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G1023 "ARM"
G1723 "ARMS"
"G4972 & G4973"
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of the


Beloved of the Lord;

Thus, it is written: And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee: and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy Merchants-ἔμποροί (emporoi)-a trader, (a (wholesale) tradesman, dealer:—merchant) were the great men of the earth: for by-ἐν (en)-in) thy sorceries-φαρμακείᾳ (pharmakeia)-enchantment with drugs, (i.e. the use or the administering of drugs:—medication ("pharmacy"); (by extension:— magic) were all-πάντα (panta)-all, every, the whole) nations-ἔθνη (ethen)-nation, people) deceived-ἐπλανήθησαν (eplanethesan)-to lead astray, to (properly, cause to) roam (from safety, truth, or virtue):—go astray, deceive, err, seduce, wander, be out of the way.). -(Revelation 18:23)

1. The Mark part. 2








Authorized Version 1611 [Punctuation, Capitalization, & Italics]


King James Bible 1769 [Spelling]

Concordance / Lexicon:

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon.

  • Friberg Analytical Greek Lexicon

  • Gingrich, Greek New Testament Lexicon

  • Danker, Greek New Testament Lexicon

Greek Text:

Stephanus 1550 & Beza's 1598 & Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus.


  •  G#### : Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number:— used when comparing  Greek words that share the same root word, but not the same inflection / parsing.

  • Brackets w/ Parenthesis [(abc)] : My commentary insert/input.


  • SL (click)

  • BH (click)

Greek Interlinear:







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The verse in question: 


Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894

16 καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας, τοὺς μικροὺς καὶ τοὺς μεγάλους, καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς, καὶ τοὺς ἐλευθέρους καὶ τοὺς δούλους, ἵνα δώσῃ αὐτοῖς χάραγμα ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς, ἐπὶ τῶν μέτωπων αὐτῶν, 17 καὶ ἵνα μή τις δύνηται ἀγοράσαι πωλῆσαι, εἰ μὴ ἔχων τὸ χάραγμα, τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θηρίου τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ.

Revelation 13:15-17

15 And he had power to give //life (Gr. breath) unto the Image of the beast, that the Image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the Image of the beast, should be killed. 16 And-καί (kai)-and, also) he causeth-ποιεῖ (poiei)-to do, make, (to cause one to)) all-πάντας (pantas)-all, every, the whole), *both small-μικροὺς (mikrous)-little, small, short, (apparently a primary word; small (in size, quantity, number or (figuratively) dignity):—least, less, little, small) and-καὶ (kai)-and, also) great-μεγάλους (megalous)-great, (big (literally or figuratively, in a very wide application):—great(-est), mighty, strong)) *rich-πλουσίους (plousious)-rich, (properly: wealthy; figuratively, abounding with:—rich) and *poor-πτωχούς (ptochous)-trembling, poor, (i.e. poor, needy)), *free-ἐλευθέρους (eleutherous)-free, at liberty, (i.e. one who is not a slave) and *bond-δούλους (doulous)-slave, servant, (i.e. bondman, man of servile condition), //to-ἵνα (hina)-so that, in order that (denoting the purpose or the result)) receive-δώσῃ (dose)-to give) (Gr. to give) *a mark-χάραγμα (charagma)-impressed mark, engraving) in-ἐπὶ (epi)-on, upon) their *right-δεξιᾶς (dexias)-right (hand, foot, or side), the right side or (feminine) hand (as that which usually takes):—right (hand, side):—the right)) *hand-χειρὸς (cheiros)-lit. hand), or-(e)-or, either) in-ἐπὶ (epi)-on, upon) their *foreheads-μέτωπων (metopon)-forehead, between the eyes): 17 And-καὶ (kai)-and, also) that-ἵνα (hina)-in order that, so that) no-μή (me)-no, not) man-τις (tis)-some one, a certain one) might-δύνηται (dunetai)-to be able or possible) *buy-ἀγοράσαι (agorasai)-to use the market place, (properly: to go to market, i.e. (by implication: to purchase)) or- (e)-or, either) *sell-πωλῆσαι (polesai)-to barter, (i.e. to sell)), save he-εἰ μὴ (ei me)-if not, except) that had-ἔχων (echon)-to have) the mark-χάραγμα (charagma)-impressed mark, engraving), or- (e)-or, either) the name of the beast, or the number-ἀριθμὸν (arithmon)-a number (as reckoned up):—number) of his name.

