὄχλον, ἵνα μὴ θλίβωσιν αὐτόν. 10 Πολλοὺς γὰρ ἐθεράπευσεν, ὥστε ἐπιπίπτειν αὐτῷ ἵνα αὐτοῦ ἅψωνται ὅσοι εἶχον μάστιγας. 11 Καὶ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ ἀκάθαρτα, ὅταν αὐτὸν ἐθεώρει, προσέπιπτεν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἔκραζε, λέγοντα, Ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, 12 Καὶ πολλὰ ἐπετίμα αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ αὐτὸν φανερὸν ποιήσωσι.
9 "And he spake to his disciples that a small ship should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng him. 10 For he had healed many, insomuch that they //pressed (Or, rushed) upon him, for to touch-ἅψωνται (hapsontai)-to touch, hold on, embrace) him, as many as had plagues. 11 And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before-προσέπιπτεν (prosepipten)-to fall toward, (i.e. (gently) prostrate oneself (in supplication or homage), or (violently) to rush upon (in storm):—beat upon, fall (down) at (before) him, and cried, saying, Thou art-εἶ (ei)- second person singular present of thou art:—art, be) the Son of God. 12 And he straitly charged them that they should not make him known."
he had healed-ἐθεράπευσεν (etherapeusen)-to heal, cure, restore to health) many-πολλοὺς (pollous)-much, many), insomuch that-ὥστε (oste)-so that, insomuch that) they //pressed (Or, rushed) upon-ἐπιπίπτειν (epipiptein)-to fall upon, to lie or press upon) him-αὐτῷ (auto)-him):
Of various diseases, and the fame of this brought more still to him: insomuch that they pressed upon him; or pushed upon him, with great eagerness and violence. The Arabic version renders it, "they rushed upon him, so that they fell": they pushed on, and pressed so hard to get to him, that they fell upon one another, and on him: the Persic version renders it, "they cast themselves on him, for the sake of touching him"; which must be very troublesome indeed. Though some think the phrase signifies no more, than that they fell down before him at his feet, in a submissive and petitionary way, entreating they might have the favour.-(Matthew P.).
he had healed-ἐθεράπευσεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-curES"]
*example of Greek word: ἐθεράπευσεν (etherapeusen)-he had healed click: Matthew 4:24
*touch-ἅψωνται: Verb, Aorist, Middle, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural: ["they-should-be-touching"]
plagues-μάστιγας (mastigas)-a scourge, whip, plague (i.e. a calamity, misfortune, (esp. sent by God to discipline or punish):
of leprosy, and other diseases, which were inflicted on them by God, as scourges and chastisements for their sins, as the word signifies. As many as had diseases or maladies of body or mind. The word plague, now confined to the pestilence, does not express the meaning of the original, and tends to mislead. The Syriac version reads thus, "who had plagues of unclean spirits"; as if these plagues were their being possessed by unclean spirits. The Persic version thus, "having plagues from unclean spirits"; as if these plagues were inflicted upon them by them, and which was sometimes the case.
*example of G3148: μάστιγας (mastigas-plagues) click: Luke 7:21 (mastigon-plagues)
unclean-ἀκάθαρτα (akatharta)-unclean, impure, (or specially, (demonic):—foul, unclean) spirits-πνεύματα (pneumata)-spirit, (used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men):
It is worthy of notice that the afflicted people fell upon him; but the unclean spirits felt down before him, and this not out of love or devotion, but out of abject fear, dreading lest he should drive them out of the "possessed," and send them before their time to their destined torment.
*example of Greek word: ἀκάθαρτα (akatharta)-unclean click: Mark 5:13
the Son-υἱὸς (huios)-literally: a son, (i.e. (the) Son of God) of God-θεοῦ (theou)-God, (i.e. God the Father):
The circumstance here referred to demonstrates the existence of evil spirits. If these were merely diseased or deranged persons, then it is strange that they should be endowed with knowledge so much superior to those in health. If they were under the influence of an order of spirits superior to man - whose appropriate habitation was in another world - then it is not strange that they should know him, even in the midst of his poverty, to be the Messiah, the Son of God.
In the Synagogue of Capernaum they had called Him the “Holy One of God” (Mark 1:24), they now acknowledge Him as the “Son of God” (comp. Luke 4:41). The force of the imperfect tense in the original here is very striking, “whenever the demons saw Him, they kept falling down before Him and saying” … and as often as they did so, “He straitly charged them that they should not make Him known,” i. e. as the Messiah “the Son of God.”-(Cambridge BSC).