Example of Greek word: 

Greek Interlinear: 

  • he causeth-ποιεῖ: Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular: And ["it-is-makING"//"it-is-do-causing"] all, both small and great rich and poor, free and bond, to

  • receive-δώσῃVerb, Aorist, Active, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular:  ["it-SHOULD BE-GIVING"] a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man

  • might-δύνηταιVerb, Present, Middle or Passive Deponent, Subjunctive, 3rd Person, Singular: ["MAY-BE-ABLE"//"may-be-being-able"]

  • buy-ἀγοράσαιVerb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-BUY"] or

  • sell-πωλῆσαι: Verb, Aorist, Active, Infinitive: ["TO-SELL"], save he that

  • had-ἔχων: Verb, Present, Active, Participle, Nominative, Singular, Masculine: ["one-HAVING"] the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Punctuation Comparison:

1611 AV

16 And he causeth all, both smal and great rich and poore, free and bond, to receiue a marke in their right hand, or in their foreheads: 17 And that no man might buy or sell, saue he that had the marke, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name


1769 KJV

16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: 17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.


rEVELATION 13-16.jpg

Question #1 

Can the word (hand) of Revelation 13:16 also include the whole arm?  



    The word (hand-χειρὸς (cheiros)) in Revelation 13:16 is the Greek Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number: G5495. It is used more than 170 times, and it is inflected in eight (8) different ways. The inflection used in Revelation 13:16 is as follows:

G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros): Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine.


    There are twenty four (24) other verses that also use this inflection. Below are some examples. But first, lets define G5495.

Greek definitions for: G5495

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880: 

a. Hand (and arm)

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:

perhaps from the base of G5494 in the sense of its congener the base of  G5490 (through the idea of hollowness for grasping); the hand (literally or    figuratively (power); especially (by Hebraism) a means or instrument):—hand.

  • Louw-Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the NT:

χείρ, χειρός f: a hand or any relevant portion of the hand, including, for example, the fingers - 'hand, finger.' 

  • Friberg, Analytical Greek Lexicon:

hand; (1) literally; (a) as a member of the body used for movement and action; generally hand (JN 11.44; probably MT 12.10); occasionally arm (LU 4.11; perhaps MT 12.10), finger (LU 15.22); or by synecdoche person (AC 17.25); (b) by metonymy, as the physical effect of using the hand handwriting (1C 16.21); (2) figuratively, as the expression of the activity of a supernatural or human being control, power; (a) of God's agency as creator (AC 7.50), ruler (AC 4.28), helper (LU 1.66 ), judge (AC 13.11); (b) of angelic agency (AC 7.35); (c) of human agency (AC 2.23 

  • Gingrich Lexicon:

hand1. lit. Mt 22:13; Mk 3:1; Lk 24:39; J 20:25; Ac 19:26; 21:11; 1 Cor 4:12; Rv 9:20; 20:1. Hand-writing 1 Cor 16:21; Gal 6:11; Col 4:18; 2 Th 3:17; Phlm 19. Equivalent to activity Mk 6:2; Ac 2:23; 19:11; Gal 3:19. Finger Lk 15:22. Perh. arm Mt 4:6; Lk 4:11, —2. fig.—a. the hand of God, Christ, or an angel Lk 1:66; J 3:35; 10:28f; 13:3; Ac 7:35, 50; 13:11; Hb 1:10; 10:31.—b. hostile power Mt 17:22; 26:45; Lk 24:7; J 10:39; Ac 12:11; 21:11b; 2 Cor 11:33. [chiropractic] [pg 216]  

  • Danker, Greek NT Lexicon:

1. ‘the body part with fingers’, hand – a. w. focus on anatomical element. b. w. focus on functioning aspect, its use in writing to emphasize authenticity or strong personal interest. 2. in imagery of the hand as agent for powerful activity hand – a. of God; of Christ; of an angel b. of a hostile entity   


The above is only the foundation to what follows. It is first necessary that we properly define G5495. We will begin by analyzing Bible verses that use the word (hand-G5495) in the following two ways: (1) in a literal sense, & (2) in a figurative way. 