A voice from heaven at his baptism had proclaimed him to be the Son of God [Matthew 3:17], and that voice must have vibrated through the spiritual world. Then, further, they must have known him to be the Son of God by the numerous and mighty miracles which he wrought, and which they must have seen [o be real miracles, such as could only have been wrought by the supernatural power of God, and which were wrought by Christ for this very purpose, that they might prove him to be the promised Messiah, the only begotten Son of God.-(Pulpit).
*art-εἶ: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["ARE"]
And-καὶ (kai)-and) he straitly-πολλὰ (polla)-much, (i.e. with many words) charged-ἐπετίμα (epetima)-to put weight upon, (i.e. to admonish or charge sharply) them-αὐτοῖς (autois)-them):
Or vehemently rebuked them, as the Syriac and Arabic versions render it; or threatened them much and vehemently, as the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic. The Persic version renders it, "threatened many"; both the devils that confessed him, and the many that were healed of their diseases: he gave them a strict and severe charge, that they should not make him known; or "his work", as the Arabic [version], his miracles: he sought not vain glory and popular applause, nor did he need the testimony of men or devils; and especially did not choose the latter [testimony of devils], lest his enemies [such as the Pharisees] should traduce [slander] him, as having familiarity with them [devils/unclean spirits], as they did.-(Gill).
charged-ἐπετίμα: Verb, Imperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["He-RebukED"]
*example of Greek word: ἐπετίμα (epetima)-charged click: Luke 23:40
***All our sicknesses and calamities spring from the anger of God against our sins. Their removal, or the making them blessings to us, was purchased to us by the blood of Christ. But the plagues and diseases of our souls, of our hearts, are chiefly to be dreaded; and He can heal them also by a word. May more and more press to Christ to be healed of these plagues, and to be delivered from the enemies of their souls.***
1 And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 2 And when he was come out of the ship, immediately-εὐθὲως (eutheos)-directly, straightway) there met him out of the tombs-μνημείων (mnemeion)-a sepulchre, a monument, tomb), a man with an unclean-ἀκαθάρτῳ (akatharto)-foul, unclean, impure) spirit-πνεύματι (pneumati)-spirit, (i.e. of evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men), 3 Who had his dwelling-κατοίκησιν (katoikesin)-dwelling, abode) among the tombs, and no man could bind him, no, not with chains: 4 Because that he had been often-πολλάκις (pollakis)-often, frequently, oftentimes) *bound-δεδέσθαι (dedesthai)-to bind tie, fasten) with fetters-πέδαις (pedais)-a fetter, shackle for the feet) and chains, and the chains *had been plucked asunder-διεσπάσθαι (diespasthai)-to draw asunder, break asunder, to draw apart) by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame-δαμάσαι (damasai)-to tame, subdue) him. 5 And always night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones. 6 But when he saw-ἰδὼν (idon)-to see, look) Jesus afar off, he came and worshipped him, 7 And cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high-ὑψίστου (hupsistou)-highest, most high (i.e. of rank: the most high God) God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not. 8 (For he said unto him, *Come-Ἔξελθε (exelthe)-to go or come forth of) out of the man, thou unclean spirit.) 9 And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for *we are-ἐσμεν (esmen)-"We are" (first person plural of 'to be') many. 10 And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country-χώρας (choras)-space, place, region (i.e. land as inhabited, a province or country). 11 Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine, feeding. 12 And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. 13 And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine, and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea (they were about two thousand;) and were choked-ἐπνίγοντο (epnigonto)-to choke, strangle) in the sea.
him-αὐτῶ (auto)-him): Jesus Christ
bind-δῆσαι (desai)-to bind, tie, fasten (i.e. to bind, to fasten with chains, to throw into chains) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-the same, him), no, not-οὒτε (oute)-not even, (i.e. not even:—neither, none, nor (yet), (no, yet) with chains-ἁλύσεσιν (alusesin)-(unloosed) chain, (i.e. a chain, bond):
Not only cords were insufficient to hold, but even chains of iron; so strong was he through the possession [of a legion of unclean spirits]; for this could not be by his own natural strength.