Examples of:

G5495-χειρὸς (cheiros): Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine.

with the emphasis on a literal hand

Revelation 10:10

“And I took the little book out of the Angel's G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and ate it up, and it was in my mouth sweet as honey: and as soon as I had eaten it, my belly was bitter.”

Matthew 8:15

“And he touched her G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and the fever left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them.”

Acts 3:7

“And he took him by the right G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and lifted him up: and immediately his feet and ankle bones received strength.”

Acts 23:19

“Then the chief captain took him by the G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and went with him aside privately, and asked him, What is that thou hast to tell me?”

Mark 5:41

“And he took the damsel by the G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and said unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Damsel, (I say unto thee), Arise.”

Revelation 8:4

“And the smoke of the incense which came with the prayers of the Saints, ascended up before God, out of the Angel's G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros).”

Mark 8:23

“And he took the blind man by the G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros), and led him out of the town, and when he had spit on his eyes, and put his hands upon him, he asked him, if he saw ought.”


In all of the above seven (7) verses, the word (hand) literally means the human hand, not the arm. To be fair, the word "hand" can be used figuratively, consider: Acts 12:11 ("... and hath delivered me out of the G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros) of Herod..."). And mind you, Acts 12:11 uses the same Greek word-(χειρὸς (cheiros)) and inflection-(Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine) as Revelation 13:16- ("...a mark in their right G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros)..."). However, the context dictates how the word (hand) is interpreted, one is a literal hand (Rev 13:16), while the other is figurative

(Act 12:11). More on this below.






Examples of:

G5495-χειρὸς (cheiros): Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine.

with the emphasis on a figurative hand

Acts 12:11

“And when Peter was come to himself, he said, Now I know of a surety, that the Lord hath sent his Angel, and hath delivered me out of G5495 the hand-χειρὸς (cheiros) of Herod, and from all the expectation of the people of the Jews.”

Luke 1:71

“That we should be saved from our enemies, and from G5495 the hand-χειρὸς (cheiros) of all that hate us,”

John 10:28

“And I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros).”

Acts 7:25

“For he supposed his brethren would have understood, how that God by his G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros) would deliver them, but they understood not.”

Hebrews 8:9

“Not according to the Covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the G5495 hand-χειρὸς (cheiros) to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because they continued not in my Covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord.”


As you can see, G5495 can be used in two different ways, in a literal sense and also in a figurative way. All of the above verses use the inflection of: Noun, Genitive, Singular, Feminine; same as in Revelation 13:16 ("...a mark in their right G5495 hand..."). And not only so, but G5495 also uses other inflections for the word (hand). Compare below.






Examples of: G5495 

Inflection: Noun, Accusative, Plural, Masculine.

Matthew 15:2 (literal)

“Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the Elders? for they wash not their G5495 hands-χεῖρας (cheiras) when they eat bread.”

John 13:3 (figurative)

“Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his G5495 hands-χεῖρας (cheiras), and that he was come from God, and went to God:”

Examples of: G5495

Inflection: Noun, Nominative, Singular, Feminine.

Mark 3:5 (literal)

“And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his G5495 hand-χεῖρα (cheir) was restored whole as the other.”

Luke 1:66 (figurative)

“And all they that heard them, laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be? And G5495 the hand-χεῖρα (cheir) of the Lord was with him.”


Regardless of what inflection G5495 takes, the word (hand) means just that; a hand when used literally. Now, to ensure the (hand) is just 'the hand', we need to compare it to other parts of the body, like the (arm). We need to see if there is a distinction between the (arm) & the (hand). 

The word (arm) is only found three (3) times in the New Testament, it is the Greek Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number: G1023. But first, let's define G1023.

Greek definitions for: G1023

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880: 

(1) arm.

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:

 brakh-ee'-own; properly, comparative of G1024, but apparently in the sense of βράσσω brássō (to wield); the arm, i.e. (figuratively) strength:—arm.

  • Thayer's Greek Lexicon:

βραχίων, -ονος, ὁ, [from Homer down], the arm: the βραχίων of God is spoken of Hebraistically for the might, the power of God, Luke 1:51 (cf. Deuteronomy 4:34; Deuteronomy 5:15; Deuteronomy 26:8); John 12:38 (Isaiah 53:1); Acts 13:17.

  • Friberg, Analytical Greek Lexicon:

βραχίων, ονος, ὁ arm; in the NT used to express God's powerful activity in analogy to human activity (LU 1.51) 

  • Gingrich Lexicon:

βραχίων, ονος, ὁ arm fig. Lk 1:51; J 12:38; Ac 13:17.* [pg 36] 

  • Danker, Greek NT Lexicon:

βραχίων, ονος, ὁ [etym. unknown, Lat. brachium is a loanword] arm metaph. of divine power Lk 1:51; J 12:38; Ac 13:17.  

Verses that use G1023:

Luke 1:51

“He hath shewed strength with his G1023 arm-βραχίονι (brachioni), he hath scattered the proud, in the imagination of their hearts.”

John 12:38

“That the saying of Esaias the Prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the G1023 arm-βραχίονι (brachioni) of the Lord been revealed?”

Acts 13:17

“The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high G1023 arm-βραχίονι (brachioni) brought he them out of it.” 


In all three (3) verses, the word (arm) is used figuratively; denoting: "strength", "power", "might". There is no other verse in the New Testament that uses the word (arm) in reference to the human arm. And although it is not my intent to use the Old Testament as a reference (since we are analyzing Greek words only), there are clear passages where the words: (hand/s) & (arm/s) are used in the same verse, both in a literal and figurative way. Compare:

Ezekiel 30:25 (figurative)

But I will strengthen H2220 the arms of the king of Babylon, H2220 and the arms of Pharaoh shall fall down; and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall put my sword H3027 into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall stretch it out upon the land of Egypt.

Ezekiel 20:34 (figurative)

“And I will bring you out from the people, and will gather you out of the countries wherein ye are scattered, with a mighty H3027 hand, and with a stretched out H2220 arm, and with fury poured out.”

Isaiah 49:22 (figurative & literal)

“Thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I will lift up H3027 mine hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people: and they shall bring thy sons H2684 in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their H3802 shoulders.”

2 Samuel 1:10 (literal)

“So I stood upon him, and slew him, because I was sure that he could not live after that he was fallen: and I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet that was on H2220 his arm, and have brought them hither unto my lord.”

Furthermore, there are three (3) other verses that use the word (arms) in the New Testament. Compare below.



Verses that use the word: (arms).


(only found in two verses)

Mark 9:36 

“And he took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and G1723 when he had taken him in his arms-ἐναγκαλισάμενος (enagkalisamenos)-to make the arms inclose one, (to take in one's arms, i.e. embrace, hug:—take up in arms)), he said unto them,”

Mark 10:16 

“And G1723 he took them up in his arms-ἐναγκαλισάμενος (enagkalisamenos)-to make the arms inclose one, (to take in one's arms, i.e. embrace, hug:—take up in arms)), put his G5495 hands-χεῖρας (cheiras)- the hand) upon them, and blessed them.”


(only found in one verse)

Luke 2:28 

“Then took he him up in his G43 arms-ἀγκάλας (agkaias)-arms (as bent or crooked), (the curve or inner angle of the arm)), and blessed God, and said,”


Both G1723 & G43 use the word (arms) in the plural. The implication is that of embracinghugging. Take notice of Mark 10:16, it uses the words: (arms) & (hands) in the same verse, yet, there is a clear distinction between the (hands) and (arms). 