bind-δῆσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BIND"]
*example of Greek word: δῆσαι (desai)-bind click: Acts 9:14
*bound-δεδέσθαι: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Infinitive:
*had been plucked asunder-διεσπάσθαι: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Infinitive: ["to-have-been-pulled-to pieces"]
crying-κράζων (krazon)-to cry out, cry aloud, vociferate), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) cutting-κατακόπτων (katakopton)-to cut against or greatly (i.e. to beat, bruise) himself-ἑαυτὸν (eauton)-himself) with stones-λίθοις (lithois)- a stone, (e.g. of small stones):
Nothing that he can do, or can be done for him by a mere creature [i.e. doctor, psychiatrist, etc.], can free him from it [being possessed]: nothing but the blood of Christ, and that cleanses from all sin: this man, through the possession of Satan, was a madman, and exceeding fierce and furious: there is a spirit of madness in all unregenerate men; they are exceeding mad against God, and Christ, and the saints.
cutting-κατακόπτων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["DOWN-STRIKING"//"cutting"]
*example of Greek word: κράζων (krazon)-crying click: Revelation 14:15
he came and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) worshipped-προσεκύνησεν (prosekunesen)-to kiss (the hand) toward one, in token of reverence, (i.e. by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance) him-αὐτῷ (auto)-him):
This is an instance of the superiority of Christ over the devils, who knowing who he is, are filled with horror at him, fall down before him, and in their way do homage to him.
worshipped-προσεκύνησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-worships"]
*example of Greek word: προσεκύνησεν (prosekunesen)-worshipped click: John 9:38 (he worshipped)
I adjure-ὁρκίζω (horkizo)-to adjure (solemnly implore) thee-σε (de)-thou, thee) by God-θεόν (theon)-God, (i.e. the only and true God), that thou torment-βασανίσῃς (basanises)-to try, test, torment, (i.e. to torture:—pain, torment, vex) me-με (me)-me) not-μή (me)-no, not lest):
not that he required an oath of Christ, that he would swear to him by the living God, that he would not distress him; but he most earnestly and importunately entreated and beseeched him, in the name of God.
The torment which he dreaded was that which he might suffer after expulsion. So St. Luke says that they entreated him that he would not command them to depart into the abyss. Great as this mystery of evil is, we may believe that the evil spirits, although while they roam about upon this earth they are in misery, still it is some alleviation that they are not yet shut up in the prison-house of hell, but are suffered to wander about and their depraved pleasure in tempting men; so that, if possible, they may at last drag them down with them into the abyss. For they are full of hatred of God and envy of man; and they find a miserable satisfaction in endeavoring to keep men out of those heavenly mansions from which, through pride, they are themselves now for ever excluded.-(Pulpit).
I adjure-ὁρκίζω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-OATHizING"//"I-am-adjuring"]
that thou torment-βασανίσῃς: Verb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 2nd Person, Singular: ["you-should-be-tormenting"] me not
*example of Greek word: ὁρκίζω (horkizo)-I adjure click: 1 Thessalonians 5:27
*example of G928: βασανίσῃς (basanises-that thou torment) click: Matthew 8:6 (basanizomenos-tormented)
*Come-Ἔξελθε: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Imperative, 2nd Person, Singular: ["BE-OUT-COMING"//"be-you-coming-out!"]
Legion-Λεγιών (Legion)-a legion (from Lat. legio), (i.e. a legion- a body of soldiers whose number differed at different times, and in the time of Augustus seems to have consisted of 6826 men (i.e. 6100 foot soldiers, and 726 horsemen):
n Roman ranks, a legion of soldiers consisted of three to six thousand men, or more. Here was a legion in one poor wretched creature! Many there are that rise up against us. We are not a match for our spiritual enemies, in our own strength; but in the Lord, and in the power of his might, we shall be able to stand against them, though there are legions of them.
*example of Greek word: Λεγιών (Legion)-Legion click: luke 8:30
*we are-ἐσμεν: Verb, Present, (No voice stated), Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-ARE"] many
"Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man, out of-ἀφ (aph)-from, away from) whom the devils-δαιμόνια (daimonia)-to be demonized, (i.e. of evil spirits or the messengers and ministers of Satan) *were departed-ἐξεληλύθει (exeleluthei)-go out or forth (i.e. to come out), sitting at the feet of Jesus, *clothed-ἱματισμένον (himatismenon)-to use raiment, or a garment, (to dress:—clothe), and **in his right mind-σωφρονοῦντα (sophronounta)-to be in or have a sound mind, (i.e. sane): and they were afraid."