Worth Nothing: (1) You may come upon verses that may seem to suggest that the 'arm' is inferred instead of the 'hand'. Take for example:

Matthew 4:6

 “And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee, and in their   G5495 hands-χειρῶν (cheiron)-the hand) they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.”

It is only natural to assume the 'arms' were implied in this verse. After all, the hand cannot be without the arm. However, we must not assume, or add, or redefine words. In Matthew 4:6 the Greek word used is: χειρῶν, which means (hands). Had the Spirit of God wanted to inspire the word (arms), he would have done so. Furthermore, the cross reference to Matthew 4:6 is Psalms 91:12. Compare:

Psalms 91:12

“They shall bear thee up in their H3709 hands-כַּפַּ֥יִם (kap-pa-yim)-palm (of the hand), the hollow hand or palm)): lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.”

As you can see, the cross reference to Matthew 4:6 gives a more specific description of the word (H3709 hands). And the word (arms) was not used. And mind you, the Hebrew also has another word for: (hand-H3027) which describes the hand as a whole. The Hebrew also has words for: (arm-H2220), (shoulder-H7926), (thumb-H931), (finger-H676), & (palm of hand/foot-H3709), among others.

Lastly, I'd like to bring to your attention one other word: "shoulders".




Only two (2) verses use the word (shoulders) in the New Testament, and can only be found in the plural. Compare below.

Matthew 23:4

“For they bind heavy burdens, and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's G5606 shoulders-ὤμους (omous)-shoulder, (metaphorically, of requiring legalistic and burdensome observances, like a load tied on the back or shoulders of a slave)), but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.”

Luke 15:4-5

4What man of you having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it? 5 And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his G5606 shoulders-ὤμους (omous)-shoulder, (literally, as a part of the body shoulder)), rejoicing.”


These two verses are excellent examples. Matthew 23:4 uses the word (shoulders) metaphorically, and Luke 15:5 uses it literally.


In medicine, the most common area for an injection site is in the deltoid muscle of the arm or upper arm


Worth Noting: (1) When the Bible uses the word (shoulder/s) in the Old or New Testament, the implication is that of the upper frame of the body (the area next to the head, or commonly known today as the trapezius). The deltoid muscle is consider part of the (arm). Even the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) identifies one of the injection sites for vaccines to be in the 'Deltoid muscle of arm', and not the 'shoulder'. Either way, Revelation 13:16 neither uses the words: (arm) or (shoulder), but the word: (hand).

Note: I am not saying that all vaccines are safe or unsafe. Careful research and consideration should be done by each individual prior to injecting a foreign substance into the body. This is true for any vaccine, whether it be the COVID-19 vaccine or any other vaccine.


The Answer



 Can the word (hand) in Revelation 13:16 also include any other part of the arm? The answer is No

The Bible has given us several examples and definitions of the different parts of the body. The word (hand) in Revelation 13:16 is literal, and not figurative or symbolic. Had Revelation 13:16 used the word (arm) OR, (" receive a mark in their right arm, or in their foreheads:”) then one could assume that any part of the whole right arm was intended. Neither was the word (shoulder) used.

It is clear that (G5495-χειρὸς-hand) does not include the (arm) nor the (shoulder) as part of its definition


Let's move on to the anatomy of the hand. The following words are found in the Bible: (finger), (thumb), and (palm). However, Revelation 13:16 does not say: (". . .to receive a mark in their right(-finger, -thumb, or -palm). . .”). Neither should it be assumed that the mark is or is not in the finger, thumb, or palm. Revelation 13:16 simply identifies the (right hand) as one of two possible locations for the mark. 

Worth Nothing: (1) One can have the arm or shoulder without the hand, but not the hand without the arm or shoulder. (2) The hand has four dorsal Interossei which lie superficially, the first dorsal interosseous, located between the thumb and the first index finger has the largest muscle. (3) The hands and feet form powerful thermoregulatory regulators in the body, serving as heat radiators and evaporators in hot environments and as thermal insulators in the cold.







Question #2 

Is the mark of the beast symbolic?  



    Some Christians believe 'the mark' of Revelation 13:16 is -symbolic, or     -figurative of one's submission to the beast in action-(hand) and mind-(forehead). If such notion is true, then the Word of God shall confirm it.


    We will begin by analyzing the word (phylacteries)-G5440.



    The Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number: G5440 is only found one (1) time in Matthew 23:5. But first, let's define G5440.

Greek definitions for: G5440

  • Analytical Concordance to the Bible: Robert Young, 1880: 

Phylactery, a guard, charm

  • The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:

φυλακτήριον phylaktḗrion, foo-lak-tay'-ree-on; neuter of a derivative of G5442; a guard-case, i.e. "phylactery" for wearing slips of Scripture texts:—phylactery.

  • Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the NT

φυλακτήριον, φυλακτηριου, τό (neuter of the adjective φυλακτηριος, φυλακτήρια, φυλακτήριον, from φυλακτήρ (`poetic for φύλαξ'));
1. a fortified place provided with a garrison, a station for a guard or garrison.
2. a preservative or safeguard, an amulet: Demosthenes, p. 71, 24; Dioscorides (?) 5, 158f (159f), often in Plutarch. The Jews gave the name of φυλακτήρια (in the Talm. תְּפִלִּין, prayer-fillets, German Gebetsriemen; (cf. O. T. 'frontlets')) to small strips of parchment on which were written the following passages from the law of Moses, 
Exodus 13:1-1011-16Deuteronomy 6:4-9Deuteronomy 11:13-21, and which, enclosed in little cases, they were accustomed when engaged in prayer to wear fastened by a leather strap to the forehead and to the left arm over against the heart, in order that they might thus be solemnly reminded of the duty of keeping the commands of God in the head and in the heart, according to the directions given in Exodus 13:16Deuteronomy 6:8Deuteronomy 11:18; (cf. Josephus, Antiquities 4, 8, 13). These scrolls were thought to have power, like amulets, to avert various evils and to drive away demons (Targ. on Song of Solomon 8:3); hence, their Greek name. (But see Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto, see under the words, Phylacteries (under the end) and Mezuza.) The Pharisees were accustomed τά φυλακτήρια αὐτῶν πλατύνειν, to widen, make broad, their phylacteries, that they might render them more conspicuous and show themselves to be more eager than the majority to be reminded of God's law: Matthew 23:5. Cf. Winers RWB, under the word Phylakterien; Leyrer in Herzog xi., 639ff; Kneucker in Schenkel 1:601f; Delitzsch in Riehm 270f; (Edersheim, Jewish Social Life etc., p. 220ff; B. D. under the word Frontlets; especially Hamburger, Real-Encycl., under the word Tephillin, vol. ii, p. 1203f; Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto as above). 

  • Louw-Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the NT:

a small leather case containing OT scripture verses and worn on the arm and forehead by Jews, especially when praying - 'phylactery.' 

  • Friberg, Analytical Greek Lexicon:

strictly safeguard, preservative, means of protection; as worn on a person charm, amulet; plural, as worn by Jews during prayer phylacteries, containers, small boxes encasing certain Scripture verses (MT 23.5

  • Gingrich Lexicon:

phylactery, a small box containing scripture verses, bound on forehead and arm by Jews during prayer (see Deut 6:8) Mt 23:5.* [pg 213]    

  • Danker, Greek NT Lexicon:

[cp. the fut. and aor. forms of φυλάσσω] a specific cultic term referring to a prayer band and case with passages fr. Israel’s sacred writings and worn on the forehead and left arm (s. Exodus 13:9, 16; Deuteronomy 6:8; 11:18), prayer band, prayer case Mt 23:5.     


The above is only the foundation to what follows. It is first necessary to  properly define G5440.  






Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Number: G5440 & H226

 G5440 is only used in Matthew 23:5.

Matthew 23:1-7

1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, 2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: 3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. 4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. 5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their G5440 phylacteries-(φυλακτήρια), and enlarge the borders-κράσπεδα (kraspeda)-tassel, fringe, extremity) of their garments, 6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, 7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.”