*were departed-ἐξεληλύθει: Verb, Pluperfect, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["had-come-out"]
*clothed-ἱματισμένον:Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["beING-GARMENTED"]
*in his right mind-σωφρονοῦντα: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Accusative, Singular, Masculine: ["beING-sane"]
*example of G4993: σωφρονοῦντα (sophronounta-in his right mind) click: 1 Peter 4:7 (sophronesate-be ye sober)
When they that fed them saw what was done,.... That the devils went out of the man possessed by them, and entered into the herd of swine, which becoming mad therewith, ran furiously down the precipice into the sea, and were drowned: they fled; as persons affrighted, at these uncommon and surprising events, and as afraid to see their owners: and went and told it in the city; that is, of Gadara, or some other city near at hand; the Syriac and Ethiopic versions read, "in the cities"; in all the cities round about, in that country:-(Gill).
The swineherds told their story, quickly the news spread; a great concourse from all the country-side soon gathered round the scene of the catastrophe. It was quiet then; the waters of the lake had closed over the tormented creatures, The demoniac, so long the terror of the neighbourhood, now sane, clothed, too, like one of them, was sitting peacefully full of deep, aweful gratitude at the Master's feet; the disciples were standing round;..."-(Pulpit).
38"And behold-ἰδού (idou)-used as imperative lo!; --behold, lo, see), a man of the company-ὄχλου (ochlou)-a crowd, (i.e. multitude, number of people, company) cried out-ἀνεβόησεν (aneboesen)-to raise a cry, (i.e. to halloo:—cry (aloud, out), saying, Master, *I beseech-δέομαί (deomai)-to be in want, (i.e. petition:—beseech, pray (to), make request) thee look-ἐπιβλέψον (epiblepson)-to look upon, (i.e. equivalent to: to have regard for, to regard) upon my son, for he is mine only child. 39 And lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly-ἐξαίφνης (exaiphnes)-suddenly, unexpectedly) crieth out-κράζει (krazei)-to cry out, cry aloud, vociferate, to croak (as a raven) or scream, i.e. (genitive case) to call aloud (shriek, exclaim, intreat):—cry (out); and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him, hardly departeth from him. 40 And I besought thy disciples to *cast him out-ἐκβάλλωσιν (ekballosin)-to cast out, drive out, to send out), and they could not. 41 And Jesus answering, said, O faithless-ἄπιστος (apistos)-unsteadfast, unfaithful, unbelieving, incredulous, (i.e. without trust (in God), and *perverse-διεστραμμένη (diestrammene)-to turn diversely, perversely, to distort, turn aside, (to distort, i.e. (figuratively) misinterpret, or (morally) corrupt:—perverse(-rt), turn away) generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer-ἀνέξομαι (anexomai)-to hold oneself up against, i.e. (figuratively) put up with:—bear with, endure, forbear, suffer) you? Bring thy son hither. 42 And as he was yet a coming, the devil-δαιμόνιον (daimonion)-daimon, demon, shade, ( i.e. of evil spirits or the messengers and ministers of Satan) threw him down, and *tare-συνεσπάραξεν (sunesparaxen)-to tare or lacerate together, (to rend completely, i.e. (by analogy) to convulse violently:—throw down) him. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed-ἰάσατο (iasato)-to cure, heal (i.e. to make whole) the child, and delivered him again to his father."
28 "And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could-ἠδυνήθημεν (edunethemen)-to be able or possible:—be able, can) not-οὐκ (ouk)-no, not) we cast him out-ἐκβαλεῖν (ekbalein)-to cast out, drive out, to send out)? 29 And he said unto them, This kind-γένος (genos)-kind, sort) can *come forth-ἐξελθεῖν (exelthein)-to go or come forth of, (i.e. depart, come out) by nothing-οὐδενὶ (oudeni)-nothing), but by-ἐν (en)-in) prayer and fasting."
*I beseech-δέομαί: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-beseechING"]
a spirit-πνεῦμα (pneuma)-spirit, (used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men) taketh-λαμβάνει (lambanei)-to take, (i.e. to get possession of, obtain, a thing (metaphorically, of affections or evils seizing on a man) him-αὐτόν (auton)-him):
How deplorable the case of this child! He was under the power of an evil spirit. Disease of that nature are more frightful than such as arise merely from natural causes. What mischief Satan does where he gets possession! But happy those that have access to Christ! He can do that for us which his disciples cannot. A word from Christ healed the child; and when our children recover from sickness, it is comfortable to receive them as healed by the hand of Christ. The case of afflicted children should be presented to God by faithful and fervent prayer. Christ cured the child. Though the people were perverse, and Christ was provoked, yet care was taken of the child. When all other helps and succours fail, we are welcome to Christ, may trust in him, and in his power and goodness.-(Henry M.)
taketh-λαμβάνει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["is-getting"]
it teareth-σπαράσσει (sparassei)-to draw out and beat, tear, lacerate, (i.e. to mangle, i.e. convluse with epilepsy:—rend, tear) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him) that he foameth-ἀφροῦ (aphrou)-foam (apparently a primary word; froth, i.e. slaver:—foaming.) again-μετὰ (meta)-with, (i.e. along with), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) bruising-συντρῖβον (suntribon)-to rub together, to break down, crush, (i.e. to tear one's body and shatter one's strength) him-αὐτὸν (auton)-him):
The devil (unclean spirit) threw him down, and tare him; knowing who Jesus was, and that he was able to dispossess him: and having reason to believe he would, was resolved to do all the mischief he could, and give him all the pain add distress he was able, whilst he was in him; and therefore threw him to the ground, and convulsed him in a terrible manner at the same time.
and it teareth him, that he foameth again; throws him into convulsions, so that he foams at the mouth.-(Matthew P.)
"The word literally means crushing together;..."-(Vincent's word study)
"by dashing him against the wall, or throwing him to the ground."-(Gill).
it teareth-σπαράσσει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["it-IS-CONVULSING"] him
bruising-συντρῖβον: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Neuter: ["crushING"//"brusing"] him
*example of G4682: σπαράσσει (sparassei-it teareth) click: Mark 1:26 (sparaxan-had torn)
*example of G4937: συντρῖβον (suntribon-bruising) click: Romans 16:20 (suntripsei-shall bruise)
hardly-μόγις (mogis)-with difficulty, with labour, pain or trouble) departeth-ἀποχωρεῖ (apochorei)-to go away, depart) from-ἀπ (ap)-a primary particle; "off," i.e. away (from something near) him-αὐτοῦ (auton)-him):
hardly departeth from him; is very loath [reluctant/unwilling] to leave him, even after he has distressed, convulsed, and bruised him in this dreadful manner, such was his cruelty and malice; See Gill on Matthew 17:15, Mark 9:18.
departeth-ἀποχωρεῖ: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["is-departing"//"IS-FROM-SPACING"]
*cast out-ἐκβάλλωσιν: Verb, Present, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Plural: ["THEY-MAY-BE-OUT-CASTING"//"they-may-be-casting-out"] him
*perverse-διεστραμμένη: Verb, Perfect, Passive, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Feminine: ["having-been-perverted"//"HAVING-been-THRU-TURNED]
*tare-συνεσπάραξεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["violently-convulses"] him
Jesus-Ἰησοῦς (Iesous)-Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) rebuked-ἐπετίμησεν (epetimesen)-to set a weight upon, chide, (i.e. censure or admonish; by implication, forbid:—(straitly) charge, rebuke) the unclean spirit:
A word of the great Master was sufficient, and the spirit which had brought the cruel curse of disease and madness into the boy was cast out, and the strange cure was complete [compare to Matthew 17:18].
See the fuller details and the memorable cry of the poor father in Mark 9:21-24. The child had been rendered deaf and dumb by his possession; in the last paroxysm he wallowed on the ground foaming, and then lay as dead till Jesus raised him by the hand.-(Cambridge BSC).
the devil threw him down, and tare him; knowing who Jesus was, and that he was able to dispossess him: and having reason to believe he would, was resolved to do all the mischief he could, and give him all the pain add distress he was able, whilst he was in him; and therefore threw him to the ground, and convulsed him in a terrible manner at the same time:-(Gill).