You might be asking, what does Matthew 23:5 have to do with Revelation 13:16-17?. Well, some Christians believe 'The Mark of the Beast' is -symbolic, or -figurative, that the (hand) and (forehead) of Revelation 13:16 symbolizes a person's actions-(hand) and choices-(forehead), OR, the (mark) of the beast symbolically identifies those who let the political system rule over their lives. They justify this by quoting Deuteronomy 6:8

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD: 5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. 6 And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: 7 And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. 8 And thou shalt bind them-וּקְשַׁרְתָּם (ū-qə-šar-tām)-to bind (as a conspirator), (a primitive root; to tie)) H226 for a sign-לְאוֹת (lə-’ō-wṯ)-a sign) upon-עַל־ (‘al-)-upon, on) thine hand-יָדֶךָ (yā-ḏe-ḵā;)-a hand), and they shall be as frontlets-לְטֹטָפֹת (lə-ṭō-ṭā-p̄ōṯ)-frontlets, bands, fillets, (from an unused root meaning to go around or bind; a fillet for the forehead:—frontlet.) between-בֵּין (bên)-an interval, space between) thine eyes. 9 And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.”



(A) H226 is found more than seventy (70) times in the Old Testament. However the Hebrew word (לְאוֹתH226) as found in Deuteronomy 6:8 is only found fourteen (14) times. below are some examples:  

(a1) Genesis 9:13

(“I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be H226 for a token-לְאוֹת of a covenant between me and the earth.”) 

(a2) Genesis 17:11

(“And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be H226 a token-לְאוֹת of the covenant betwixt me and you.”) 

(a3) Numbers 17:10

(“And the LORD said unto Moses, Bring Aaron's rod again before the testimony, to be kept H226 for a token-לְאוֹת against the rebels...)

(a4) Ezekiel 20:20

(“And hallow my sabbaths; and they shall be H226 a sign-לְאוֹת between me and you...), the sabbath is an actual day of observance.

(a5) Deuteronomy 28:45-46 

(“Moreover all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou hearkenedst not unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which he commanded thee: 46 “And they shall be upon thee H226 for a sign-לְאוֹת and for a wonder, and upon thy seed for ever.”).

Even 'curses' can be for a sign: for the list of curses: see verses: 15-44.

(B) In the above, H226 requires proof (i.e. "the bow"; "circumcise the flesh of your foreskin"; "Aaron's rod"; "sabbaths"; "curses").

(C) For H226 to be true, there must be proof. This proof comes in various ways, such as: events, days, times or seasons; objects, miracles, symbols, banners, signs; individuals, words, & co. This is true even if H226 has already occurred or will occur.

(c1) Take for example the (H226 sign) of 'the bow', Or, "rainbow", it is a (H226 sign) that has already occurred; occurs, and will also continue to occur throughout all generations. Nevertheless, the (H226 signrequires: 

-proof, -evidence, -manifestation (i.e. "the bow").

(c2) In Genesis 4:15 ("...the Lord set H226 a mark upon Cain..."). And although it is unknow if Cain's (H226 mark) was visible to men, it remains true that a (H226 mark) was set upon Cain, whether visible to men or to the LORD.   

(D) other verses that also use (לְאוֹת-H226): Ex 13:9 // Ex 13:16 // Deu 11:18 //  Num 16:38 // Isa 19:20 // Isa 55:13 // Ezk 14:8 // Ezk 20:12


 (1) Deuteronomy 6:8 is used to compared to Revelations 13:16. Advocates of this view believe that just as God's words were to be upon the (hand) and (forehead) whether -symbolically, -figuratively, or -metaphorically, therefore the 'mark of the beast' that's upon the (hand) or (forehead) is also -symbolical, -figurative, or -metaphorical. OR, those who worship the beast in: -deed, -action, -act, -work, OR 'outwardly' (i.e. 'the hand'), & in:

-thought, -will, -choice, -agreement, -mind