rebuked-ἐπετίμησεν: Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["rebukES"]
*come forth-ἐξελθεῖν: Verb, Second-Aorist, Active, Infinitive:
["TO-BE-OUT-COMING"//"to-be-coming-out"] by nothing, but by
prayer-προσευχῇ (proseuche)-a prayer, pouring out, (i.e. pray earnestly, prayer addressed to God) and-Καὶ (kai)-and, also) fasting-νηστείᾳ (nesteia)-a fasting, fast, (i.e. abstinence from food, fast(-ing):
"this kind of evil spirits cannot be expelled," or "so desperate a case of demoniacal possession cannot be cured, but by prayer and fasting." The words imply degrees in the intensity of the kinds of evil ascribed to demons amounting to a generic difference. Some might yield before the energy of a human will, and the power of the divine Name, and the prayers even of a weak faith. Some, like that which comes before us here, required a greater intensity of the spiritual life, to be gained by the “prayer and fasting” of which our Lord speaks. See here an emblem of Christ's undertaking as our Redeemer. It encourages parents to bring children to Christ, whose souls are under Satan's power; he is able to heal them, and as willing as he is able. Not only bring them to Christ by prayer, but bring them to the word of Christ; to means by which Satan's strong-holds in the soul are beaten down. This is contrary to the Roman Catholic Church, who uses "holy water" and "graven images; such as a rosary, cross, candle" to conduct "exorcism", as oppose to having faith in God, using the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and at times praying and fasting.
*example of Greek word: προσευχῇ (proseuche)-prayer click: Luke 6:12
*example of Greek word: νηστείᾳ (nesteia)-fasting click: 1 Corinthians 7:5
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
13 Ἐπεχείρησαν δέ τινες ἀπὸ τῶν περιερχομένων Ἰουδαίων ἐξορκιστῶν ὀνομάζειν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἔχοντας τὰ πνεύματα τὰ πονηρὰ, τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ, λέγοντες Ὁρκίζομεν ὑμᾶς τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὃν Παῦλος κηρύσσει. 14 Ἦσαν δέ τινες υἱοὶ Σκεῦα Ἰουδαίου Ἀρχιερέως ἑπτὰ, οἱ τοῦτο ποιοῦντες. 15 Ἀποκριθὲν δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ πονηρὸν εἶπε, Τὸν Ἰησοῦν γινώσκω, καὶ τὸν Παῦλον ἐπίσταμαι· ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνες ἐστέ; 16 Καὶ ἐφαλόμενος ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐν ᾧ ἦν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ πονηρόν, καὶ κατακυριεύσας αὐτῶν, ἴσχυσεν κατ᾽ αὐτῶν, ὥστε γυμνοὺς καὶ τετραυματισμένους ἐκφυγεῖν ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου ἐκείνου.
13 "Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them-ἐπεχείρησαν (epecheiresan)-to put the hand upon, i.e. undertake:—go about, take in hand (upon) to call over them which had evil-πονηρὰ (ponera)-the evil, wicked, bad, (i.e. bad, of a bad nature or condition) spirits, the Name of the Lord Jesus, saying, *We adjure-Ὁρκίζομεν (Orkizomen)-to adjure (to put on oath, i.e. make swear; by analogy, to solemnly enjoin:—adjure, charge) you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth. 14 And there were seven sons of one Sceva-Σκευᾶ (Skeua)-a Jewish priest of Ephesus, father of seven sons who attempted to cast out a demon in the name of Jesus) a Jew, and chief of the priests-ἀρχιερέως (archiereos)-chief priest, high priest, (He who above all others was honored with the title of priest, the chief of the priests), which did so. 15 And the evil-πονηρὸν (poneron)-evil, (i.e. wicked, bad) spirit answered and said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are ye? 16 And the man in whom the evil spirit was, leaped-ἐφαλλόμενος (ephallomenos)-to leap upon, spring upon) on them, and overcame-κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusas)-to domineer, have full power (i.e. to bring under one's power, to subject to oneself, to subdue, master) them, *and prevailed-ἴσχυσεν (ischusen)-to be strong, prevail, (i.e. to have strength to overcome) against them, so that they fled-ἐκφυγεῖν (ekphugein)-to flee out:—escape, flee) out of that house naked and wounded."
the vagabond-περιερχομένων (perierchomenon)-to come or go round about, (i.e. to go about: of strollers) Jews-Ἰουδαίων (ioudaion)-Jewish):
some impostors, who had no faith, tried to win more credit for their jugglery by employing the names of Paul and Jesus. These were certain Jews who went about from place to place, professing by charms and spells to cure diseases.
The word "vagabond" with us is now commonly used in a bad sense, to denote "a vagrant; a man who has no home; an idle, worthless fellow." The word, however, properly means "one wandering from place to place, without any settled habitation, from whatever cause it may be." Here it denotes "those Jews who wandered from place to place, practicing exorcism."-(Barnes).
simply, "wandering Jews," who went from place to place practicing exorcism, or the art of conjuring evil spirits to depart out of the possessed.-(Jamieson-Fausset-Brown)
*example of G4022: περιερχομένων (perierchomenon-the vagabond) click: 1 Timothy 5:13 (perierchomenai-wandering about)
exorcists-ἐξορκιστῶν (exorkiston)-one who adjures out demons, (i.e. one who employs a formula of conjuration for expelling demons): This word properly denotes "those who went about pretending to be able to expel evil spirits, or to cure diseases by charms, incantations," etc.
This word properly denotes "those who went about pretending to be able to expel evil spirits, or to cure diseases by charms, incantations," etc. The word is derived from ὁρκίζω horkizō, "to bind with an oath." It was applied in this sense, because those who pretended to be able to expel demons used the formula of an oath, or adjured them, to compel them to leave the possessed persons. Compare Matthew 12:27. They commonly used the name of God, or called on the demons in the name of God to leave the person. Here they used the name Jesus to command them to come out. Such wanderers and pretenders are common in Oriental countries now..."-(Barnes).
*We adjure-Ὁρκίζομεν: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural: ["WE-ARE-OATHizING"\\"we-are-adjuring"]
whom-ὃν (on)-who, which) Paul-Παῦλος (Paulos)-Paul was an apostle and wrote a good part of the NT, the 14 Pauline epistles) preacheth-κηρύσσει (kerussei)-to cry or proclaim as a herald, publish):
As if they would say: "We will try whether evil spirits go out in (by) this name": in short, there was no faith in them; but Satan is to be overcome by no forms of speech, and by no works, but by faith alone in the Word of GOD. Vain undertaking! Satan laughs at all those who attempt to expel him, either out of the bodies or souls of men, except by divine faith.
these took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits, the name of the Lord Jesus; they imitated the Apostle Paul, and attempted to do as he did, using the same: name; hoping to get money or applause, or both, in this way; and it may be observed, that there were some who really did cast out devils in the name of Christ, who did not belong to him, Matthew 7:22.-(Gill).
preacheth-κηρύσσει: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["IS-PROCLAIMING"//"is heralding"]
*example of Greek word: κηρύσσει (kerussei)-preacheth click: 2 Corinthians 11:4
Jesus-Ἰησοῦν (Iesoun)-Jesus, (the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind) I know-γινώσκω (ginosko)-to know (i.e. (have) know(-ledge) of), and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) Paul I know-ἐπίσταμαι (epistamai)-to understand (i.e. to be acquainted with); but-δὲ (de)-but, moreover) who-τίνες (tines)-who) are-ἐστέ (este)-(second person plural of 'to be') ye-ὑμεῖς (humeis)-ye:—plural)?:
I know the authority and power of Jesus and Paul, and am ready to obey them; but who are ye?, or Better, "Jesus I acknowledge". The two verbs are different in the Greek, the one implying recognition of authority, the latter, as colloquially used, though originally it had a stronger meaning, a more familiar acquaintance; a recognition of an appointed ministry thereof.
The verbs are not the same, though it is hardly possible in a translation to mark the difference. In the first there seems to be intended a recognition and admission of power, in the other a recognition of an appointed ministry thereof. The spirit speaking through the man would intimate: I recognise that Jesus has power over evil spirits, and I know that Paul is a true servant of Jesus, through whom Jesus manifests His power.-(Cambridge BSC).
but who are ye? you are not the disciples of Jesus, nor the servants of God, but the children of the devil, and have no power over us, but on the other hand are subject to us.-(Gill).
"These exorcists had no faith. All that they knew of Jesus was that He was the one ‘whom Paul preached.’ Even the name of Jesus is spoiled and is powerless on the lips of one who repeats it, parrot-like,..."(MacLaren)
I know-γινώσκω: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-KNOWING"]
I know-ἐπίσταμαι: Verb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Indicative, 1st Person, Singular: ["I-AM-adeptING"]
*and prevailed-ἴσχυσεν Verb, Aorist, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: ["he-is-STRONG"//"is-strong"]
naked-γυμνοὺς (gumnous)-naked, (properly: unclad, without clothing, the naked body, or (ill clad) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) wounded-τετραυματισμένους (tetraumatismenous)-to wound, lacerate):
"...the Ethiopic version reads, "and overcame them all"; all the seven sons: so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded; having their clothes tore off, and thei